|Country of origin||Ireland|
|Alcohol by volume||40–94.8%|
The word "whiskey" is an Anglicisation of "uisce beatha/uisge beatha" a phrase from the Goidelic branch of languages (Irish, Scottish Gaelic and Manx) meaning "water of life". (Intoxicating liquor, and especially whiskey, is also sometimes referred to in Ireland as "the craythur".)
Most Irish pot still whiskey is distilled three times, while most (but not all) Scotch whisky, is distilled twice. Peat is rarely used in the malting process, so that Irish Whiskey has a smoother finish as opposed to the smoky, earthy overtones common to some Scotches. There are notable exceptions to these "rules" in both countries; an example is Connemara Peated Irish Malt (double distilled) whiskey from the Cooley Distillery in Riverstown, Cooley, County Louth.
Irish whiskey was once the most popular spirit in the world, though a long period of decline from the late 19th century onwards greatly damaged the industry. Although Scotland sustains approximately 105 distilleries, Ireland has only six in current operation – only four of which have been operating long enough to have products sufficiently aged for current sale on the market as of 2013, and only one of which was operating prior to 1975. Irish Whiskey has seen a great resurgence in popularity since the late twentieth century, and has been the fastest growing spirit in the world every year since 1990. The current growth rate is at roughly 20% per annum, prompting the construction and expansion of a number of distilleries.
The word 'whiskey' (or whisky) comes from the Gaelic "uisce beatha", meaning water of life. Irish whiskey was one of the earliest distilled drinks in Europe, arising around the 12th century (see Distilled beverage). It is believed that Irish Monks brought the technique of distilling perfumes back to Ireland from their travels to the Mediterranean countries around 1000 A.D. The Irish then modified this technique to obtain a drinkable spirit. The Old Bushmills Distillery claims to be the oldest surviving licenced distillery in the world (the distillery claims a heritage to a licence from James I in 1608, and the Bushmills distillery company was established in 1784). A statute introduced in the late 16th century introduced a viceregal license for the manufacture of whiskey.
In the early twentieth century Irish whiskey was the most popular whiskey in the United States, however prohibition between 1920 and 1933 greatly upset the export market and forced many distilleries out of business. The Irish War of Independence and subsequent civil war also made exporting whiskey difficult and following independence a series of trade disputes with Britain cut off export to all Commonwealth countries, greatly hampering the industry. By the 1960s there was only a handful of remaining distilleries in Ireland, and in 1966 they amalgamated under the name of Irish Distillers to combine their resources. By the mid-1970s there were only two distilleries in Ireland, those of New Midleton and Bushmills, both owned by Irish Distillers. Production reached a nadir at about 400,000 - 500,000 cases per annum during the seventies, from a height of 12 million cases around 1900. The takeover of Irish Distillers by Pernod Ricard in 1988 led to increased marketing of Irish whiskeys, especially Jameson. Since the early 1990s Irish whiskey has undergone a major resurgence and has for over 20 years been the fastest growing spirit in the world. Production rose from 4.4 million cases in 2008 to 6.5 million in 2013, with growth projected to rise to 12 million cases by 2018.
Key regulations defining Irish whiskey and its production are established by the Irish Whiskey Act of 1980, and are relatively simple (for example, in contrast with those for Scotch and Bourbon whiskey). They can be summarised as follows:
- Irish whiskey must be distilled and aged in the island of Ireland
- The contained spirits must be distilled to an alcohol by volume level of less than 94.8% from a yeast-fermented mash of cereal grains (saccharified by the diastase of malt contained therein, with or without other natural diastases) in such a way that the distillate has an aroma and flavour derived from the materials used
- The product must be aged for at least three years in wooden casks
- If the spirits comprise a blend of two or more such distillates, the product is referred to as a "blended" Irish whiskey
There are several types of whiskey common to Ireland, including those referred to as single pot still, single malt, single grain, and blended Irish whiskey. But in contrast to the Scotch Whisky Regulations of 2009, the Irish Whiskey Act of 1980 does not actually contain a definition of the terms "single malt Irish whiskey" or "single grain Irish whiskey" or specific rules governing their production, so the exact definitions of these terms may not be clearly established.
Current distilleries in Ireland
Currently, there are eight distilleries in Ireland in operation or under construction:
- Alltech Craft Distillery (est. 2012) – has not yet had time to age its spirits for sale as whiskey
- Cooley Distillery (converted from a potato alcohol plant in 1987, owned by Beam since 2011) – producing Connemara, Michael Collins, Tyrconnell, and others
- Dingle Distillery (est. 2012) – has not yet had time to age its spirits for sale as whiskey
- Kilbeggan Distillery (est. 2007, owned by Beam since 2011)
- New Midleton Distillery (est. 1975, owned by Pernod Ricard since 1988) – producing Jamesons, Powers, Paddy, Midleton, Redbreast, and others, including the independently sold rarity Green Spot
- Old Bushmills Distillery (the oldest licensed distillery in the world, est. 1784, owned by Diageo since 2005) – producing all Old Bushmills, Black Bush, 1608, Bushmills 10-, 12- and 16- and 21-year-old single malts
- West Cork Distillers (est. 2008 in Union Hall, Cork)
- Tullamore Dew Distillery (opening 2014) - A distillery with an annual capacity of 1.5 million cases per year currently under construction.
A further distillery is planned for Royal Oak in Carlow, being built by Walsh Whiskey Distillery. The distillery will have a capacity of 400,000 cases a year and is being funded by Italian drinks company Illva Saronno.
In 2013 Lord Henry Mount Charles received planning permission to build a €12 million distillery in the grounds of Slane Castle, and John Teeling has revealed plans to develop the Great Northern Brewery in Dundalk as a distillery in a €35 million investment.
In addition to the four distilleries that have been operating long enough to currently offer products sufficiently aged for sale, there are a number of independently owned brands, such as Tullamore Dew, that purchase the spirits that they bottle from the operating distilleries.
Irish whiskey comes in several forms. If the whiskey is continuously distilled from unmalted grains, it is referred to as grain whiskey. This lighter and more neutral spirit is rarely found on its own and the vast majority of grain whiskey is used to make blended whiskey, a product made by mixing column still product with richer and intenser pot still product. Irish whiskeys made in a pot still fall into two categories. Those made entirely from malted barley distilled in a pot still are referred to as single malt whiskeys, a style also very commonly associated with Scotch whisky. The second style of Irish pot still whiskey is single pot still whiskey, made from a mixture of malted and unmalted barley completely distilled in a pot still. This later style has also been historically referred to as "pure pot still" whiskey and "Irish pot still whiskey." Older bottlings often bear these names. Regardless of whether the blended whiskey is made from combining grain whiskey with either single malt whiskey or with single pot still whiskey, it is labelled with the same terminology.
- Blends: Black Bush, Bushmills Original, Clontarf, Inishowen, The Irishman Potstill, Jameson, Kilbeggan, Locke's Blend, Midleton Very Rare, Millars, Paddy, Powers, Tullamore Dew, Writer's Tears
- Single pot still: Green Spot, Jameson 15yr Old Pure Pot Still, Redbreast (12, 15 years)
- Single malt: Bushmills (10, 16, 21 years), Connemara Peated Malt (Regular, Cask Strength and 12 years), The Irishman Single Malt, Locke's Single Malt (8 years), Tullamore Dew Single Malt (10-year), Tyrconnell
- Single grain: Greenore (8, 10, 15, 18 years)
- Terence Patrick Dolan. "A Dictionary of Hiberno-English". Google Books. Gill & Macmillan. Retrieved 22 December 2011.
- "Distillers in high spirits as the whiskey sector enters golden era". www.irishtimes.com. 8 November 2013. Retrieved 8 November 2013.
- Robert Dudley Edwards (1977). "Ireland in the age of the Tudors". Google Books (Harper & Row). Retrieved 23 September 2010.
- "55 new jobs at Carlow whiskey distillery". www.rte.ie. 16 October 2011. Retrieved 16 October 2011.
- Irish Whiskey Act of 1980, Irish Statute Book, 1980
- Distilling Begins in Carlow for Alltech's Irish Whiskey, Alltech, 12 November 2012.
- Dingle Distillery
- Sod is turned on Tullamore Dew distillery, TheJournal.ie, 14 September 2013.
- Kenny, Ciara (16 October 2011). "Whiskey Distillery to create 55 jobs for Carlow". The Irish Times. Retrieved 16 October 2011.
- "Irish Whiskey Distillery". Planet Whiskies. 26 March 2011. Retrieved 26 March 2011.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Whiskey from Ireland.|
- The Irish Whiskey Society Irish Whiskey discussion forum
- Poteen Making / Déantús an Phoitín DVD – 'Singling' & Story from John William Seoige YouTube – documentary on the origins and process of whiskey making
- Irish Whiskey Act, 1980 Government of Ireland