Irish maritime events during World War II

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Irish Merchant Marine
during the Emergency
Flag of Ireland.svg
Memorial erected in Dublin in 1991 to members of the Irish Mercantile Marine lost during the Emergency

Below is the timeline of maritime events during the Emergency,[note 3][1] (as World War II was known in Ireland). This period was referred to as The Long Watch by Irish Mariners. This list is of events which affected the Irish Mercantile Marine,[note 4] other ships carrying Irish exports or imports, and events near the Irish coast.

Timeline[edit]

In this list, the nationality of non-Irish ships is given, the phrase "British-flagged" is used for ships which transferred from the Irish registry.

1939[edit]

4 September 1939 (1939-September-04)
SS SS Athenia, torpedoed by U-30, the first British ship to be sunk, Knut Nelson (Norway) lands 450 survivors in Galway.[2][3]
8 September 1939 (1939-September-08)
Inver tankers fleet transferred to British register.[4] There were plans to build an oil refinery in Dublin Port. In the event, this refinery was not built. Nonetheless seven oil tankers were built in Germany for Inver Tankers Ltd. Each 500 feet (150 m) long and capable of carrying 500 tons were on the Irish register.[5] "In a manner reminiscent of Chamberlin’s handover of the ports to de Valera, two days after the outbreak of war, de Valera himself transferred the tankers to the British registry without getting any promise of fuel supply in return.[6][7] Earlier, Britain had asked Ireland to requisition the tankers.[8][9] The entire fleet was lost.
11 September 1939 (1939-September-11)
The Irish-flagged tanker Inverliffey, Trinidad to Coryton with 13,000 tons of gasoline was shelled and sunk by U-38.[note 5][10]
13 September 1939 (1939-September-13)
ST Rudyard Kipling was stopped and sunk 40 miles West of Clare Island by U-27. U-27 took the crew of 13 aboard and put them in lifeboats 5 miles from Killybegs.[11]
4 October 1939 (1939-October-04)
U-35 lands survivors from Diamantes (Greek) at Ballymore, Dingle[12]
15 December 1939 (1939-December-15)
U-48 stopped the neutral Greek freighter Germaine inward from Albany New York (USA had not yet joined the war) to Cork with a cargo of maize. U-48 sank her falsely claiming that she was en route to England [13]

1940[edit]

17 January 1940 (1940-January-17)
Enid (Captain Wibe) of neutral Norway sailing from Steinkjer to Dublin, 10 miles north of Shetland, went to assist SS Polzella (British) which had been torpedoed by U-25, U-25 then shelled and sank Enid.[14] Enid '​s crew survived. Polzella '​s crew were lost.
22 January 1940 (1940-January-22)
Songa (Captain Lie)of neutral Norway sailing from neutral New York to neutral Rotterdam, with a cargo of Empty barrels, sponges, motor tyres, copper, beans, coffee, cotton and tin. Torpedoed and sunk by U-25 as she was to sail through the English channel and might divert to an English port. The crew were in two lifeboats 200 miles from Ireland. One was rescued by the trawler Loddon and Landed in Kinsale. The other was guided to safety by the lighthouse keepers on Rock Island who accommodated them in their own cottages. All 24 crew survived.
2 February 1940 (1940-February-02)
Munster (Capt. R. Paisley) mined and sunk while entering Liverpool. One death.[15]
3 March 1940 (1940-March-03)
Cato (Capt. Richard Martin), British, from Dublin to Bristol, struck a mine laid by U-29 2.5 miles west of Nash Point. Thirteen died, 2 survived.[16]
9 March 1940 (1940-March-09)
Trawler Leukos sunk by gunfire from U-38, NW of Tory Island. Eleven died. (She may have moved between the surfacing U-boat and English trawlers, in the hope that the tricolour would protect her while the English escaped)[17]
11 March 1940 (1940-March-11)
City of Bremen rescues crew of Amor (Dutch) in the North Sea. Thirty-three saved.[18]
12 May 1940 (1940-May-12)
Kyleclare escapes from Antwerp amid an air-raid during the Battle of Belgium
27 May 1940 (1940-May-27)
Uruguay of neutral Argentina sailing from Rosario to Limerick with 6,000 tons of maize, sunk with scuttling charges by U-37 160 miles from Cape Villano, Costa da Morte, Spain 43°24′N 12°10′W / 43.40°N 12.16°W / 43.40; -12.16 (Uruguay (ship)). Fifteen died, 13 survived.[19]
10 June 1940 (1940-June-10)
Violando N Goulandris of then-neutral Greece sailing from Santa Fe to Waterford with a cargo of wheat was torpedoed by U-48 off Cape Finisterre. Six died. Twenty-two survived.[20] An explanation was sought from Germany[21]
12 June 1940 (1940-June-12)
U-38 landed a German spy, Karl Simon, in Dingle. He was promptly arrested and interned for the duration.[22][23]
19 June 1940 (1940-June-19)
Adamandios Georgandis of then-neutral Greece sailing from Rosario to Cork with a cargo of wheat was torpedoed by U-28 south-west of Ireland 43°21′N 11°09′W / 43.35°N 11.15°W / 43.35; -11.15 (Adamandios Georgandis (ship)). One died. Twenty-two survived.[24] An explanation was sought from Germany[21]
29 June 1940 (1940-June-29)
Frangoula B Goulandris of then-neutral Greece Outward Cork to St Thomas torpedoed and sunk by U-26 [25]
10 July 1940 (1940-July-10)
Petsamo of Finland, inward Rosario to Cork with a cargo of maize, torpedoed and sunk by U-34, within sight of the Irish coast. Four died 51°05′N 9°13′W / 51.08°N 09.22°W / 51.08; -09.22 (Petsamo (ship)).[26] The 34 survivors made landfall at Baltimore, County Cork.[27] An explanation was sought from Germany[21]
11 July 1940 (1940-July-11)
Moyalla rescues survivors from Athellaird (British) off Cape Clear Island. Twenty saved.
12 July 1940 (1940-July-12)
Ia of Greece, inward Rosario to Cork with a cargo of wheat, torpedoed and sunk by U-99. Three died. Twenty-seven survived.[28]
14 July 1940 (1940-July-14)
Thetis A of Greece, inward Rosario to Limerick with a cargo of grain, torpedoed and sunk by U-52. Nine died. Twenty survived. An explanation was sought from Germany[21]
15 July 1940 (1940-July-15)
City of Limerick (Capt. R. Ferguson) Cartagena to Liverpool, bombed by aircraft and sunk in Bay of Biscay, 700 miles[vague] west of Ushant. Two dead.[15]
15 July 1940 (1940-July-15)
Naftilos of Greece, inward San Nicholas to Dublin with a cargo of grain, torpedoed and sunk by U-34. One death Twenty-seven survived.[29] An explanation was sought from Germany[21]
20 July 1940 (1940-July-20)
City of Waterford (Capt. T. Freehill) shelled by submarine in North Atlantic - escaped[15]
30 July 1940 (1940-July-30)
Kyleclare rescues survivors from Clan Menzies (British) 150 miles west of Loop Head, torpedoed and sunk by U-99. Six died. Eighty-eight survivors brought to Enniscrone.[30] The British government expressed thanks and appreciation[31]
1 August 1940 (1940-August-01)
Collier SS Kerry Head (Capt. C Drummond) Inbound Swansea to Limerick. Bombed off Kinsale, survived this attack (but, see 22 October). Responsibility was admitted by German Government and compensation paid.[17] [32]
15 August 1940 (1940-August-15)
Meath (Capt. T. MacFariane) Belfast to Liverpool carrying 700 cattle, which all drowned. Mined and sunk off the South Stack, Holy Island, Anglesey. Crew rescued by a local fishing trawler. Three crew wounded, all survived.[17]
16 August 1940 (1940-August-16)
MV Lock Ryan (Capt. J. Nolan). Inbound Falmouth to Arklow. Bombed off Land's End. Survived.[33]
24 August 1940 (1940-August-24)
City of Waterford (Capt. T. Freehill) bombed in Irish Sea. Survived.[15]
26 August 1940 (1940-August-26)
Campile town was bombed, probably to stop Irish exports to Britain. Three killed.[34]
27 August 1940 (1940-August-27)
Lanahrone rescues survivors from Goathland (British) off Kerry coast. Eighteen saved.[31]
4 September 1940 (1940-September-04)
Luimneach (Capt. E. Jones) sunk by gunfire from U-46 in Bay of Biscay.[17]
4 September 1940 (1940-September-04)
Edenvale (Capt. N. Gillespie) machine-gunned by Luftwaffe off Waterford coast.
17 September 1940 (1940-September-17)
Tanker Kalliopi S (Greek) Inbound Halifax to Limerick. Bombed and sunk by Luftwaffe in Sheephaven Bay location 55°07′N 7°30′W / 55.11°N 7.5°W / 55.11; -7.5 (Kalliopi S (ship))[35]
27 September 1940 (1940-September-27)
Trawler SS Kosmos machine-gunned by Luftwaffe north of Scotland.[15][17]
8 October 1940 (1940-October-08)
Delphin (Greece) Inward Montreal to Cork with maize and wheat, torpedoed and sunk by U-103. All survived.[36]
17 October 1940 (1940-October-17)
MV Edenvale (Capt. N. Gillespie) Limerick to Dublin. Three miles off Helvic Head, Waterford. Attacked by Luftwaffe off the coast of Waterford.[37]
22 October 1940 (1940-October-22)
Kerry Head (Capt. C. Drummond). Bombed again, all 12 hands lost, in full view of watchers on Cape Clear Island.[15]
31 October 1940 (1940-October-31)
SS Hillfern (British) Inbound Sunderland to Cork with a cargo of coal sunk by Luftwaffe NE of Kinnaird Head.[38]
11 November 1940 (1940-November-11)
Ardmore (Capt. T. Ford) struck a mine and sank, off the Saltee Islands. Twenty-four died.[15]
11 November 1940 (1940-November-11)
Survivors of the Norwegian DT Davanger which had been sunk by U-48 on 11 October with the loss of 17 lives were seen off the Mayo coast. Locals went out to assist them. Two hours later they landed at Broadhaven. All were admitted to Belmullet hospital.[39]
8 December 1940 (1940-December-08)
Schooner Penang (Finland) Inbound Stenhouse Bay, South Australia to Cobh with a cargo of grain, torpedoed by U-140 at 55°15′N 10°09′W / 55.25°N 10.15°W / 55.25; -10.15 (Penang (ship)). All 18 crew lost.[40]
19 December 1940 (1940-December-19)
Isolda (Capt. A. Bestic) a lightship tender, was sunk by Luftwaffe bombers, within sight of Carnsore Point. Six killed. Seven wounded.[17]
20 December 1940 (1940-December-20)
Cambria (British-flagged), a passenger ferry had just left Dún Laoghaire for Holyhead was attacked by Luftwaffe which had bombed Sandycove railway station injuring three.[41] Hibernia (British-flagged) was berthing in Dún Laoghaire, a bomber swooped down, lights were extinguished and the bomber flew away.[42]
20 December 1940 (1940-December-20)
SS Lanahrone. At anchor in Liverpool docks. Damaged by falling masonry during an air-raid.[17]
20 December 1940 (1940-December-20)
21 December 1940 (1940-December-21)
MV Innisfallen (Capt. George Firth) - while leaving Liverpool with 157 passengers and 63 crew. She survived an air raid on the 20th, but on departing on the following afternoon, she hit a mine off Wirral shore near New Brighton and sank. Four died.[43]

1941[edit]

22 February 1941 (1941-February-22)
SS Menapia Inward Cardiff to Cork, mined,[17] survived
22 February 1941 (1941-February-22)
Nailsea Lass (British) was sunk by U-48. The second officer E.J. Knight and 18 crew members landed at Ballyoughtraugh, Co. Kerry and the third officer and nine crew members near Berehaven, Co. Cork.[44]
21 March 1941 (1941-March-21)
SS Glencullen (Capt. T. Waldron) Inward Barry to Dublin. Strafed by Luftwaffe in Bristol Channel.[17]
21 March 1941 (1941-March-21)
SS Glencree (Capt. Douglas McLean) Barry to Dublin. Strafed by Luftwaffe six miles northwest of Helwick Lighthouse, Rhossili.[17]
21 March 1941 (1941-March-21)
Irish Shipping was formed as a company 51% owned by the state.
22 March 1941 (1941-March-22)
Collier Saint Fintan (Capt. N. Hendry) Drogheda to Cardiff attacked by two Luftwaffe bombers, off the coast of Pembrokeshire and sunk with all hands. Nine dead.[17]
26 March 1941 (1941-March-26)
Edenvale (Capt. T. Tyrrell) bombed and strafed by four Luftwaffe planes at the entrance to the Bristol Channel.[15]
27 March 1941 (1941-March-27)
SS The Lady Belle (Capt. T. Donohue) Outward Dungarvan to Cardiff. Bombed and machine-gunned by Luftwaffe in Irish Sea.[17]
2 April 1941 (1941-April-02)
MV Edenvale (Capt. T. Tyrrell) Inward Cardiff to Rosslare. Bombed and strafed (again) by Luftwaffe in Bristol Channel.[17]
5 May 1941 (1941-May-05)
MV Dundalk damaged while at anchor in the river Mersey during an air raid.[17]
12 May 1941 (1941-May-12)
SS Menapia (Capt C Bobels) Inward Port Talbot to Rosslare. Bombed and strafed by Luftwaffe off Welsh coast. Two wounded.[17]
15 May 1941 (1941-May-15)
SS Assaroe Outward Dublin to Douglas, Isle of Man. Attacked by Luftwaffe off Howth Head.[17]
17 May 1941 (1941-May-17)
SS Glenageary (Capt R. Simpson) Inward Barry to Dublin, bombed and machine-gunned by Luftwaffe off Welsh coast.[17]
19 May 1941 (1941-May-19)
SS City of Waterford (Capt. W. Gibbons) Outward Dublin to Cardiff, bombed and machine-gunned by Luftwaffe off Welsh coast. One wounded[15]
30 May 1941 (1941-May-30)
SS Kyleclare (Capt. T. Hanrahan) Outward from Limerick to Liverpool, bombed off Waterford coast.[17]
13 June 1941 (1941-June-13)
Ferry Saint Patrick (Capt. Jim Faraday), British flagged. Outward Rosslare for Fishguard, 12 miles from Strumble Head Lighthouse, bombed by Luftwaffe. Thirty died.
22 August 1941 (1941-August-22)
SS Clonlara (Capt. Joseph Reynolds) Cardiff to Lisbon, in convoy OG71 ("Nightmare Convoy") rescued 13 from the Scottish ship Alva, but was later torpedoed and sunk by U-564 off the coast of Spain. Thirteen survivors and 11 dead.[17]
17 September 1941 (1941-September-17)
Schooner Crest (Capt. William Brent) wrecked following grounding on a sandbank in the Bristol Channel, while avoiding mines.
19 September 1941 (1941-September-19)
SS City of Waterford (Capt T. Alpin) in convoy OG-74, collided with the Dutch tug Thames and sank in the North Atlantic, the crew were rescued by HMS Deptford and transferred to the Walmer Castle. Two days later Walmer Castle was bombed, killing five of the survivors from City of Waterford.[15]
7 October 1941 (1941-October-07)
MV Kerlogue Inward Swansea to Wexford, struck a mine in Cardigan Bay.[17]
16 October 1941 (1941-October-16)
MV Edenvale Outward Cork to Lisbon, off the Cork coast, aerial attack, presumed Luftwaffe.[17]
25 October 1941 (1941-October-25)
SS Glenageary (Capt. N. Kelly) Inward Barry to Dublin, aerial attack[17]
26 October 1941 (1941-October-26)
SS Margaret Lockington Newry to Swansea, off the Waterford coast, aerial attack[17]
29 October 1941 (1941-October-29)
SS Lanahrone Inward Vigo to Dublin, Off Saltee Islands, aerial attack.[17]
5 November 1941 (1941-November-05)
SS Glencree Inward Newport, Monmouthshire to Dublin off the Welsh coast, aerial attack.[17] Two wounded.[15]
5 November 1941 (1941-November-05)
SS Glencullen (Capt A Jones) Inward Barry to Dublin. Strafed in the Irish Sea.[17]

1942[edit]

7 March 1942 (1942-March-07)
Schooner Lock Ryan wrecked on Donegal coast.
2 June 1942 (1942-June-02)
SS City of Bremen inbound Lisbon to Dublin, bombed in the Bay of Biscay.[17]
11 August 1942 (1942-August-11)
Irish Rose rescues survivors from Wawaloam (American), sunk by U-86 in Atlantic. All 7 crew saved.[45]
13 August 1942 (1942-August-13)
Irish Pine rescues survivors from Richmond Castle (British), sunk by U-176 in Atlantic. Nineteen saved.[46]
26 August 1942 (1942-August-26)
Irish Willow rescues survivors from Empire Breeze (British), sunk by both U-438 and U-176 at 49°22′N 35°52′W / 49.367°N 35.867°W / 49.367; -35.867 (Empire Breeze (ship)) while in convoy ON-122, in Atlantic. Forty-seven saved. One lost.[47]
17 September 1942 (1942-September-17)
Irish Larch rescues survivors from Stone Street (Panamanian), from convoy ON-127, sunk by U-594 in Atlantic. Forty saved. Thirteen lost.[48]
7 November 1942 (1942-November-07)
Irish Beech rescued 13 survivors of the Roxby of convoy ON-142. She was sunk by U-613 at 49°21′N 30°19′W / 49.35°N 30.32°W / 49.35; -30.32 (Roxby (ship)) with the loss of 34 lives.[49]
15 November 1942 (1942-November-15)
Irish Pine Boston to Dublin, torpedoed and sunk by U-608, in North Atlantic. Thirty-three died.[50]
30 November 1942 (1942-November-30)
SS Kyleclare (Capt F Dawson) bombed in the Bay of Biscay.
12 December 1942 (1942-December-12)
Irish Poplar collided with launch Eileen and Cork harbour pilot Carraig-An-Cuan during force 8 gale, in the harbour, Five died.[51]

1943[edit]

23 February 1943 (1943-February-23)
SS Kyleclare (Capt A Hamilton) Inbound Lisbon to Dublin with wheat and sugar torpedoed in North Atlantic position 48°30′N 13°12′W / 48.5°N 13.2°W / 48.5; -13.2 (Kyleclare (ship)) by U-456. Eighteen died.[17]
15 May 1943 (1943-May-15)
Irish Oak Inbound Tampa, Florida to Dublin, torpedoed and sunk by U-607, 700 miles west of Ireland. Crew rescued by Irish Plane 8 hours later.[17]
2 June 1943 (1943-June-02)
SS City of Bremen (Palgrave Murphy) bombed and sunk in the Bay of Biscay. All 11 crew lost.[17]
23 October 1943 (1943-October-23)
MV Kerlogue (Capt Desmond Fortune) attacked by RAF in the Bay of Biscay. Four wounded.[17] Help refused by RAAF.
29 December 1943 (1943-December-29)
MV Kerlogue (Capt Thomas Donohue), with a crew of 11, rescued 164 Germans from the Bay of Biscay.[52]

1944[edit]

22 March 1944 (1944-March-22)
Cymric (Capt. C. Cassidy) lost between Ardrossan and Lisbon. Eleven dead.[53]
21 July 1944 (1944-July-21)
Irish Fir (Capt, J.P. Kelly) reports a 'near miss' torpedo attack in North Atlantic.[15]
20 December 1944 (1944-December-20)
Schooner Mary B Mitchell was wrecked in the Solway Firth during a gale.

1945[edit]

12 March 1945 (1945-March-12)
U-260 having been damaged by a mine, was scuttled by her crew at 51°09′N 9°03′W / 51.15°N 09.05°W / 51.15; -09.05 (U-260 (submarine)), two miles from Union Hall, County Cork. The 48 crew were interned in the Curragh. It has become known as the "Glandore sub".[54]
24 April 1945 (1945-April-24)
Monmouth Coast (Capt. Albert Henry Standen) (British) Sligo to Liverpool, 80 miles from Sligo, torpedoed and sunk by U-1305. Sixteen died. One survived.[55]
2 May 1945 (1945-May-02)
Motor Trawler FS Naomh Garbhan; off the Wexford Coast, struck a mine and sank. Three died.[17]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Some Arklow ships sailed under the red ensign and are not listed here.
  2. ^ a b Featured in the film Moby Dick.
  3. ^ "The Emergency" was an official euphemism used by the Irish Government to refer to its position during World War II.
  4. ^ In Ireland it is the "Mercantile Marine"; in the United Kingdom it is the "Merchant Navy"; in the United States it is the "Merchant Marine". "Irish Mercantile Marine" refers to the fleet of Irish registered merchant ships, be they privately or government owned, engaged in the commerce or transportation of goods in and out of the navigable waters of Ireland.
  5. ^ Neither the Inverliffey nor U-38 would have been aware of the registry change.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Forde, Frank (2000) [1981]. The Long Watch. Dublin: New Island Books. ISBN 1-902602-42-0. 
  • Griven, Brian (2006). The Emergency. London: Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-4050-0010-9. 
  • Gray, Tony (1997). The Lost Years. London: Little Brown and Company. ISBN 0-316-88189-9. 
  • Coogan, Tim Pat (2003). Ireland in the Twentieth Century. London: Jutchinson. ISBN 0-09-179427-7. 
  • Duggan, John P (2003). Herr Hempel. Irish Academic Press. ISBN 0-7165-2757-X. 
  • Kennedy, Michael (2008). Guarding Neutral Ireland. Dublin: Four Courts Press. ISBN 978-1-84682-097-7. 
  • Eunan, O'Halpin (2008). Spying on Ireland. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-925329-6. 
  • Spong, H. C. (1982). Irish Shipping Ltd., 1941-1982. World Ship Society. ISBN 978-0-905617-20-6. 
  • MacGinty, Tom (1995). The Irish Navy. Tralee: The Kerryman. ISBN 0-946277-22-2. 
  • Wills, Clair (2007). That Neutral Island. London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 978-0-571-22105-9. 
  • Carroll, Joseph T (1998). Ireland in the war years. International Scholars Publications. ISBN 978-1-57309-186-2. 
  • Dwyer, T Ryle (1982). De Valera's Finest Hour. Cork: Mercier Press. ISBN 0-85342-675-9. 
  • Fisk, Robert (1983). In Time of War. London: André Deutsch. ISBN 0-233-97514-4. 
    (Later republished as:Fisk, Robert (1996). In Time of War: Ireland, Ulster and the Price of Neutrality, 1939-45. Gill & Macmillan Ltd. ISBN 978-0-7171-2411-4. )
  • McIvor, Aidan (1994). A History of the Irish Naval Service. Dublin: Irish Academic Press. ISBN 0-7165-2523-2. 
  • Share, Bernard (1978). The Emergency. Dublin: Gill and Macmillan. ISBN 071710916X. 

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Existence of National Emergency". Dáil debates (Government of Ireland) 77: pp. 19–20. 1939-09-02. Retrieved 2008-07-19. 
  2. ^ Gray, page 34
  3. ^ "M/S Knute Nelson". Norwegian Homefleet WW II. warsailors.com. Retrieved 2009-08-26. 
  4. ^ "Dáil Éireann - Volume 77". Sinking of Ships. Parliamentary Debates -. 27 September 1939. Retrieved 21 August 2009. 
  5. ^ "House of Commons Debate 21 February 1939 vol 344 cc216-7W". Ships Built Abroad. Hansard. Retrieved 21 August 2009. 
  6. ^ Coogan (Ireland in the Twentieth Century), page 250
  7. ^ Coogan, Tim Pat (1995). De Valera. London: Arrow Books. p. 569. ISBN 0-09-995860-0. .
  8. ^ Carroll, Joseph T (1997). Ireland in the war years. international Scholars Publications. p. 90. ISBN 978-1-57309-186-2. 
  9. ^ "Dáil Éireann - Volume 77". Sinking of Ships. Parliamentary Debates -. 27 September 1939. Retrieved 21 August 2009. 
  10. ^ "Dáil Éireann - Volume 77". Sinking of Ships. Parliamentary Debates -. 27 September 1939. Retrieved 21 August 2009.  No casualties
  11. ^ "Steam Trawler Rudyard Kipling Scuttled by U-27 40 miles West of Claire Island Co Mayo 1939". Rudyard Kipling. Irish Shipwrecks. Retrieved 23 August 2010. 
  12. ^ Dywer, T Ryle (1 October 1999). "'Submarines in the bog holes': West Kerry's experience of World War II". Kerryman http://www.kerryman.ie/. Retrieved 2009-08-23. 
  13. ^ "Germaine". Ships hit by U-boats. Retrieved 26 April 2010. 
  14. ^ "D/S Enid". warsailors.com. Retrieved 2009-08-26. 
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Forde, Appendix 3
  16. ^ "Cato". Allied Ships hit by U-boats. uboat.net. Retrieved 2009-09-07. 
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af "Dáil Éireann - Volume 103". Damage to Merchant Ships. Parliamentary Debates. 23 October 1946. Retrieved 21 August 2009. 
  18. ^ Kindell, Don; Gordon Smith. "Naval Events". British and Other Navies in World War 2 Day-by-Day. Retrieved 2009-09-07. On the 11th, Dutch steamer Amor (2325grt) was sunk in 51‑24N, 02‑09E, eight miles NW of Fairy Bank Buoy; the entire crew was rescued by Irish steamer City of Bremen (903grt). 
  19. ^ "Naval Events, May 1940". Retrieved 2009-09-07. 
  20. ^ "VIOLANDO N. GOULANDRIS". Kriegsmarine and U-Boat history. ubootwaffe.net. Retrieved 2009-08-26. [dead link]
  21. ^ a b c d e Duggan, page 111
  22. ^ Stephan, Enno (1963). Spies in Ireland. Four Square. p. 124. 
  23. ^ Blair, page 139 - there were two agents: Ernst Weber-Drohl and Wilhelm Preetz, both arrested
  24. ^ "Adamandios Georgandis". Ships hit by U-boats. u-boat.net. Retrieved 2009-08-26. 
  25. ^ "FRANGOULA B GOULANDRIS". Kriegsmarine and U-Boat history. ubootwaffe.net. Retrieved 2009-08-26. 
  26. ^ "PETSAMO". Kriegsmarine and U-Boat history. ubootwaffe.net. Retrieved 2009-08-26. 
  27. ^ "Petsamo". Ships hit by U-boats. Retrieved 29 April 2010. 
  28. ^ "Ia". Kriegsmarine and U-Boat history. ubootwaffe.net. Retrieved 2009-08-26. 
  29. ^ "NAFTILOS". Kriegsmarine and U-Boat history. ubootwaffe.net. Retrieved 2009-08-26. 
  30. ^ http://uboat.net/allies/merchants/439.html
  31. ^ a b Forde, page 69
  32. ^ Gray, page 105
  33. ^ "Dáil Éireann - Volume 81". Bombing of Motor Vessel. Parliamentary Debates -. 5 February 1941. Retrieved 21 August 2009. 
  34. ^ Katie C. Lisa W. and Kate B (May 2003). "Campile Bombing". Scoil Mhuire. Retrieved 2009-08-26. 
  35. ^ "Wrecks List". Irish Shipwrecks. Retrieved 2009-08-26. 
  36. ^ http://www.ubootwaffe.net/ops/ships.cgi?boat=103;nr=4
  37. ^ Kennedy, page 107
  38. ^ Pears, Brian; Roy Ripley. "Incidents". North-East Diary 1939-1945. Retrieved 2009-08-26. 
  39. ^ Holm, O.C. (21 August 2008). "D/T Davanger". Retrieved 28 April 2010. 
  40. ^ "Penang". Ships hit by U-boats. Retrieved 29 April 2010. 
  41. ^ The storm passed by: Ireland and the battle of the Atlantic, 1940-41, Part 760 By Trevor Allen page 63
  42. ^ Kennedy page 175
  43. ^ Forde, page 27
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  45. ^ "Wawaloam". Allied Ships hit by U-boats. uboat.net. Retrieved 2009-08-24. 
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