Irom Chanu Sharmila
|Irom Chanu Sharmila|
14 March 1972 |
Kongpal, Imphal, Manipur, India
|Occupation||Civil rights activist, political activist, poet|
|Known for||Hunger strike against Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act, 1958|
|Parents||Irom c Nanda (father)
Irom Ongbi Sakhi (mother)
Irom Chanu Sharmila (born 14 March 1972), also known as the "Iron Lady of Manipur" or "Mengoubi" ("the fair one") is a civil rights activist, political activist, and poet from the Indian state of Manipur. On 2 November 2000, she began a hunger strike which is still ongoing. Having refused food and water for more than 500 weeks, she has been called "the world's longest hunger striker". On International Women’s Day, 2014 she was voted the top woman icon of India by MSN Poll.
In 2014 two parties asked her to stand in the national election. but she declined. She was then denied the right to vote. On 9 August 19 2014 a court ordered her release from custody, subject to there being no other grounds for detention. She was re-arrested on August 22 2014 on similar charges to those for which she was acquitted, and remanded in judicial custody for 15 days. Amnesty International has declared her a prisoner of conscience.
Beginning of fast
On 2 November 2000, in Malom, a town in the Imphal Valley of Manipur, ten civilians were shot and killed while waiting at a bus stop. The incident, known as the "Malom Massacre", was allegedly committed by the Assam Rifles, one of the Indian Paramilitary forces operating in the state. The victims included Leisangbam Ibetombi, a 62-year old woman, and 18-year old Sinam Chandramani, a 1988 National Bravery Award winner.
Sharmila, who was 28 at the time, began to fast in protest of the killing, taking neither food nor water. As her brother Irom Singhajit Singh recalled, "It was a Thursday. Sharmila used to fast on Thursdays since she was a child. That day she was fasting too. She has just continued with her fast."
Three days after she began her strike, she was arrested by the police and charged with an "attempt to commit suicide", which was unlawful under the Indian Penal Code (IPC) at that time, and was later transferred to judicial custody. However, Amnesty International and the World Medical Association both dispute that a hunger strike is equivalent to suicide as hunger strikers "generally hope and intend to survive". Her health deteriorated rapidly, and nasogastric intubation was forced on her in order to keep her alive while under arrest.
Irom Sharmila has been regularly released and re-arrested every year since her hunger strike began under IPC section 309. The law declares that a person who "attempts to commit suicide ... shall be punished with simple imprisonment for a term which may extend to one year [or with fine, or with both]."
By 2004, Sharmila had become an "icon of public resistance." Following her procedural release on 2 October 2006 Irom Sharmila Chanu went to Raj Ghat, New Delhi, which she said was "to pay floral tribute to my idol, Mahatma Gandhi." Later that evening, Sharmila headed for Jantar Mantar for a protest demonstration where she was joined by students, human rights activists and other concerned citizens. 30 women protested naked in support of Sharmila in front of the Assam Rifles headquarters. They held a banner saying "Indian Army rape us" and all of them were imprisoned for three months.
On 6 October, she was re-arrested by the Delhi police for attempting suicide and was taken to the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, where she wrote letters to the Prime Minister, the President, and the Home Minister. At this time, she met and won the support of Nobel-laureate Shirin Ebadi, the Nobel Laureate and human rights activist, who promised to take up Sharmila's cause at the United Nations Human Rights Council.
In October 2011, the Manipur Pradesh All India Trinamool Congress announced their support for Sharmila and called on party chief Mamata Banerjee to help repeal the AFSPA. The Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) (CPI ML) also stated its support for her and for repeal of AFSPA, calling for nationwide agitation. In November, at the end of the eleventh year of her fast, Sharmila again called on Prime Minister Manmohan Singh to repeal the law. On 3 November 100 women formed a human chain in Ambari to show support for Sharmila, while other civil society groups staged a 24-hour fast in a show of solidarity.
She has not met her mother since the start of the fast as seeing her mother's anguish may break her resolve. She said "The day AFSPA is repealed I will eat rice from my mother's hand."
Political offers and vote on 2014 Lok Sabha election
In 2014, Irom Sharmila was offered to contest in Lok Sabha polls from Indian National Congress and Aam Aadmi Party separately. She was offered to contest by Manipur Chief Minister Okram Ibobi Singh for Indian National Congress. On which she said "The chief minister made a surprise visit last month and requested me to join the Congress so that the party can jointly take up the issue of repealing the Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA), but I did not give any response to his offer."
She was also offered to contest Lok Sabha polls by Aam Aadmi Party leader Prashant Bhushan from Inner Manipur under his party's banner through Just Peace Foundation (JPF), a solidarity group supporting Sharmila's struggle. But on 14 February, Sharmila rejected Aam Aadmi Party's offer to contest the Lok Sabha polls and said that "Though I support AAP, I rejected the offer as I'm just a protester not a politician." She also showed her moral support to the party and said "If I am allowed to vote, I will cast my vote in favour of the AAP which I am confident will restore the rule of democracy." 
On the offers on contesting Lok Sabha polls, a JPF trustee said that "Politics is not a cup of her (Sharmila) tea and she even called politicians 'shameless people' for failing to scrap AFSPA despite their countless promises."
On 2014, she showed willingness to cast her vote and submitted an application expressing her desire and she mentioned that "I never voted as I had lost faith in democracy, but the rise of the new anti-corruption party, Aam Aadmi Party, changed my thinking." But she was not allowed to cast her vote as per the law. An Election Commission official explained the reason stating that under Section 62 (5) of the Representation of the People Act, 1951, a person confined in jail cannot vote.
Current legal battle
Irom Sharmila continued to face the charge of attempted suicide. She was held in enforced isolation which the National Human Rights Commission of India recommended for the Manipur government to immediately stop. A summon was issued for Sharmila Chanu to appear for trial on 19 December 2013.
Since the maximum sentence for attempted suicide is one year and she had been held for more than six years she was told the case will be settled if she pled guilty. However, she maintained that she had not attempted suicide, but was protesting in the "most non-violent way, like Mahatma Gandhi." On 19 August 2014, a court in Imphal ordered that Sharmila should be released from custody "if not required in any other case", stating that the prosecution had "failed miserably" to demonstrate that Sharmila had intended to commit suicide through fasting. On August 22 2014 she was again arrested, once more charged with attempted suicide, and remanded to judicial custody for 15 days by a magistrate.
Sharmila was awarded the 2007 Gwangju Prize for Human Rights, which is given to "an outstanding person or group, active in the promotion and advocacy of Peace, Democracy and Human Rights". She shared the award with Lenin Raghuvanshi of People's Vigilance Committee on Human Rights, a northeastern Indian human rights organization.
In 2010, she won a lifetime achievement award from the Asian Human Rights Commission. Later that year, she won the Rabindranath Tagore Peace Prize of the Indian Institute of Planning and Management, which came with a cash award of 5,100,000 rupees, and the Sarva Gunah Sampannah "Award for Peace and Harmony" from the Signature Training Centre.
Works based on her life
Deepti Priya Mehrotra's Burning Bright: Irom Sharmila and the Struggle for Peace in Manipur details Sharmila's life and the political background of her fast.
Ojas S V, a theater artist from Pune, performed a mono-play titled Le Mashale ("Take the Torch"), based on Irom Sharmila's life and struggle. It is an adaptation of Meira Paibi (Women bearing torches), a drama written by Malayalam playwright Civic Chandran. The play was performed at several venues in several Indian states. "Sharmila and I worked together on a study lead by Justice Suresh of the Human Rights Law Network. She was such an enthusiastic person. One week after we finished this study, there was a massacre where 10 innocent people were killed. Then she took a stand, knowing that there was no alternative left but to put her own life in the line of fire. It has been 13 years now", recalls Babloo Loitongbom.
- Fragrance of Peace (2010)
- IronIrom: Two Journeys : Where the Abnormal is Normal (2012, with Minnie Vaid and Tayenjam Bijoykumar Singh)
- Mehrotra, Deepti Priya (2012). "The Making of an Activist". Burning Bright: Irom Sharmila and the Struggle for Peace in Manipur. Penguin Books India. ISBN 9788184751536.
- Rituparna Chatterjee (20 April 2011). "Spot the Difference: Hazare vs. Irom Sharmila". Sinlung. Retrieved 30 April 2011.
- Bagchi, Suvojit (19 September 2006). "Manipur woman's marathon fast". BBC News, Manipur. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
- Andrew Buncombe (4 November 2010). "A decade of starvation for Irom Sharmila". The Independent. Archived from the original on 22 October 2012. Retrieved 8 May 2011.
- "Irom Sharmila is top woman icon: MSN poll". http://news.in.msn.com/. 11 March 2014. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- "Irom Sharmila voted MSN poll’s Top Woman Icon in India.". http://sevensistersproject.org/. 20 March 2014. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- "Irom Sharmila not allowed to vote in Manipur". http://zeenews.india.com. 17 April 2014. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- "Irom Sharmila Chanu's moral support to AAP". The Times Of India. 14 March 2014. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- "Irom Sharmila not allowed to vote in Manipur EC official says Under Section 62 (5) of the Representation of the People Act, 1951, a person confined in jail cannot vote". http://www.business-standard.com/. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- "Irom Chanu Sharmila charged with attempted suicide, sent to judicial custody again". The Times of India. 22 August 2014. Retrieved 22 August 2014.
- Anjuman Ara Begum (3 November 2010). "AFSPA and Unsolved massacres in Manipur". Twocircles.net. Archived from the original on 21 October 2012. Retrieved 21 October 2012.
- Imphal Free Press (2 November 2013). "Malom Massacre horror relived 13 years later". http://kanglaonline.com/. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
- Nilanjana S. Roy (8 February 2011). "Torchbearers for Victims in a Violent Land". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 22 October 2012. Retrieved 8 May 2011.
- Rahul Pathak (6 August 2004). "Why Malom is a big reason for Manipur anger against Army Act". The Indian Express. Retrieved 8 May 2011.
- Shoma Chaudhury (5 December 2009). "Irom And The Iron In India’s Soul". Tehelka. Archived from the original on 22 October 2012. Retrieved 8 May 2011.
- "WMA Declaration of Malta on Hunger Strikers". Retrieved 14 February 2015.
- "Document - India: Government of Manipur must release Irom Sharmila Chanu". Amnesty International. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
- "Manipur Fasting Woman Re-arrested". BBC News. 9 March 2009. Retrieved 8 May 2011.
- Section 309 in The Indian Penal Code, 1860
- Hanjabam, Shukhdeba Sharma (17 January 2008). "The Meitei upsurge in Manipur". Asia Europe Journal 6 (1): 157–169.
- Vidya Subramaniam (28 August 2011). "Irom Sharmila urges Anna to visit Manipur". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 21 October 2012. Retrieved 21 October 2012.
- "Highlights of Anna Hazare's interview to NDTV". NDTV. 13 September 2011. Archived from the original on 21 October 2012. Retrieved 21 October 2012.
- "Mamata's help sought for raising voice against AFSPA". The Times of India. 17 October 2011. Archived from the original on 22 October 2012.
- "CPI (ML) to show solidarity to Sharmila with nation-wide agitation". Imphal Free Press via Kanglaonline. 29 September 2011. Archived from the original on 21 October 2012. Retrieved 21 October 2012.
- "PM should realize I am struggling for people: Irom". The Times of India. Times News Network. 4 November 2011. Archived from the original on 21 October 2012. Retrieved 21 October 2012.
- "Civil society groups in state back Irom's cause". The Times of India. Times News Network. 3 November 2011. Archived from the original on 22 October 2012.
- "Scholarship for Manipuri girl students in Sharmila's honour". The Times of India. 10 December 2011. Archived from the original on 22 October 2012.
- Manash Pratim Gohai (2 October 2013). "Irom Sharmila Chanu must be immediately released, Amnesty India says". Times Of India. Retrieved 2013-11-08.
- "A Life-Affirming Fast". Economic & Political Weekly. 23 March 2013.
- "Irom Sharmila not allowed to vote in Manipur". The Times Of India. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- "Irom Sharmila rejects Congress for AAP, continues fast". http://zeenews.india.com. 17 April 2014. Retrieved 14 March 2014.
- "Irom Sharmila rejects AAP offer to contest polls". http://www.ndtv.com/. 14 Mar 2014. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- Divya Arya (17 April 2014). "Irom Sharmila: India's marathon fast woman wants to vote". http://www.bbc.com/. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- "Lok Sabha polls: Irom Sharmila not allowed to vote in Manipur". http://economictimes.indiatimes.com. 17 April 2014. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- "Remove restrictions on Irom Sharmila: NHRC". Business Standard. 2013-10-30. Retrieved 2013-11-08.
- "Court asks Irom Sharmila to appear on Dec 19". Business Standard. 2013-10-30. Retrieved 2013-11-08.
- "Court orders release of Irom Chanu Sharmila from jail". The Economic Times. 19 August 2014. Retrieved 20 August 2014.
- "Gwangju Prize for Human Rights". 18 May Memorial Foundation. Archived from the original on 22 October 2012. Retrieved 24 April 2011.
- Sobhapati Samom (1 March 2010). "Kerala activists promise support to Irom Sharmila". Assam Tribune. Archived from the original on 22 October 2012. Retrieved 22 October 2012.
- "Human rights defender awarded for lifetime achievement". Asian Human Rights Commission. 29 January 2010. Archived from the original on 22 October 2012. Retrieved 22 October 2012.
- "Irom Sharmila awarded Rabindranath Tagore peace award". dnaindia.com. 12 September 2010. Archived from the original on 21 October 2012. Retrieved 21 October 2012.
- "Sharmila Conferred Peace Award". manipuronline.com. 27 December 2010. Archived from the original on 22 October 2012. Retrieved 22 October 2012.
- Laxmi Murthy (December 2009). "Reluctant heroine: 'Burning Bright' by Deepti Priya Mehrotra". Himal South Asian. Archived from the original on 21 October 2012. Retrieved 21 October 2012.
- T. Saravanan (11 February 2011). "For a noble cause". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 21 October 2012. Retrieved 21 October 2012.
- Shalini Umachandran (12 February 2011). "Single act that captures a dozen wounds of Manipur". The Times of India. Times News Network. Archived from the original on 21 October 2012. Retrieved 21 October 2012.
- "“If you go hunting, be ready to meet the tiger”". BarandBench. Retrieved 2014-05-20.