Iron(II) sulfide

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Iron(II) sulfide
Sample of iron(II) sulfide
Ball-and-stick model of FeS's unit cell
Identifiers
CAS number 1317-37-9 YesY
PubChem 10290742
ChemSpider 8466211 YesY
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties
Molecular formula FeS
Molar mass 87.910 g/mol
Appearance black solid, sometimes in lumps or powder
Density 4.84 g/cm3
Melting point 1,194 °C (2,181 °F; 1,467 K)
Solubility in water negligible (insoluble)
Solubility reacts in acid
Hazards
EU Index Not listed
Main hazards can be pyrophoric
Autoignition temperature variable
Related compounds
Related compounds Iron(II) oxide
Iron disulfide
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
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Infobox references

Iron(II) sulfide or ferrous sulfide (Br.E. sulphide) is a chemical compound with the formula FeS. In practice, iron sulfides are often non-stoichiometric. Powdered iron sulfide is pyrophoric (ignites spontaneously in air).

Chemical reactions[edit]

Iron sulfide reacts with hydrochloric acid, releasing the malodorous (rotten egg smell) and very toxic gas, hydrogen sulfide

FeS + 2 HCl → FeCl2 + H2S

FeS can be obtained by the heating of iron and sulfur:

Fe + S → FeS

Biology and biogeochemistry[edit]

As organic matter decays under low-oxygen (or hypoxic) conditions such as in swamps or dead zones of lakes and oceans, sulfate-reducing bacteria will use the sulfates present in the water to oxidize the organic matter, producing hydrogen sulfide as waste. Some of the hydrogen sulfide will react with metal ions in the water to produce metal sulfides, which are not water soluble. These metal sulfides, such as iron(II) sulfide, are often black or brown, leading to the color of sludge.

Pyrrotite is a waste product of the Desulfovibrio bacteria, a sulfate reducing bacteria.

When eggs are cooked for a long time, the yolk's surface may turn green. This is due to iron(II) sulfide which forms as iron from the yolk meets hydrogen sulfide released from the egg white by the heat.[1] This reaction occurs more rapidly in older eggs as the whites are more alkaline.[2]

The presence of ferrous sulfide as a visible black precipitate in the growth medium peptone iron agar can be used to distinguish between microorganisms that produce the cysteine metabolizing enzyme cysteine desulfhydrase and those that do not. Peptone iron agar contains the amino acid cysteine and a chemical indicator, ferric citrate. The degradation of cysteine releases hydrogen sulfide gas that reacts with the ferric citrate to produce ferrous sulfide.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Belle Lowe (1937), "The formation of ferrous sulfide in cooked eggs", Experimental cookery from the chemical and physical standpoint, John Wiley & Sons 
  2. ^ Harold McGee (2004), McGee on Food and Cooking, Hodder and Stoughton