Since 1700 between 9 and 10 million people born in Ireland have emigrated, including those that went to Great Britain. This is more than the population of Ireland at its historical peak in the 1830s of 8.5 million. From 1830 to 1914, almost 5 million went to the United States alone.
After 1840, emigration from Ireland became a massive, relentless, and efficiently managed national enterprise. In 1890 40% of Irish-born people were living abroad. By the 21st century, an estimated 80 million people worldwide claimed some Irish descent; which includes more than 36 million Americans who claim Irish as their primary ethnicity. 
- 1 Definition
- 2 Causes
- 3 Europe
- 4 Americas
- 5 Australia
- 6 South Africa
- 7 New Zealand
- 8 List of countries by population of Irish heritage
- 9 Religion
- 10 Famous members of the diaspora
- 11 See also – Irish Brigade
- 12 See also – Causes of Irish emigration
- 13 See also – General
- 14 References
- 15 Further reading
- 16 External links
The term Irish diaspora is open to many interpretations. The diaspora, broadly interpreted, contains all those known to have Irish ancestors, i.e., over 100 million people, which is more than fifteen times the population of the island of Ireland, which was about 6.4 million in 2011.
The Government of Ireland, define the Irish diaspora as all persons of Irish nationality who habitually reside outside of the island of Ireland. This includes Irish citizens who have emigrated abroad and their children, who are Irish citizens by descent under Irish law. It also includes their grandchildren in cases where they were registered as Irish citizens in the Foreign Births Register held in every Irish diplomatic mission. (Great-grandchildren and even more distant descendants of Irish immigrants may also register as Irish citizens, but only if the parent through whom they claim descent was registered as a citizen before the descendant in question was born.) Under this legal definition, the Irish diaspora is considerably smaller—some 3 million persons, of whom 1.2 million are Irish-born emigrants. This is still a large ratio for any country.
However, the usage of Irish diaspora is generally not limited by citizenship status, thus leading to an estimated (and fluctuating) membership of up to 80 million persons—the second and more emotive definition. The Irish Government acknowledged this interpretation—although it did not acknowledge any legal obligations to persons in this larger diaspora—when Article 2 of the Constitution of Ireland was amended in 1998 to read "[f]urthermore, the Irish nation cherishes its special affinity with people of Irish ancestry living abroad who share its cultural identity and heritage."
The right to register as an Irish citizen terminates at the third generation (except as noted above). This contrasts with citizenship law in Italy, Israel, Japan and other countries which practice jus sanguinis or otherwise permit members of the diaspora to register as citizens.
The Irish, whom the Romans called Scotti (but who called themselves Gaels), had raided and settled along the West Coast of Roman Britain, and numbers were allowed to settle within the province, where the Roman Army recruited many Irish into auxiliary units that were dispatched to the German frontier. The Attacotti, who were similarly recruited into the Roman army, may also have been Irish settlers in Briatin (the movement between Ireland and the classical Britain may have been two-way as similarities between the Medieval accounts of Túathal Teachtmar and archaeological evidence indicate that the Romans may have supported the invasion and conquest of Ireland by Irish exiles from Britain with the hopes of establishing a friendly ruler who could halt the raiding of Britain by the Irish. Some historians have also suggested that the Cruthin of the North of Ireland may have been Picts.). Following the withdrawal of the Roman army, the Irish began increasing their footholds in Britain, with part of the north-West of the island annexed within the Irish kingdom of Dál Riata. In time, the Irish colonies became independent, merged with the Pictish kingdom, and formed the basis of modern Scotland. The traditionally Gaelic, or Erse, speaking areas of Scotland (the Highlands and Hebrides) are still referred to in the Gaelic language as a' Gàidhealtachd ("the Gaeldom"). Irish monks, and the Celtic church, pioneered a wave of Irish emigration into Southern Britain, and continental Europe (and to Iceland). Irish emigration to western Europe, and especially to Britain, has continued at a greater or lesser pace since then. Today, the ethnic-Irish are the single largest minority group in both England and Scotland.
England's political connection with Ireland began in 1155 when Pope Adrian IV, issued a papal bull (known as Laudabiliter) that gave Henry II permission to invade Ireland as a means of strengthening the Papacy's control over the Irish Church. This was followed in 1169 by the Norman invasion of Ireland led by the general Richard de Clare, aka Strongbow.
The English Crown did not attempt to assert full control of the island until after Henry VIII's repudiation of paprebelal authority over the Church in England and subsequent rebellion of the Earl of Kildare in Ireland in 1534 threatened English hegemony there. Until the break with Rome, it was widely believed that Ireland was a Papal possession granted as a mere fiefdom to the English king, so in 1541 Henry VIII asserted England's claim to Ireland free from the Papal overlordship by proclaiming himself King of Ireland.
Following the Nine Years' War (1594 to 1603) political power rested in the hands of a Protestant Ascendancy minority and was marked by a Crown policy of plantation, involving the arrival of thousands of English and Scottish Protestant settlers, and the consequent displacement of the pre-plantation Catholic landholders. As the military and political defeat of Gaelic Ireland became more pronounced in the early seventeenth century, sectarian conflict became a recurrent theme in Irish history.
After the Irish Rebellion of 1641, with its newly established trans-Atlantic empire, England began to pacify Ireland through ethnic-cleansing, transporting large numbers of Irish often against their will as slaves or prisoners to the New World. This came to a peak following the English Civil War (1642–1651) and the Cromwellian invasion of Ireland (1649–1653). Cromwell took Irish land both to repay investors who had financed the invasion and as payment for his soldiers, and the ethnic Irish were ordered to move to Connaught or die. Between 1641 and 1652, over 550,000 Irish were killed by the English. Another 300,000 were sold as slaves, and the Irish population of Ireland fell from 1,466,000 to 616,000. Between 1652 and 1659, 50,000 Irish men, women and children were sent to the West Indies, Virginia and Bermuda.
Roman Catholics and members of dissenting Protestant denominations suffered severe political and economic privations from Penal Laws. The Irish Parliament was abolished in 1801 in the wake of the republican United Irishmen Rebellion and Ireland became an integral part of a new United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland under the Act of Union.
The Great Famine of Ireland during the 1840s saw a significant number of people flee from the island to all over the world. Robert E. Kennedy explains, however, that this common argument of the mass emigration from Ireland being a "flight from famine" is not entirely correct: firstly, the Irish had been coming to build canals in Great Britain since the 18th century, and once conditions were better emigration did not slow down. After the famine was over the four following years produced more emigrants than during the four years of the blight. Kennedy argues that the famine was considered the final straw to convince people to move and that there were several other factors in the decision making.
Irish people were facing discrimination in Ireland and Great Britain based on their religion. Evictions only increased after the repeal of the British Corn Laws in 1846 and the new Encumbered Estates Act being passed in 1849 as well as the removal of existing civil rights. There had been agrarian terrorism against landlords which these new laws were to help crush. Any hope for change was squashed with the death of Daniel O'Connell in 1847, the political leader championing for Ireland, and the failed rising of the Young Irelanders in 1848. It was increasingly easier to immigrate to America straight from Ireland and with the 1848 discovery of gold in California there was an alluring factor to leave.
The 2001 UK Census states that 869,093 people born in Ireland are living in Great Britain. More than 10% of those born in the United Kingdom have at least one grandparent born in Ireland. The article "More Britons applying for Irish passports" states that 6 million Britons have either an Irish grandfather or grandmother and are thus able to apply for Irish citizenship. Almost a quarter claimed some Irish ancestry in one survey.
The Irish have traditionally been involved in the building trade and transport particularly as dockers, following an influx of Irish workers, or navvies, to build the canal, road and rail networks in the 19th century. This is largely due to the flow of emigrants from Ireland during the Great Famine of 1845–1849. Many Irish servicemen, particularly sailors, settled in Britain: During the 18th and 19th century a third of the Army and Royal Navy were Irish. The Irish still represent the largest contingent of foreign volunteers to the British military, with more Irishmen serving in British uniforms than Irish ones. Since the 1950s and 1960s in particular, the Irish have become assimilated into the British population. Emigration continued into the next century; over half a million Irish went to Britain in World War II to work in industry and serve in the British armed forces. In the post-war reconstruction era, the numbers of immigrants began to increase, many settling in the larger cities and towns of Britain. According to the 2001 census, around 850,000 people in Britain were born in Ireland and much of the working class has some Irish heritage.
The largest Irish communities in Britain are located predominantly in the cities and towns: in London, in particular Kilburn (which has one of the largest Irish-born communities outside Ireland) out to the west and north west of the city, in the large port cities such as Liverpool (which elected the first Irish Nationalist members of parliament), Glasgow, Bristol and Portsmouth. Big industrial cities such as Coventry, Birmingham, Sheffield, Manchester, Cardiff and parts of Newcastle and Nottingham also have large diaspora populations due to the Industrial Revolution and, in the case of the first two, the strength of the motor industry in the 1960s and 1970s. Rugby, Denbigh, Ilfracombe, Huyton and parts of Market Harborough and Devon have high concentrations of Irish communities.
Central to the Irish community in Britain was the community's relationship with the Roman Catholic Church, with which it maintained a strong sense of identity. The Church remains a crucial focus of communal life among some of the immigrant population and their descendants. The largest ethnic group among the Catholic priesthood of Britain remains Irish (in the United States, the upper ranks of the Church's hierarchy are of predominantly Irish descent.) The former head of the Catholic Church in Scotland is Cardinal Keith O'Brien.
Scotland experienced a significant amount of Irish immigration, particularly in Glasgow, Edinburgh and Coatbridge. This led to the formation of Celtic Football Club in 1888 by Marist Brother Walfrid, to raise money to help the community. In Edinburgh Hibernian were founded in 1875 and in 1909 another club with Irish links, Dundee United, was formed. Likewise the Irish community in London formed the London Irish rugby union club. The 2001 UK Census states in Scotland 50,000 people identified as having Irish heritage.
London once more holds an official public St Patrick's Day celebration, which although having been cancelled in the 1970s because of Irish Republican violence, is now a national celebration, with over 60 percent of the population regularly celebrating the day regardless of their ethnic origins.
As with their experience in the US, the Irish have maintained a strong political presence in the UK, in local government and at the national level. The current monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, and her current Prime Minister David Cameron, and former Prime Ministers Tony Blair, John Major, Margaret Thatcher and James Callaghan have been amongst the many in Britain of part-Irish ancestry, with Blair's mother coming from County Donegal. Current Chancellor George Osborne is a member of the Anglo-Irish aristocracy and heir to the baronetcies of Ballentaylor and Ballylemon.
Mary J. Hickman writes that "plastic Paddy" was a term used to "deny and denigrate the second-generation Irish in Britain" in the 1980s, and was "frequently articulated by the new middle class Irish immigrants in Britain, for whom it was a means of distancing themselves from established Irish communities." According to Bronwen Walter, professor of Irish Diaspora Studies at Anglia Ruskin University, "the adoption of a hyphenated identity has been much more problematic for the second generation Irish in Britain. The Irish-born have frequently denied the authenticity of their Irish identity, using the derogatory term plastic paddy, and the English regard them as "assimilated" and simply "English."
The term has also been used to taunt non-Irish-born players who choose to play for the Republic of Ireland national football team, fans of Irish teams, who are members of supporters clubs outside of Ireland, and other Irish individuals living in Great Britain. A study by the University of Strathclyde and Nil by Mouth found the term was used abusively on Celtic F.C. and Rangers F.C. supporters' internet forums in reference to Celtic supporters and the wider Catholic community in Scotland. In August 2009, a British Asian man from Birmingham, England received a suspended sentence after making derogatory comments to a police officer, who was of Irish origin. The prosecutor said the man had made racist remarks about the officer, including accusations that the officer was a "Plastic Paddy".
When I was a student in Dublin we scoffed at the American celebration of St. Patrick, finding something preposterous in the green beer, the search for any connection, no matter how tenuous, to Ireland, the misty sentiment of it all that seemed so at odds with the Ireland we knew and actually lived in. Who were these people dressed as Leprechauns and why were they dressed that way? This Hibernian Brigadoon was a sham, a mockery, a Shamrockery of real Ireland and a remarkable exhibition of plastic paddyness. But at least it was confined to the Irish abroad and those foreigners desperate to find some trace of green in their blood.
In Spiked, Brendan O'Neill, of Irish descent, uses the term to describe "second-generation wannabe" Irishmen and writes that some of those guilty of "Plastic Paddyism" (or, in his words, "Dermot-itis") are Bill Clinton, Daniel Day-Lewis, and Shane MacGowan. Scottish-Australian songwriter Eric Bogle wrote and recorded a song titled "Plastic Paddy". British Mixed martial arts fighter Dan Hardy has called American fighter Marcus Davis a "Plastic Paddy" due to Marcus' enthusiasm for his Irish ancestry. In the book Why I Am Still a Catholic: Essays in Faith and Perseverance by Peter Stanford, the television presenter Dermot O'Leary describes his upbringing as "classic plastic paddy", where he would be "bullied in a nice way" by his own cousins in Wexford for being English "until anyone else there called me English and then they would stick up for me."
Irish links with the continent go back many centuries. During the early Middle Ages, 700–900 AD, many Irish religious figures went abroad to preach and found monasteries in what is known as the Hiberno-Scottish mission. Saint Brieuc founded the city that bears his name in Brittany, Saint Colmán founded the great monastery of Bobbio in northern Italy and one of his monks was Saint Gall for whom the Swiss town of St Gallen and canton of St Gallen are named.
During the Counter-Reformation, Irish religious and political links with Europe became stronger. An important centre of learning and training for Irish priests developed in Leuven (Lúbhan in Irish and Louvain historically in English) in the Duchy of Brabant, now in Flanders (northern Belgium). The Flight of the Earls, in 1607, led much of the Gaelic nobility to flee the country, and after the wars of the 17th century many others fled to Spain, France, Austria, and other Catholic lands. The lords and their retainers and supporters joined the armies of these countries, and were known as the Wild Geese. Some of the lords and their descendants rose to high ranks in their adoptive countries, such as the Spanish general and politician Leopoldo O'Donnell, 1st Duke of Tetuan, who became the president of the Government of Spain or the French general and politician Patrice de Mac-Mahon, Duke of Magenta, who became the president of the French Republic. The French Cognac brandy maker, James Hennessy and Co., is named for an Irishman. In Spain and its territories, many Irish descendants can be found with the name Obregón (O'Brien, Irish, Ó Briain), including Madrid-born actress Ana Victoria García Obregón.
During the 20th century, certain Irish intellectuals made their homes in continental Europe, particularly James Joyce, and later Samuel Beckett (who became a courier for the French Resistance). Eoin O'Duffy led a brigade of 700 Irish volunteers to fight for Franco during the Spanish Civil War, and Frank Ryan led the Connolly column who fought on the opposite side, with the Republican International Brigades. William Joyce became an English-language propagandist for the Third Reich, known colloquially as Lord Haw-Haw.
Today there are an estimated 1,000,000 people of Irish ancestry in Argentina, approximately 15.5% of the Republic of Ireland's current population; however, these numbers may be far higher, given that many Irish newcomers declared themselves to be British, as Ireland at the time was still part of the United Kingdom and today their descendants integrated into Argentine society with mixed bloodlines.
Despite the fact that Argentina was never the main destination for Irish emigrants it does form part of the Irish diaspora. The Irish-Argentine William Bulfin remarked as he travelled around Westmeath in the early 20th century that he came across many locals who had been to Buenos Aires. Several families from Bere island, County Cork were encouraged to send emigrants to Argentina by an islander who had been successful there in the 1880s.
Widely considered a national hero, William Brown is the most famous Irish citizen in Argentina. Creator of the Argentine Navy (Armada de la República Argentina, ARA) and leader of the Argentine Armed Forces in the wars against Brazil and Spain, he was born in Foxford, County Mayo on 22 June 1777 and died in Buenos Aires in 1857. The Almirante Brown-class destroyer is named after him, as well as the Almirante Brown partido, part of the Gran Buenos Aires urban area, with a population of over 500.000 inhabitants.
The first entirely Catholic English language publication published in Buenos Aires, The Southern Cross is an Argentine newspaper founded on 16 January 1875 by Dean Patricio Dillon, an Irish immigrant, a deputy for Buenos Aires Province and president of the Presidential Affairs Commission amongst other positions. The newspaper continues in print to this day and publishes a beginners guide to the Irish language, helping Irish Argentines keep in touch with their cultural heritage. Previously to The Southern Cross Dublin-born brothers Edward and Michael Mulhall successfully published The Standard, allegedly the first English-language daily paper in South America.
Early in its history, Bermuda had unusual connections with Ireland. It has been suggested that St. Brendan discovered it during his legendary voyage; a local psychiatric hospital (since renamed) was named after him. In 1616, an incident occurred in which five white settlers arrived in Ireland, having crossed the Atlantic (a distance of around 5,000 kilometres (3,100 mi)) in a two-ton boat. By the following year, one of Bermuda's main islands was named after Ireland. By the mid-17th century, Irish prisoners of war and ethnically cleansed civilians were involuntarily shipped to Bermuda, condemned to slavery and sold cheaply (£14 each). This expulsion resulted from the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland. The English government expelled Irish people to other parts of the trans-Atlantic Empire as well. This was meant to pacify Ireland, easing English rule, and to clear land for settlement by English soldiers. The Puritan English government officials also expressed the opinion that they were saving the souls of the Catholic Irish by settling them in Protestant territories where they would inevitably be converted to the true faith. Smaller numbers of Scottish prisoners were also sent to Bermuda following Cromwell's invasion of Scotland.
Relations between the involuntary Irish immigrants and the local English population were strained. The Irish and Scots were ostracised by the English, ultimately intermarrying with Black and Native American minority groups to create a single demographic (coloured, latterly Black). The Irish quickly proved troblesome, an Bermudian slaveowners were instructed that those that hath the Irish servants should take care that they straggle not night nor day as is too common with them.In 1658, three Irishmen – John Shehan, David Laragen and Edmund Malony – were lashed for breaking curfew and being suspected of stealing a boat. A Scottish indentured servant and three black slaves were also punished. Several years later, in 1661, the local government alleged that a plot was being hatched by an alliance of Blacks and Irish, one which involved cutting the throats of all the English. Governor William Sayle prepared for the uprising with three edicts: The first was that a nightly watch be raised throughout the colony; second, that slaves and the Irish be disarmed of militia weapons; and third, that any gathering of two or more Irish or slaves be dispersed by whipping. There were no arrests, trials or executions connected to the plot, though an Irish woman named Margaret was found to be romantically involved with a Native American; she was voted to be stigmatised and he was whipped.
In 1803, Irish poet Thomas Moore arrived in Bermuda, having been appointed registrar to the Admiralty there. Irish prisoners were again sent to Bermuda in the 19th century, including participants in the ill-fated Young Irelander Rebellion of 1848 and Nationalist journalist and politician John Mitchel. Alongside English convicts, they were used to build the Royal Naval Dockyard on Ireland Island.
Although the Roman Catholic Church (which had been banned in Bermuda, as in the rest of England, since settlement) began to operate openly in Bermuda in the 19th century, its priests were not permitted to conduct baptisms, weddings or funerals. As the most important British naval and military base in the Western Hemisphere following US independence, large numbers of Irish Catholic soldiers served in the British Army's Bermuda Garrison (the Royal Navy had also benefitted from a shipload of Irish emigres wrecked on Bermuda, with most being recruited into the navy there). The first Catholic services in Bermuda were conducted by British Army chaplains early in the 19th Century. Mount Saint Agnes Academy, a private school operated by the Roman Catholic Church of Bermuda, opened in 1890 at the behest of officers of the 86th (Royal County Down) Regiment of Foot (which was posted to Bermuda from 1880 to 1883), who had requested from the Archbishop of Halifax, Nova Scotia a school for the children of Irish Catholic soldiers.
Although there is little surviving evidence of Irish culture, some elderly islanders can remember when the term "cilig" (or killick) was used to describe a common method of fishing for sea turtles by tricking them into swimming into prearranged nets (this was done by splashing a stone on a line – the cilig – into the water on the turtle's opposite side). The word cilig appears to be meaningless in English, but in some dialects of Gaelic is used as an adjective meaning "easily deceived". In Irish there is a word cílí meaning sly. It is used in the expression, Is é an cílí ceart é (pronounced Shayeh kilic airtay) and means What a sly-boots. Alternatively, the word may be derived from an Irish word for a stone and wood anchor. Characteristics of older Bermudian accents, such as the pronunciation of the letter 'd' as 'dj', as in Bermudjin (Bermudian), may indicate an Irish origin. Later Irish immigrants have continued to contribute to Bermuda's makeup, with names like Crockwell (Ó Creachmhaoil) and O'Connor (Ó Conchobhair) now being thought of locally as Bermudian names. The strongest remaining Irish influence can be seen in the presence of bagpipes in the music of Bermuda, which stemmed from the presence of Scottish and Irish soldiers from the 18th through 20th centuries. Several prominent businesses in Bermuda have a clear Irish influence, such as the Irish Linen Shop, Tom Moore's Tavern and Flanagan's Irish Pub and Restaurant.
The 2006 census by Statcan, Canada's Official Statistical office revealed that the Irish were the 4th largest ethnic group with 4,354,155 Canadians with full or partial Irish descent or 14% of the nation's total population. This may understate the Irish contribution to Canada's population, as those responding "Canadian" in census surveys are thought to be largely of British or Irish descent.
Many Newfoundlanders are of Irish descent. It is estimated that about 80% of Newfoundlanders have Irish ancestry on at least one side of their family tree. The family names, the predominant Catholic religion, the prevalence of Irish music – even the accents of the people – are so reminiscent of rural Ireland that Irish author Tim Pat Coogan has described Newfoundland as "the most Irish place in the world outside of Ireland". Newfoundland Irish, the dialect of the Irish language specific to the island was widely spoken until the mid-20th century. It is very similar to the language heard in the southeast of Ireland centuries ago, due to mass emigration from the counties Tipperary, Waterford, Wexford, County Kerry and Cork.
Saint John, New Brunswick, claims the distinction of being Canada's most Irish city, according to census records. There have been Irish settlers in New Brunswick since at least the late 18th century, but during the peak of the Great Irish Famine (1845–1847), thousands of Irish emigrated through Partridge Island in the port of Saint John. Most of these Irish were Catholic, who changed the complexion of the Loyalist city. A large, vibrant Irish community can also be found in the Miramichi region of New Brunswick.
Guysborough County, Nova Scotia has many rural Irish villages. Erinville (which means Irishville), Salmon River, Ogden, Bantry (named after Bantry Bay, County Cork, Ireland but now abandoned and grown up in trees) among others, where Irish last names are prevalent and the accent is reminiscent of the Irish as well as the music, traditions, religion (Roman Catholic), and the love of Ireland itself. Some of the Irish counties from which these people arrived were County Kerry (Dingle Peninsula), County Cork, and County Roscommon, along with others.
In Antigonish County, next to Guysborough County in Nova Scotia there are a few rural Irish villages despite the predominance of Scottish in most of that County. Some of these villages names are Ireland, Lochaber and Cloverville. Antigonish Town is a fairly even mix of Irish and Scottish, and the Irish presence contributes to Nova Scotia's Celtic cultural character.
Quebec is also home to a large Irish community, especially in Montreal, where the Irish shamrock is featured on the municipal flag. This is not a sign of homage to the Irish but of the conquest of French speaking Québec by the British who use the symbols of France, Scotland, Wales, and Ireland bounded within the English cross of St. George. Notably, thousands of Irish emigrants during the Famine passed through Grosse Isle near Québec City, where many succumbed to typhus. Most of the Irish who settled near Québec City are now French speakers.
Ontario has over 2 million people of Irish descent, who in greater numbers arrived in the 1820s and the decades that followed to work on colonial infrastructure and to settle land tracts in Upper Canada, the result today is a countryside speckled with the place names of Ireland. Ontario received a large number of those who landed in Quebec during the Famine years, many thousands died in Ontario's ports. Irish-born became the majority in Toronto by 1851.
From the 1620s, many of the Irish Catholic merchant class in this period migrated voluntarily to the West Indies to avail of the business opportunities there occasioned by the trade in sugar, tobacco and cotton. They were followed by landless Irish indentured labourers, who were recruited to serve a landowner for a specified time before receiving freedom and land. The descendants of some Irish immigrants are known today in the West Indies as redlegs. Most descendants of these Irishmen moved off the islands as African slavery was implemented and blacks began to replace whites. Many Barbadian-born Irishmen helped establish the Carolina colony in the United States.
After the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland Irish prisoners were transferred to Montserrat as slaves. To this day, Montserrat is the only country or territory in the world, apart from the Republic of Ireland, Northern Ireland and the Canadian province of Newfoundland to observe a public holiday on St Patrick's Day. The population is predominantly of mixed Irish and African descent.
Irish immigrants played an instrumental role in Puerto Rico's economy. One of the most important industries of the island was the sugar industry. Among the successful businessmen in this industry were Miguel Conway, who owned a plantation in the town of Hatillo and Juan Nagle whose plantation was located in Río Piedras. General Alexander O'Reilly, "Father of the Puerto Rican Militia", named Tomas O'Daly chief engineer of modernising the defences of San Juan, this included the fortress of San Cristóbal. Tomas O'Daly and Miguel Kirwan were partners in the "Hacienda San Patricio", which they named after the patron saint of Ireland, Saint Patrick. A relative of O'Daly, Demetrio O'Daly, succeeded Captain Ramon Power y Giralt as the island's delegate to the Spanish Courts. The plantation no longer exists, however the land in which the plantation was located is now a San Patricio suburb with a shopping mall by the same name. The Quinlan family established two plantations, one in the town of Toa Baja and the other in Loíza. Puerto Ricans of Irish descent were also instrumental in the development of the island's tobacco industry. Among them Miguel Conboy who was a founder of the tobacco trade in Puerto Rico.
Other notable places in the Caribbean include:
Many of the Wild Geese, expatriate Irish soldiers who had gone to Spain, or their descendants, continued on to its colonies in South America. Many of them rose to prominent positions in the Spanish governments there. In the 1820s, some of them helped liberate the continent. Bernardo O'Higgins was the first Supreme director of Chile. When Chilean troops occupied Lima during the War of the Pacific in 1881, they put in charge certain Patricio Lynch, whose grandfather came from Ireland to Argentina and then moved to Chile. Other Latin American countries that have Irish settlement include Puerto Rico and Colombia.
Probably the most famous Irishman ever to reside in Mexico is the Wexfordman William Lamport, better known to most Mexicans as Guillen de Lampart, precursor of the Independence movement and author of the first proclamation of independence in the New World. His statue stands today in the Crypt of Heroes beneath the Column of Independence in Mexico City. Some authorities claim he was the inspiration for Johnston McCulley's Zorro, though the extent to which this may be true is disputed.
After Lampart, the most famous Irishmen in Mexican history are probably "Los Patricios". Many communities also existed in Mexican Texas until the revolution there, when they sided with Catholic Mexico against Protestant pro-US elements. The Batallón de San Patricio, a battalion of US troops who deserted and fought alongside the Mexican Army against the United States in the Mexican-American War of 1846 to 1848, is also famous in Mexican history. Álvaro Obregón (possibly O'Brian) was president of Mexico during 1920–24 and Obregón city and airport are named in his honour. Mexico also has a large number of people of Irish ancestry, among them the actor Anthony Quinn. There are also monuments in Mexico City paying tribute to those Irish who fought for Mexico in the 19th century. There is a monument to Los Patricios in the fort of Churubusco. During the Potato Famine, thousands of Irish immigrants entered the country, today, over 600,000 Irish descendants live in Mexico. Other Mexicans of Irish descent are: Romulo O'Farril, Juan O'Gorman, Edmundo O'Gorman, Anthony Quinn, Alejo Bay (Governor of the state of Sonora), Famed Conductor Felix Carrasco, Guillermo Purcell a businessman, former Miss Mexico Judith Grace Gonzalez, among many others. Today, the Irish community in Mexico is a thriving one and is mainly concentrated in Mexico City and the northern states.
The diaspora to America was immortalised in the words of many songs including the famous Irish ballad, "The Green Fields of America":
- So pack up your sea-stores, consider no longer,
- Ten dollars a week is not very bad pay,
- With no taxes or tithes to devour up your wages,
- When you're on the green fields of Americay.
The experience of Irish immigrants in America has not always been harmonious. The US did not have a good relationship with most of the incoming Irish because of their Catholic faith, as the majority of the population was Protestant and had been originally formed by offshoots of the Protestant faith. So it came as no surprise that the federal government issued new immigration acts, adding to previous ones which limited Eastern European immigration, ones which limited the immigration of the Irish.
Those who were successful in coming over from Ireland were for the most part already good farm and other hard labour workers, so the jobs they were taking were plentiful in the beginning. However, as time went on and the land needed less cultivation, the jobs the new Irish immigrants were taking were those that Americans wanted as well. In most cases, Irish newcomers were sometimes uneducated and often found themselves competing with Americans for manual labour jobs or, in the 1860s, being recruited from the docks by the US Army to serve in the American Civil War and afterward to build the Union Pacific Railroad. This view of the Irish-American experience is depicted by another traditional song, "Paddy's Lamentation."
- Hear me boys, now take my advice,
- To America I'll have ye's not be going,
- There is nothing here but war, where the murderin' cannons roar,
- And I wish I was at home in dear old Ireland.
The classic image of an Irish immigrant is led to a certain extent by racist and anti-Catholic stereotypes. In modern times, in the United States, the Irish are largely perceived as hard workers. Most notably they are associated with the positions of police officer, firefighter, Roman Catholic Church leaders and politicians in the larger Eastern Seaboard metropolitan areas. Irish Americans number over 35 million, making them the second largest reported ethnic group in the country, after German Americans. Historically, large Irish American communities have been found in Philadelphia; Chicago; Boston; New York City; Detroit; New England; Baltimore; Pittsburgh; St. Paul, Minnesota; Buffalo; Broome County; Los Angeles; and the San Francisco Bay Area. Many cities across the country have annual St Patrick's Day parades; The nation's largest is in New York City — one of the world's largest parades. The parade in Boston is closely associated with Evacuation Day, when the British left Boston in 1776 during the American War of Independence.
Before the Great Hunger ("Irish Potato Famine"), in which over a million died and more emigrated, there had been the Penal Laws which had already resulted in significant emigration from Ireland.
According to the Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups, in 1790 there were 400,000 Americans of Irish birth or ancestry out of a total white population of 3,100,000. Half of these Irish Americans were descended from Ulster people, and half were descended from the people of Connacht, Leinster and Munster.
According to US Census figures from 2000, 41,000,000 Americans claim to be wholly or partly of Irish ancestry, a group that represents more than one in five white Americans. Most African Americans are part of the Irish diaspora, as they are descended from Northern Irish Protestant (Scots-Irish) slave owners and overseers who arrived in America during the colonial era. Many are also descended from Irish immigrant workers.
Irish Australians form the second largest ancestry group in Australia, numbering 1,919,727 or 9.0 per cent of respondents in the 2001 Census.
It is not clear whether the Irish-born are considered "Irish Australians" or if the term only refers to their Australian-born descendants. The 2001 Census recorded 50,320 Irish-born in Australia, although this is a minimal figure as it only includes those who wrote in "Ireland" or "Republic of Ireland" as their country of birth. Responses which mentioned "Northern Ireland" as birthplace were coded as "United Kingdom". This interpretation may omit as few as 21,500 Irish-born present in the country, as many as 29,500, or possibly even more. Nevertheless the number of persons born in Ireland, north and south, resident in Australia in 2001 may be confidently extrapolated at around 75,000.
According to the Irish Department of Foreign Affairs White Paper on Foreign Policy, there were 213,000 Irish citizens living in Australia in 1997; nearly three times the number of Irish-born immigrants to the country. Most Irish Australians, however, do not have Irish citizenship and define their status in terms of self-perception, affection for Ireland and an attachment to Irish culture.
Irish settlers – both voluntary and forced – were crucial to the Australian colonies from the earliest days of European settlement. The Irish first came over in large numbers as convicts (50,000 were transported between 1791 and 1867), to be used as free labour; even larger numbers of free settlers came during the 19th century, partly due to the Donegal Relief Fund. Irish immigrants accounted for one-quarter of Australia's overseas-born population in 1871. Their children, the first Irish Australians in the sense we understand the term, played a definitive role in shaping Australian history, society and culture. The Irish heritage has also had a significant influence of the Australian accent and slang words.
Historian Patrick O'Farrell noted in The Irish in Australia (1987) that the term "Australia first" became "what amounted to the Australian Irish Catholic slogan". These Australians of Irish background did not tend to regard Ireland as their "mother country" – primarily because few had a wish to return to a home they had left in search of a better life. Rather, they tended to identify themselves as Australians.
According to census data released by the Australian Bureau of Statistics in 2004, Irish Australians are, by religion, 46.2% Roman Catholic, 15.3% Anglican, 13.5% other Christian denomination, 3.6% other religions, and 21.5% as "No Religion".
The high percentage of Catholics is largely the result of descendants of Irish immigrants.
The song Far Away in Australia sung by the Irish ballad group The Wolfe Tones portrays the sorrow of two young Irish lovers who are separated when the male youth is forced to make his living far away in Australia, leaving his girl behind. Examples of the sad lyrics are: "Sweetheart I'm bidding you fond farewell" murmured the youth one day... "Must we be parted?" the young girl replied. "I cannot let you go"... "Far away in Australia, soon will fate be kind. When I will be ready to welcome at last, the girl I left behind".
The Irish have made a very significant contribution to education in Australia. Approximately 20% of Australian school students are currently[when?] enrolled in Catholic schools that were, in large part, established by Irish Catholic religious orders. Large numbers of Irish priests, nuns and brothers followed other Irish immigrants to Australia from the earliest years of European settlement to provide education to the children of those immigrants.
19th-century South Africa did not attract mass Irish migration, but Irish communities are to be found in Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, Kimberley, and Johannesburg, with smaller communities in Pretoria, Barberton, Durban and East London. A third of the Cape's governors were Irish, as were many of the judges and politicians. Both the Cape Colony and the Colony of Natal had Irish prime ministers: Sir Thomas Upington, "The Afrikaner from Cork"; and Sir Albert Hime, from Kilcoole in County Wicklow. Irish Cape Governors included Lord Macartney, Lord Caledon and Sir John Francis Cradock. Irish settlers were brought in small numbers over the years, as from other parts of the United Kingdom. Henry Nourse, a shipowner at the Cape, brought out a small party of Irish settlers in 1818. In 1823, John Ingram brought out 146 Irish from Cork. Single Irish women were sent to the Cape on a few occasions. Twenty arrived in November 1849 and 46 arrived in March 1851. The majority arrived in November 1857 aboard the Lady Kennaway. A large contingent of Irish troops fought in the Anglo-Boer War on both sides and a few of them stayed in South Africa after the war. Others returned home but later came out to settle in South Africa with their families. Between 1902 and 1905, there were about 5,000 Irish immigrants. Places in South Africa named after Irish people include Upington, Porterville, Caledon, Cradock, Sir Lowry's Pass, the Biggarsberg Mountains, Donnybrook, Himeville and Belfast.
The Diaspora population of Ireland also got a fresh start on the islands of New Zealand during the later half of the 19th century. The ideology of striking it rich in the gold mines caused many Irish people to flock to the docks; risking their lives on the long voyage to potential freedom and more importantly self-sufficiency. Most famous places including both Gabriel's Gully and Otago are examples of mining sites which, with the funding of large companies, allowed for the creation of wages and the appearance of mining towns. Women found jobs as housemaids cleaning the shacks of the single men at work thereby providing a second income to the Irish family household. The subsequent money accumulated with regards to this would allow for chain migration for the rest of the family left behind.
The Transition to New Zealand was made easier due to the overexposure that the Irish had previously had with colonialism. They ventured upwards to the British ports, settling temporarily to accumulate the necessary finances before moving onwards towards the banks of the far away island. In doing so, they not only exposed themselves to the form of British form of government but likewise to capitalism. This aided to further the simplicity of the transition for the dispersed population.
The government aided through the use of both promissory notes and land grants. By promising to pay for the passage of a family the government ensured that the island would be populated and a British colony would be formed. Free passage was installed for women first between the ages of 15-35, while males between the ages of 18–40 years of age would be promised a certain amount of acres of land upon arrival in the new world. This was attributed to the installment of the New Zealand Land act. To further aid with the financial burden, free passage to any immigrant was granted after 1874.
A final note with regards to importance of the Irish diaspora population in New Zealand deals with the diminished amount of prejudice present for the Catholic population upon arrival. The lack of embedded hierarchy and social structure in the new world allowed for previous sectarian tensions to be dissolved. This can also be attributed to the sheer amount of distance between the respective religions due to the sparseness of the unpopulated area and the sheer size of the islands.
List of countries by population of Irish heritage
|Country||Population||% of country||Criterion|
|Irish in North America|
|Irish in South America|
|Irish in Europe|
|Irish British||14,000,000||10%||869,093 Irish-born
(1.4% of the British population)
c. 6 million with at least 25% Irish ancestry
(10% of the British population)
|Northern Irish people||828,220||45%|
|Irish in Oceania|
|Total in Diaspora||~75,000,000|
Irish bishop Paul Cullen set out to spread Irish dominance over the English-speaking Catholic Church in the 19th century. The establishment of an 'Irish Episcopal Empire' involved three transnational entities – the British Empire, the Roman Catholic Church, and the Irish diaspora. Irish clergy, notably Cullen, made particular use of the reach of the British Empire to spread their influence. From the 1830s until his death in 1878, Cullen held several key positions near the top of the Irish hierarchy and influenced Rome's appointment of Irish bishops on four continents. By contrast, a number of Irish people abroad converted to Asian religions and played significant roles in anti-colonial revival movements, such as the Irish Buddhist monk U Dhammaloka (?Laurence Carroll?) in Burma, Buddhist sympathiser Lafcadio Hearn in Japan, the Hindu nun Sister Sanghamitta (Margaret Noble) and the Theosophist Hindu couple James and Margaret Cousins.
Walker (2007) compares Irish immigrant communities in the United States, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and Great Britain respecting issues of identity and 'Irishness.' Religion remained the major cause of differentiation in all Irish diaspora communities and had the greatest impact on identity, followed by the nature and difficulty of socio-economic conditions faced in each new country and the strength of continued social and political links of Irish immigrants and their descendants with the old country.
From the late 20th century onward, Irish identity abroad became increasingly cultural, non-denominational, and non-political, although many emigrants from Northern Ireland stood apart from this trend. However, Ireland as religious reference point is now increasingly significant in neopagan contexts.
Famous members of the diaspora
- Tony Blair, British Prime Minister, born of an Irish mother
- Charles de Gaulle, French General and President of the Republic, of Irish descent ( MacCartan )
- James Callaghan was Labour Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1976 to 1979.
- Jean Charest, born of an Irish-Canadian mother, Premier of Quebec, 2003–12.
- Richard J. Daley, Mayor of Chicago, 1955–76.
- Richard M. Daley, Mayor of Chicago, 1989–2011.
- Éamon de Valera, Taoiseach and President of Ireland, born in New York City.
- Helen Gahagan Douglas, Actress and Congresswomen from California defeated by Richard Nixon.
- James Duane, Mayor of New York City 1784, son of a Galway man.
- Edelmiro Farrell, 28th President of Argentina (de facto; 1944–46).
- Che Guevara, Argentine-born revolutionary.
- Chaim Herzog, 6th President of Israel, born in Belfast.
- Paul Keating, 24th Prime Minister of Australia.
- John F. Kennedy, 35th President of the United States; also Robert F. Kennedy and Edward M. Kennedy, members of the Kennedy Family, originally from Wexford.
- Ricardo López Murphy, Argentine politician and presidential candidate.
- Patrice MacMahon, duc de Magenta, first President of the Third French Republic.
- D'Arcy McGee, Young Irelander, Father of Canadian Confederation who was assassinated for his criticism of the Fenian raids on Canada.
- Dalton McGuinty, Premier of Ontario, Canada.
- Brian Mulroney, 18th Prime Minister of Canada, child of Irish Quebecers.
- Álvaro Obregón, President of Mexico 1920–24.
- Barack Obama, 44th and current President of the United States.
- Kolouei O'Brien, head of government of Tokelau
- Leopoldo O'Donnell, 1st Duke of Tetuan, Spanish general and statesman, a descendant of Calvagh O'Donnell, chieftain of Tyrconnell.
- Juan O'Donojú, last viceroy of New Spain.
- Bernardo O'Higgins, second Supreme Director of Chile, and his father, Viceroy of Peru Ambrosio O'Higgins, Marquis of Osorno, a Sligoman.
- Louis St. Laurent, 12th Prime Minister of Canada, mother an Irish Quebecer.
Artists and musicians
- Lucille Ball, actress and comedian
- Mischa Barton, actress
- David Bowie, singer/songwriter
- Lara Flynn Boyle, actress
- Edward Burns, actor / filmmaker
- Kate Bush, Singer and songwriter
- Mariah Carey, best selling female recording artist
- George Carlin comedian, ranked second greatest of all time by Comedy Central.
- Raymond Chandler, writer of the Marlowe series. Irish mother.
- George Clooney, actor
- Stephen Colbert, comedian
- Steve Coogan, actor / comedian
- Kevin Dillon, actor
- Matt Dillon, actor
- Patrick Duff, singer-songwriter (Strangelove)
- Patty Duke, actress
- Isadora Duncan, dancer
- Everlast & Danny Boy, successively members of Hip-Hop group House of Pain and of La Coka Nostra.
- Siobhan Fahey, singer and songwriter of the UK-based groups Bananarama and Shakespears Sister.
- Michael Flatley, dancer and creator [clarification needed]of Riverdance
- Liam Gallagher and Noel Gallagher of Oasis.
- Judy Garland, actress and singer
- Mel Gibson, actor / filmmaker
- Thea Gilmore, singer-songwriter
- Merv Griffin, television host
- Lafcadio Hearn, American writer.
- Paul Hogan, actor.
- Marian Jordan, Molly of long-time hit radio program Fibber McGee and Molly.
- Mike Joyce, member of The Smiths.
- Gene Kelly actor and dancer
- Princess Grace of Monaco, actress (as Grace Kelly) and noblewoman.
- Kennedy family
- Jamie Kennedy, actor
- Kevin Kline, actor
- Denis Leary, actor, musician and comedian
- John Lydon aka Johnny Rotten, singer with the Sex Pistols
- Bill Maher talk show host, comedian.
- Johnny Marr, member of The Smiths.
- Paul McCartney, John Lennon and George Harrison of The Beatles.
- Rose McGowan, actress, born in Italy to an Irish father and French mother
- Tom Meighan, lead singer of Kasabian
- Colin Meloy, lead singer and songwriter of The Decemberists.
- Steven Morrissey, singer, member of The Smiths.
- Brittany Murphy actress
- Mary Murphy, choreographer.
- Katie Noonan, Irish-Australian singer.
- Conan O'Brien, television host
- George O'Dowd, pop singer, also known as Boy George
- Juan O'Gorman, a 20th-century Mexican artist, both a painter and an architect.
- Georgia O'Keeffe, painter
- Maureen O'Hara, Irish born actress and celebrated Hollywood beauty.
- Eugene O'Neill, writer.
- Peter O'Toole, Academy Award nominated actor
- Aidan Quinn, Emmy Award-nominated actor
- Anthony Quinn, Oscar-winning Mexican actor.
- Mickey Rooney, American actor, former child star
- Johnny Rotten (b. John Lydon), singer of the Sex Pistols.
- Kevin Rowland, lead singer of Dexys Midnight Runners.
- Andy Rourke, member of The Smiths.
- Justin Sane, lead singer of Anti-Flag
- Dusty Springfield, English-born singer.
- Bruce Springsteen, songwriter, performer and political activist.
- John Wayne, actor, enduring American icon
- Brian Whelan, painter and author
- Catherine Zeta-Jones, actress
- Lorde, New Zealand born singer.
- Robert Boyle, philosopher and chemist.
- Kathleen Lonsdale, London-based 20th century Chemist.
- Ernest Walton, Cambridge-based co-winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics, 1951.
- James D. Watson, co-discoverer of DNA Nobel Prize winner
- Erwin Schrödinger, Austrian-Irish physicist
- Muhammad Ali, American Boxer, his mother's father or Ali's Great-Grandfather Abe Grady was from Ennis, Co. Clare
- Anne Boleyn, Queen consort to King Henry VIII of England; Irish paternal grandmother Margaret Butler
- Anne Bonney, pirate, born in Cork.
- James J. Braddock, boxer, also known as The Cinderella Man
- Molly Brown, the "Unsinkable Molly Brown."
- Nellie Cashman, "The Angel of Tombstone".
- U Dhammaloka (?Laurence Carroll), Buddhist monk and anti-missionary agitator in Burma, born in Dublin
- Diana, Princess of Wales, noblewoman, her mother, Frances Burke Roche was a descendant of the Earls of Fermoy
- John Dunlap, printer of the first copies of the United States Declaration of Independence
- Margaretta Eagar, governess to the last Russian Royal Family
- Sarah, Duchess of York, former wife of a British prince, her paternal ancestors came from Northern Ireland
- Henry Ford, businessman and founder of the Ford Foundation.
- Cardinal James Gibbons, Roman Catholic prelate
- Kathy Griffin, standup comic and TV personality (both parents Irish immigrants)
- Sean Hannity, American political commentator
- Mary Jemison, Irish captive adopted by Native American Seneca tribe.
- Dorothy Jordan, mistress to William IV of the United Kingdom
- Ned Kelly – Australian farmer and outlaw
- Eliza Lynch, Irish born mistress of President Francisco Solano López of Paraguay
- Martin Maher, instructor at the United States Military Academy at West Point
- Mary Mallon, also known as Typhoid Mary, a notorious cook
- Lola Montez, mistress to Ludwig I of Bavaria
- Annie Moore, first immigrant to USA to be processed at Ellis Island
- George 'Bugs' Moran, Prohibition era Chicago US gangster
- Anne Mortimer, Irish born English noblewoman
- Evelyn Nesbit, model and actress
- Mario O'Donnell, historian
- Marie-Louise O'Murphy, mistress to King Louis XV of France.
- Bill O'Reilly, American political commentator
- Count Joseph Cornelius O'Rourke, Lieutenant-General of the Russian Imperial Guard.
- Lee Harvey Oswald, assassin of John F. Kennedy, Irish great-grandmother Mary Tonry
- Pat Quinn, Canadian hockey coach (former coach of Toronto Maple Leafs and Team Canada)
- Frank Wallace, criminal
- James McLean, criminal
- Mickey Spillane, criminal
- James J. Bulger, criminal
See also – Irish Brigade
- Irish Brigade (French) formed from the Irish army after the flight of the Wild Geese in 1691.
- The Irish Battalion, or Los San Patricio, who fought on the side of Mexico against the US invasion of 1846–48.
- Irish Brigade (US) served on the Union side in the American Civil War in the 1860s.
- Tyneside Irish Brigade, World War I brigade serving in the British army at the Somme.
- Irish military diaspora, notable individuals, Irish by birth or extraction, who served in non-Irish military forces.
- Irish regiments, many Irish regiments served in non-Irish military forces and took part in several conflicts of world history.
See also – Causes of Irish emigration
- Flight of the Earls
- Cromwellian conquest of Ireland
- The Penal Laws affecting non-Conformists (c.1715–1869)
- Irish Famine (1740–1741)
- Great Irish Famine (1845–1851)
- Irish Famine (1879)
- Economic history of Ireland
- Economic history of the Republic of Ireland
- The Economic War, 1933–38.
- "The Emergency" (Ireland during World War II)
- "The Troubles" (c.1969–1998)
See also – General
- List of expatriate Irish populations
- Irish Travellers
- List of Ireland-related topics
- Irish place names in other countries
- The Gathering Ireland 2013
- Liverpool Irish
- Coatbridge Irish
- Against the Wind (TV series)
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- ConnectIreland : dedicated to create new jobs in Ireland by harnessing the power of the global Diaspora
- Revealing the Irish ‘e-diaspora’
- Over 4700 primary & secondary sources relating to the Irish Diaspora (Sources database, from the National Library of Ireland)
- A world map of the Irish digital Diaspora
- The Irish in America by J. F. Maguire (1868)
- A History of the Irish Settlers in North America from the Earliest Period to the Census of 1850
- The Scotch-Irish in America
- "Irish Migration Studies in Latin America"
- "The Irish in Australia", 1887
- The Irish in Argentina
- Irish Surnames in Argentina
- Newfoundland: The Most Irish Place Outside of Ireland
- IrishAbroad Community – connecting the Irish diaspora since 1998.
- Irish Emigrant Publications
- Irish Diaspora Studies Dept, Bradford University UK
- Murray, Edmundo  "Ireland and Latin America"
- Ireland and Argentina
- SS Dresden scandal.
- The Irish in New Jersey by Dermot Quinn
- The Irish (In Countries Other Than Ireland) – Article in the Catholic Encyclopedia
- The San Patricios – the Irish Soldiers who died for Mexico
- The Irish in Film
- The Centre for Migration Studies- The Centre for Migration Studies, at the Ulster American Folk Park, Omagh, Northern Ireland
- Annie Moore First Immigrant to Arrive at Ellis Island
- The Shamrock and the Maple Leaf: Irish-Canadian Documentary Heritage at Library and Archives Canada
- Flight of the Earls
- Reassessing what we collect website – Irish London History of Irish London with objects and images
- Irish American Story Project
- Irish Diaspora for Irish Citizenship
- Discover Ireland
- Diaspora.ie – a sense of connectivity
- Part One of Booknotes interview with Thomas Keneally on The Great Shame and the Triumph of the Irish in the English-Speaking World, January 2, 2000.