Iris delavayi

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Iris delavayi
Iris delavayi (2).jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
Order: Asparagales
Family: Iridaceae
Subfamily: Iridoideae
Tribe: Irideae
Genus: Iris
Subgenus: Limniris
Series: Sibiricae
Species: I. delavayi
Binomial name
Iris delavayi
Micheli
Synonyms

Limniris delavayi (Micheli) Rodion.[1]

Iris delavayi is a species in the genus Iris, also the subgenus of Limniris and in the Iris series Sibiricae. It is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial.

Iris wilsonii is pronounced as EYE-ris del-uh-VAY-ee.[2]

It is written as 长葶鸢尾 in chinese script and known as chang ting yuan wei in China.[3][4]

It has the common name of Delavayi Iris[5][6][7] or long scape iris [4][8][9][10]

or Chinese Stream Iris (in Australia)[11]

The Latin specific epithet delavayi refers to the 19th century French missionary Père Jean Marie Delavay.[12][13]

It was originally found in the marshes in the Yunnan province of China. Seeds of the iris were then sent by Abbé Delavay to the Jardin des Plantes in 1889. Plants were then raised by Micheli,[5] who then first published and described the iris in Revue Horticole (résumé de tout ce qui parait d'intéressant en jardinage, of Paris) Vol. 67, page 938, in 1895.[4][14] It was also published in 'Jardin du Crest' page189.[15] On 1 June 1899, Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker wrote about the iris in Curtis's Botanical Magazine, Tab. 7661, accompanied with a colour illustration. Based on flowers raised from seed given to Kew Gardens by Micheli. Noting the fact the iris was similar in form to Iris laevigata Fisch & Mey.[5]

This plant has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[6]

Like many other irises, most parts of the plant are poisonous (rhizome and leaves), if mistakenly ingested can cause stomach pains and vomiting. Also handling the plant may cause a skin irritation or an allergic reaction.[2]

An illustration of iris delavayi has been used as a Postage stamp in Cambodia.[10]

The iris has been studied to work out its iridal properities. From Iris delavayi collected in the north-western Yunnan Province of China, eight iridal-type triterpenoids were isolated, three of which were new. Both 2(7)Z- and 2(7)E-iridals were isolated in about equal amounts from the sample collected at Laojunshan, while only 2(7)Z-iridals were isolated from samples collected in Shangrila area, indicating the presence of chemical diversity in the species. PMID: [16]

The authors of the 'Flora of China' have speculated that the specimens Iris laevigata Fisch. Found in the high elevations of Yunnan should be referred to Iris delavayi.[17]

As most irises are diploid, having two sets of chromosomes. This can be used to identify hybrids and classification of groupings.[18] It has a chromosome count of 2n=40.[3][18][19][20][21] discovered by Simonet 1932.[5] This places it within the sub-group of the series, called the Sino-siberians.[18]

Cultivation[edit]

Iris delavayi

It is cultivated as an ornamental plant in temperate regions.[22]

The Sino-siberian irises all generally have similar cultivation requirements with minor alterations.

They are not as hardy as the other group of Siberian irises.[18] They also don't like very hot conditions either. Preferring the northern parts of America and United States to the over warm southern America.[18] They are considered easy to cultivate (providing the conditions are good) in America.[15]

Iris delavayi will tolerate temperatures of up to – 15 degrees C.[23] But may survive lower if protected or well mulched in winter.[18] It is hardy to USDA Zone 5-8,[2][7] and Zone H2 (which means Hardy to -15 to-20oC (5 to -4oF [24]), in Europe.[25]

They prefer soils with a ph level of 5.5 to 7 (acidic to neutral ).[2] They can be grown in any good garden soil that is preferably moist but not waterlogged.[2][6][7][13][15] [19][23][26]

They do not like free-draining soils (or sandy soils),[18] unless plenty of well-rotted organic matter is added before planting and applied as a mulch each spring.[6] They are also tolerant of windy conditions.[26]

They prefer positions in full sun,[2] but may tolerate partial shade.[7] They produce less flowers in shaded positions.[26]

They can be mulched with peat or garden compost in spring.[26][27] They can also be fed in spring with a general fertiliser but it is not essential.[18]

They can be divided after flowering (in early summer) or autumn (in the UK[6]) if the clumps become too big and congested.[7][27] Also propagation is best carried out by division of the rhizomes.[6][26]

They then should be replanted 25 cm (10ins) apart and 10 cm (4inches) deep,[26][27] into weed free conditions. New plants can be planted in spring or autumn.[18][26] But the ground needs to be prepared before planting. New plants need to be well watered during the first season.[26] New plants also take at least 2 years to become established.[18]

They can also be propagated by seed. Once the pods are dry on the plant, break them open to collect seeds. Then direct sow outdoors in fall (or Autumn), or winter sow in vented containers, in a cold frame or unheated greenhouse.[2]

They can be used within in gardens, at waterside locations beside pools or streams.[6][7][19] It can also be used within a bog garden and flowers after Iris sibirica, so extending the flowering season of the garden.[13]

Description[edit]

close-up of Iris delavayi flowerhead

Iris delavayi is larger and more vigorous in growth than Iris sibirica.[13]

It has stout, creeping rhizomes (about 1 cm in diameter), that create clumps or tufts of plants.[3][6][7][15][23][28] It eventually forms clumps that are about 45–60 cm (18-24 inches) wide.[2] The rhizomes have fibers (the remains of leaves from last season).[3]

It has 3-4 (per stem) grey-green leaves, that are sword-shaped or linear (in form), measuring 50–90 cm (19-36 inches) long and 0.6-1.5 cm wide.[3][6][7][23][25][28] The leaves are shorter than the flowering stems.[23][25][28]

It has a hollow, 1-3 branched flowering stem that grows up to between 60–150 cm (24-60 inches) long and 5-7mm wide.[2][3][5][6][20][21][22][23][25][28] The short branches are close to the tops of the stems.[3][28]

The stem has 2-3 green, with a slight reddish purple tinge, lanceolate (sword-like), spathes (leaves of the flower bud), which measure 7–11 cm long and 1.8–2 cm wide.[3] They also have a papery brown tip.[25][28] The spathes surround 2 flowers (per stem branch), borne in early summer,[3][7][11][25] between May and August (or June or July in the UK).[13][23]

The flowers come in a range of blue shades.[22] From dark violet,[2][3][7][21][28] dark purple,[3][5][23][25] purple-blue,[6][11] dark blue.[2][20] light purple,[5][21][23][25] to light blue.[20] The flowers are 7–9 cm (3-4inches) in diameter.[3][6][7][25][28]

It has 2 pairs of petals, 3 large sepals (outer petals), known as the 'falls' and 3 inner, smaller petals (or tepals, known as the 'standards'. The drooping falls are obovate, measuring 7 cm long and 3 cm wide, with white or yellow signal patch or mottled pattern on the blade (wide section).[3][5][6][7][11][20][21][22][23][25] The smaller standards are held at an oblique angle, measuring 5.5 cm long and oblanceolate (in from).[3][13][23][25][28]

It has perianth tube of 1.6-1.8 cm long, a pedical (flower stalk stem) of between 3–6 cm long and pale purple style branches, measuring 5 cm long and 1.6 cm wide.[3]

It has a 3–6 cm long pedicel, 1.8–2 cm long and 7mm wide, ovary and milky yellow anthers.[3]

Between August and October (after the iris has flowered), it produces a seed capsule, which are ellipsoid/cylindric in form and measures 5-6.5 cm long and 1.5-2.5 cm wide.[3] Inside are semi-orbicular, flat, (disc like) reddish brown seeds, wih are about 6mm in diameter.[3]

Native[edit]

clump of Iris delavayi plants

Iris delavayi is native to south western China.[20][21]

Range[edit]

It is found in the chinese provinces of Guizhou, Sichuan (formerly known as Sze-chuen[13]), Xizang and Yunnan.[3][4][7][15][22][23][28] It can also be found in Bhutan.[28]

From Iris delavayi collected in the north-western Yunnan Province of China, Laojunshan, Shangrila [16]

Habitat[edit]

It can be found growing in swampy places,[13] mountain marshes,[15] forest margins,[3] damp places along ditches and streams,[3][11][28] and wet mountain meadows.[3][7][23][28] At altitudes of between 2400-4500m.[3][23][28]

It can spread in ideal conditions to create large colonies.[15]

Hybrids and Cultivars[edit]

Iris delavayi can be crossed with Iris wilsonii which gives its yellow base colour (veined with bluish purple[25]) to the flowers and it can also cross with other members of the sibirica subsection.[13]

Known Iris delavayi selections include: 'Delavayi Pallida', 'Didcot', 'Thibet'.[5] Iris delavayi crosses also include; 'Berliner Riesen', 'Black Pirate', 'Delfor', 'Diamond Jubilee', 'Diomed', 'Far Voyager', 'Fifinella', 'Lightly Touched', 'Normal', 'Ormonde', 'Persimmon'.[5]

A known cultivar is Iris delavayi 'Didcote'.[29]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Iris delavayi Micheli is an accepted name". theplantlist.org. Retrieved 13 December 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "PlantFiles: Species Iris, Iris delavayi". davesgarden.com. Retrieved 27 December 2014. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w "FOC Vol. 24 Page 301". efloras.org. Retrieved 27 December 2014. 
  4. ^ a b c d "Taxon: Iris delavayi Micheli". ars-grin.gov (Germplasm Resources Information Network). Retrieved 27 December 2014. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Franco, Alain (5 December 2013). "(SPEC) Iris delavayi Micheli". wiki.irises.org. Retrieved 13 December 2014. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Iris delavayi AGM". Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 23 July 2013. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Iris". rslandscapedesign.blogspot.co.uk. 13 February 2010. Retrieved 19 December 2014. 
  8. ^ "Iris delavayi". eol.org. Retrieved 29 December 2014. 
  9. ^ "Iris delavayi Micheli". plants.usda.gov. Retrieved 27 December 2014. 
  10. ^ a b "Path: Root / Plantae / Magnoliophyta / Liliopsida / Liliales / Iridaceae / Iris". stamps.livingat.org. Retrieved 29 December 2014. 
  11. ^ a b c d e Nick Romanowski gQsVgaxl-9kC&pg=PA80 Water Garden Plants & Animals: The Complete Guide for All Australia, p. 80, at Google Books
  12. ^ Harrison, Lorraine (2012). RHS Latin for gardeners. United Kingdom: Mitchell Beazley. p. 224. ISBN 9781845337315. 
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i Dykes, William (2009). "Handbook of Garden Irises" (PDF). beardlessiris.org (The Group for Beardless Irises). Retrieved 1 November 2014. 
  14. ^ "Iridaceae Iris delavayi Micheli". ipni.org (International Plant Names Index). Retrieved 23 December 2014. 
  15. ^ a b c d e f g Richard Lynch The Book of the Iris, p. 72, at Google Books
  16. ^ a b Hasegawa, Y, Gong X, Kuroda C. (June 2011). "Chemical diversity of iridal-type triterpenes in Iris delavayi collected in Yunnan Province of China.". Natural Product Communications (ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) 6: 789–792. PMID 21815412. 
  17. ^ "Iris laevigata Fisch.". efloras.org. Retrieved 29 December 2014. 
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Austin, Claire. "Irises A Garden Encyclopedia" (PDF). worldtracker.org. pp. 274–275. Retrieved 29 October 2014. 
  19. ^ a b c Stebbings, Geoff (1997). The Gardener's Guide to Growing Irises. Newton Abbot: David and Charles. ISBN 0715305395. 
  20. ^ a b c d e f Kramb, D. "Iris delavayi". signa.org (Species Iris Group of North America). Retrieved 27 December 2014. 
  21. ^ a b c d e f "Iris summary" (PDF). pacificbulbsociety.org. 14 April 2014. Retrieved 23 November 2014. 
  22. ^ a b c d e RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 1405332964. 
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Phillips, Roger; Rix, Martyn (1991). Perennials Vol. 1. Pan Books Ltd. p. 188. ISBN 9780330327749. 
  24. ^ "Plant Hardiness". theseedsite.co.uk. Retrieved 20 December 2014. 
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l James Cullen, Sabina G. Knees, H. Suzanne Cubey (Editors) The European Garden Flora Flowering Plants: A Manual for the Identification, p. 252, at Google Books
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h "Siberian Irises". herbs2000.com. Retrieved 16 December 2014. 
  27. ^ a b c Cassidy, George E.; Linnegar, Sidney (1987). Growing Irises (Revised ed.). Bromley: Christopher Helm. ISBN 0-88192-089-4. 
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n British Iris Society (1997) pL6uPLo7l2gC &pg=PA139 A Guide to Species Irises: Their Identification and Cultivation , p. 139, at Google Books
  29. ^ "Perennial >> Iris". bressinghamgardens.com. Retrieved 29 December 2014. 

Other sources[edit]

  • Aldén, B., S. Ryman & M. Hjertson. 2009. Våra kulturväxters namn - ursprung och användning. Formas, Stockholm (Handbook on Swedish cultivated and utility plants, their names and origin).
  • Chinese Academy of Sciences. 1959–. Flora reipublicae popularis sinicae.
  • Mathew, B. 1981. The Iris. 89.
  • Waddick, J. W. & Zhao Yu-tang. 1992. Iris of China.
  • Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. 1994–. Flora of China (English edition).

Media related to Iris delavayi at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Iris delavayi at Wikispecies