Irving, Texas

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Irving, Texas
City
Clockwise from top left: Urban Towers at Las Colinas, the former Texas Stadium, Irving Convention Center at Las Colinas, Downtown Las Colinas Skyline, The Mustangs at Las Colinas
Clockwise from top left: Urban Towers at Las Colinas, the former Texas Stadium, Irving Convention Center at Las Colinas, Downtown Las Colinas Skyline, The Mustangs at Las Colinas
Flag of Irving, Texas
Flag
Motto: "Delivering Exceptional Services"[1]
Location of Irving in Dallas County, Texas
Location of Irving in Dallas County, Texas
Coordinates: 32°48′42″N 96°57′3″W / 32.81167°N 96.95083°W / 32.81167; -96.95083Coordinates: 32°48′42″N 96°57′3″W / 32.81167°N 96.95083°W / 32.81167; -96.95083
Country United States
State Texas
County Dallas
Incorporated (city) April 14, 1914[2]
Government
 • Type Council-Manager
 • City Council Mayor Beth Van Duyne
John C. Danish
Allan E. Meagher
Dennis Webb
Joe Putnam
Oscar Ward
Brad LaMorgese
Gerald Farris
Tom Spink[3]
 • City Manager Chris Hillman[4]
Area
 • City 67.7 sq mi (175.3 km2)
 • Land 67.9 sq mi (174.1 km2)
 • Water 0.4 sq mi (1.1 km2)
Elevation 482 ft (147 m)
Population (2012)
 • City 225,427[5]
 • Density 3,194.8/sq mi (1,233.8/km2)
 • Metro 6,805,275 (Dallas-Fort Worth)
Time zone CST (UTC-6)
 • Summer (DST) CDT (UTC-5)
ZIP codes 75000-75099
Area code(s) 972, 817, 469, 214,
FIPS code 48-37000[6]
GNIS feature ID 1338507[7]
Website cityofirving.org

Irving (/ɜrvɪŋ/ UR-ving) is a city located in the U.S. state of Texas within Dallas County. According to a 2012 estimate from the U.S. Census Bureau, the city population was 225,427[5] making it the thirteenth most populous city in Texas. Irving is part of the Dallas–Plano–Irving metropolitan division of the Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington metropolitan area, designated by the U.S. Census Bureau and colloquially referred to as the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex.

Irving includes the Las Colinas community, one of the first master-planned developments in the United States and once the largest mixed-use development in the Southwest with a land area of more than 12,000 acres (4,856 ha). Las Colinas is home to the Mustangs at Las Colinas, which is the largest equestrian sculpture in the world, as well as many Fortune 500 companies, such as Exxon Mobil. In January 2011 the city completed the Irving Convention Center at Las Colinas and plans to develop the area into a mixed-use complex including a special entertainment district.

Part of Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, which serves the cities of Dallas and Fort Worth, is inside the city limits of Irving.

History[edit]

Irving was founded in 1903 by J.O. "Otto" Schulze and Otis Brown. It is believed that literary author Washington Irving was a favorite of Netta Barcus Brown, and consequently the name of the town site, Irving, was chosen. Irving originally began in 1889 as an area called Gorbit, and in 1894 the name changed to Kit. Irving was incorporated April 14, 1914, with Otis Brown as the first mayor.

By the late nineteenth century the Irving area was the site of churches, two cotton gins, a blacksmith shop and a general store. The Irving district public school system dates back to the 1909 establishment of Kit and Lively schools. Population growth was slow and sometimes halting, with only 357 residents in 1925, but a significant increase began in the 1930s.

By the early 1960s the city had a population of approximately 45,000. A number of manufacturing plants operated in Irving, along with transportation, retail and financial businesses. The University of Dallas in Irving opened in 1956, and Texas Stadium was completed in 1971 as the home field of the Dallas Cowboys.

Texas Stadium, the now-demolished former home of the Dallas Cowboys in Irving.

Delta Air Lines Flight 191 crashed in Irving on August 2, 1985.

Irving's population reached 155,037 in 1990 and the 2012 Census counted 225,427 residents, a 4.2 percent population increase over 2010 census estimates.[5]

Joseph Rice recorded the history of Irving in his 1989 book, Irving: A Texas Odyssey (Northridge, California: Windsor Publications ISBN 978-0-89781-300-6). Rice explored Irving's past and culture in his treatment of the city.

Geography[edit]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 67.7 square miles (175 km2), of which, 67.2 square miles (174 km2) of it is land and 0.4 square miles (1.0 km2) of it (0.65%) is water.

Irving, Texas
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
1.9
 
55
36
 
 
2.3
 
61
41
 
 
3.1
 
69
49
 
 
3.5
 
77
56
 
 
5.3
 
84
65
 
 
3.9
 
92
73
 
 
2.4
 
96
77
 
 
2.2
 
96
76
 
 
2.7
 
89
69
 
 
4.7
 
79
58
 
 
2.6
 
66
47
 
 
2.5
 
57
39
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Source: Weather.com / NWS

Climate[edit]

  • On average, the warmest month is July.
  • The highest recorded temperature was 112 °F (44 °C) in 1980.
  • The average coolest month is January.
  • The lowest recorded temperature was 1 °F (−17 °C) in 1989.
  • May is the average wettest month.

Irving is considered to be part of the humid subtropical region.

Demographics[edit]

2000 Census[edit]

As of the census[6] of 2000, there were 191,615 people, 76,241 households, and 46,202 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,850.2 people per square mile (1,100.4/km²). There were 80,293 housing units at an average density of 1,194.3 per square mile (461.1/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 64.2% White, Hispanic or Latino of any race were 31.2% of the population, 10.2% African American, 0.7% Native American, 8.24% Asian, 0.13% Pacific Islander, 13.4% from other races, and 3.20% from two or more races. Non-Hispanic Whites were 30.8% of the population,[8] down from 88.9% in 1980.[9]

There were 76,241 households out of which 31.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.1% were married couples living together, 11.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.4% were non-families. 31.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 3.19.

In the city the population was spread out with 25.2% under the age of 18, 11.9% from 18 to 24, 39.4% from 25 to 44, 17.4% from 45 to 64, and 6.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females there were 104.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.9 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $44,956, and the median income for a family was $50,172. Males had a median income of $35,852 versus $30,420 for females. The per capita income for the city was $23,419. About 8.0% of families and 10.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.2% of those under age 18 and 6.3% of those age 65 or over.

2010 Census[edit]

As of the census[6] of 2010,[10] there were 216,290 people, 82,538 households, and 51,594 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,218.6 people per square mile (1,242.1/km²). There were 91,128 housing units at an average density of 1,356 per square mile (523.3/km²).[11] The racial makeup of the city was 53.1% White, Hispanic or Latino of any race were 41.1% of the population, 12.3% African American, 0.9% Native American, 14.0% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 16.2% from other races, and 3.5% from two or more races.[11] Non-Hispanic Whites were 30.8% of the population,[8] down from 88.9% in 1980.[9]

There were 82,538 households out of which 33.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.1% were married couples living together, 13.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.5% were non-families.[11] 30.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.31.[11]

In the city the population was spread out with 29% under the age of 19, 8% from 20 to 24, 35.8% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, and 6.9% who were 65 years of age or older.[11] The median age was 31.3 years. For every 100 females there were 99.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.6 males.

The 2012[12] median income for a household in the city was $49,303, and the median income for a family was $54,755. Males had an estimated median income of $40,986 versus $36,518 for females.[13] The per capita income for the city was $26,970.[12] About 13.2% of families and 16.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.5% of those under age 18 and 9.4% of those age 65 or over.[12]

Foreign-born population[edit]

As of 2007, about 33% of the population was not born in the United States.[14]

Hispanics and Latinos[edit]

As of 2009, there is a large Hispanic and Latino population. The largest group are those of Mexican origins, while the Salvadoran-origin people are 11.8% of those born outside of the United States; this percentage is larger than the average percentage of Salvadorans in Dallas-Fort Worth area cities. The Hispanic and Latino settlers have moved into areas of eastern Irving; these neighborhoods are older compared to other areas of Irving.[15]

Indians[edit]

The largest Asian ethnic group in Irving is the Asian Indians.[15] As of 2009 the Indians have mainly settled in proximity to high technology companies,[16] into an area in western Irving along Texas State Highway 114,[17] In order to absorb the Indian population, dense condominium and rental properties have opened in western Irving.[16]

Economy[edit]

According to the City's 2011 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[18] the top employers in the city are:

# Employer # of Employees
1 Citigroup, Inc. 7,500
2 Verizon 3,260
3 Irving Mall 2,100
4 Nokia 1,700
5 Allstate 1,650
6 NEC Corporation of America 1,515
7 Microsoft 1,351
8 Neiman Marcus Direct 1,339
9 HMS 1,299
10 Zale 1,250

Several large businesses have headquarters in Irving, including Chuck E. Cheese's,[19] Commercial Metals,[citation needed] ExxonMobil,[20] Gruma,[citation needed] H.D. Vest, Old HB, Kimberly-Clark,[21] La Quinta Inns and Suites,[22] Michaels Stores,[21] Omni Hotels,[23] Southern Star Concrete, Inc.,[citation needed] Stellar, a global contact center provider, Xero Hour,[citation needed] Zale Corporation,[21] Fluor Corporation,[21] NCH Corporation,[24] Schnee-Morehead Inc.,[25] and LXI Enterprise Storage.[26] Freedom Airlines, a regional airline and Mesa Air Group subsidiary, is headquartered in Irving.[27] An Online Trading Academy office and center operates in Irving.[28] The city is also home to the national headquarters of the Boy Scouts of America.[29]

Subsidiaries of foreign companies[edit]

The headquarters of Nokia America[21] and NEC Corporation of America[21] are located in Irving. The American headquarters of BlackBerry is located in Irving.[30]

Perhaps as a result of the Nokia-Irving connection, Irving is twinned with Nokia's headquarters city, Espoo in Finland.

Sports[edit]

Irving was the home of Texas Stadium, the former home stadium of the Dallas Cowboys. The stadium was demolished on April 11, 2010. Irving Independent School District (IISD) high schools play football and other sports at Irving Schools Stadium. Irving sponsors a citywide high-school age ice hockey team, the Irving Wolfpack of the D/FW Junior Varsity GOLD league. Also, in the spring, the Four Seasons Resort in Las Colinas hosts the HP Byron Nelson Championship, an annual PGA Tour event.

Irving is the home of two Football Bowl Subdivision conferences: the Big 12 Conference and Conference USA.

The only professional sports team which is currently located in Irving is the Texas Wild of the Mylan World Team Tennis sports league. The Wild play out of a 2,000-seat tennis-specific venue located at the Four Seasons Resort and Club Dallas at Las Colinas.

Government and infrastructure[edit]

Local government[edit]

Prior to the November 2008 elections, Irving banned the sale of alcoholic beverages in stores, making it the largest in population dry suburb in North Texas. In 2004 the pro-alcohol measure failed with 63% of voters opposing the measure. In 2006, 52% voted against the measure. On the third attempt, with heavy monetary backing by retailers, voters narrowly voted in favor of the measure in 2008.[31] People in favor of changing Irving's liquor laws saw the interest in the 2008 United States Presidential Election as a catalyst for changing the laws in their favor.[32]

In 2009 Irving had a city council that was entirely at-large. While Irving has a large population of racial minorities, the entire city council and the mayor's office, was entirely non-Hispanic White. Manny Benavidez, a resident of Irving, filed a lawsuit against the city in federal court in November 2007, saying that the voting system was not in compliance with the 1965 Voting Rights Act. On July 15, 2009, a federal judge ruled that Irving is required to create a new electoral system so that racial minority representatives may be voted into office.[33] In 2010 elections, which included one at-large seat and two district-seats, three new council members were elected, replacing two incumbents and adding a newly created seat. Among the three new council members were two minority council members.[34]

According to the city’s most recent Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the city’s various funds had $344.9 million in Revenues, $301.4 million in expenditures, $1,222 million in total assets, $490 million in total liabilities, and $339.9 million in cash and investments.[35]

The structure of the management and coordination of city services is:[36]

City Department Director
City Manager (Interim) Steve McCullough
Animal Services Fred Sanderson
Capital Improvement Program Casey Tate
City Attorney Charles Anderson
City Secretary Shanae Jennings
Code Enforcement Teresa Adrian
Corporate Communications Susan Rose
Financial Services Max Duplant, Chief Financial Officer
Fire Chief (Interim) Victor Conley
Housing and Human Services Chris Hooper
Irving Arts Board Richard Huff
Irving Convention and Visitors Bureau Maura Gast
Library Chris Dobson
Municipal Court Wayne Lambert
Parks and Recreation Ray Cerda
Performance Aimee Kaslik, Chief Performance Officer
Police Chief Larry Boyd
Public Works Ramiro Lopez
Inspections Gary Miller
Solid Waste Services Brenda Haney
Human Resources Ike Obi
Traffic and Transportation Dan Vedral
Water Utilities Todd Reck

County government[edit]

The Parkland Health & Hospital System (Dallas County Hospital District) operates the Irving Health Center.[37]

Federal representation[edit]

The United States Postal Service operates post offices in Irving. The Irving Main Post Office is located at 2701 West Irving Boulevard.[38]

Other post offices in the city include Downtown Irving,[39] Carl Range,[40] Central Irving,[41] Las Colinas,[42] and Valley Ranch.[43]

Education[edit]

Primary and secondary schools[edit]

Public schools[edit]

Most of Irving is served by the Irving Independent School District (IISD). Other portions are served by the Carrollton-Farmers Branch Independent School District (CFBISD), and Coppell Independent School District (CISD).[44]

The major high schools serving the Irving area are:

In 2001, 1,000 of CFBISD's 25,000 students resided in the City of Irving.[45]

Uplift Education, a charter school operator, has its administrative offices in Irving.[46] Uplift has several charter school campuses in Irving, including Infinity Preparatory (K-1, 6),[47] and North Hills Preparatory (K-12).[48]

The Quest School, a K-9 Honors Academy school, is in Irving.[49]

Winfree Academy Charter School is also located in Irving.

Private schools[edit]

Irving is home to Cistercian Preparatory School, a university-preparatory school for boys, grades 5 through 12. Irving is also home to The Highlands School, a university-preparatory school for pre-kindergarten through 12th grade. Two Catholic Pre-K through 8th grade schools, St. Luke's and Holy Family of Nazareth, are also located in Irving. Irving also is home to the Islamic School of Irving(Pre-K to 12).

Colleges and universities[edit]

The city is the site of the University of Dallas and North Lake College, a campus of the Dallas County Community College District. Both University of Phoenix and DeVry University have a campus in Irving, as well.

Transportation[edit]

Irving is traversed by numerous highways. The Airport Freeway, SH 183, runs east-west in the center of the city, while LBJ Freeway or I-635 crosses the northern edge of the city in the same direction. John Carpenter Freeway, SH 114, and the President George Bush Turnpike create an X running northwest-to-southeast and southwest-to-northeast respectively. The Las Colinas area is centered near the intersection of 114 and the Bush turnpike.

Irving is one of 13 member-cities of the Dallas region's transit agency, Dallas Area Rapid Transit (DART). Currently, Irving is served by numerous bus routes and has two stops along the Trinity Railway Express route. In addition, DART is constructing the Orange Line through Irving and Las Colinas to DFW Airport. This will connect northern Irving with Dallas through rail in addition to existing bus routes.

The Las Colinas Urban Center is served by the Las Colinas APT System, a people mover connecting businesses and entertainment areas.

Notable people[edit]

Sister cities[edit]

Irving has a sister city relationship with six cities:[68]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "City of Irving Texas". City of Irving Texas. Retrieved October 19, 2012. 
  2. ^ http://www.cityofirving.org/common/demographics.asp
  3. ^ http://www.cityofirving.org/mayor-council/meet-mc.asp
  4. ^ http://cityofirving.org/2215/City-Managers-Office
  5. ^ a b c http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/48/4837000.html
  6. ^ a b c "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  7. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  8. ^ a b "Irving (city), Texas". State & County QuickFacts. U.S. Census Bureau. 
  9. ^ a b "Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau. 
  10. ^ http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/community_facts.xhtml
  11. ^ a b c d e http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=DEC_10_DP_DPDP1
  12. ^ a b c http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=ACS_12_5YR_DP03
  13. ^ http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=ACS_12_5YR_S2001
  14. ^ Formby, Brandon. "Hispanics in Irving feeling disheartened" (Archive). The Dallas Morning News. Sunday October 7, 2007. Retrieved on September 22, 2014.
  15. ^ a b Brettell, Caroline B. '"Big D" Incorporating New Immigrants in a Sunbelt Suburban Metropolis' (Chapter 3). In: Singer, Audrey, Susan Wiley Hardwick, and Caroline Brettell. Twenty-First Century Gateways: Immigrant Incorporation in Suburban America (James A. Johnson metro series). Brookings Institution Press, 2009. ISBN 0815779283, 9780815779285. Start p. 53. CITED: p.60.
  16. ^ a b Brettell, Caroline B. '"Big D" Incorporating New Immigrants in a Sunbelt Suburban Metropolis' (Chapter 3). In: Singer, Audrey, Susan Wiley Hardwick, and Caroline Brettell. Twenty-First Century Gateways: Immigrant Incorporation in Suburban America (James A. Johnson metro series). Brookings Institution Press, 2009. ISBN 0815779283, 9780815779285. Start p. 53. CITED: p.-61.
  17. ^ Brettell, Caroline B. '"Big D" Incorporating New Immigrants in a Sunbelt Suburban Metropolis' (Chapter 3). In: Singer, Audrey, Susan Wiley Hardwick, and Caroline Brettell. Twenty-First Century Gateways: Immigrant Incorporation in Suburban America (James A. Johnson metro series). Brookings Institution Press, 2009. ISBN 0815779283, 9780815779285. Start p. 53. CITED: p.-60-61.
  18. ^ City of Irving Comprehensive Annual Financial Report for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2011
  19. ^ "Investor Information" (PHP). Chuck E. Cheese's Official Site. CEC Entertainment, Inc. Retrieved 2009-03-03. 
  20. ^ "Contact us - business headquarters." ExxonMobil. Retrieved on January 26, 2009.
  21. ^ a b c d e f City of Irving Comprehensive Annual Financial Report for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2008 Retrieved 2009-07-20
  22. ^ "Fact Sheet." La Quinta Inns & Suites. Retrieved on March 24, 2010.
  23. ^ "We'd Love to Hear From You." Omni Hotels. Retrieved on February 9, 2009.
  24. ^ http://www.nch.com/
  25. ^ http://www.trustsm.com/pages-main/about_us.htm
  26. ^ http://www.lxicorp.com/about_us/contact/contact_us.html
  27. ^ "Certlist.htm." United States Department of Transportation. Retrieved on August 11, 2009.
  28. ^ "Online Trading Academy Locations". Retrieved March 3, 2012. 
  29. ^ "Terms and Conditions." Boy Scouts of America. Retrieved on November 26, 2009.
  30. ^ "BlackBerry — Contact". RIM. Retrieved 23 January 2013. 
  31. ^ Formby, Brandon. "Irving goes wet - narrowly." The Dallas Morning News. Wednesday November 5, 2008. Retrieved on November 28, 2008.[dead link]
  32. ^ Kesmodel, David. "Irving, Texas, Alcohol Ban Faces Nov. 4 Challenge." The Wall Street Journal. November 2, 2008. Retrieved on November 28, 2008.
  33. ^ Mann, Dave. "White Man’s Burden." Texas Observer. August 21, 2009. Retrieved on August 25, 2009.
  34. ^ "[1]." "[2]."
  35. ^ City of Irving CAFR Retrieved 2009-07-20
  36. ^ City of Irving Retrieved 2014-02-03
  37. ^ "Clinic Sites and Services:" Parkland Health & Hospital System. Retrieved on October 25, 2012.
  38. ^ "Post Office Location - IRVING MAIN OFFICE." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on May 6, 2009.
  39. ^ "Post Office Location - DOWNTOWN IRVING." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on May 6, 2009.
  40. ^ "Post Office Location - CARL RANGE." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on May 6, 2009.
  41. ^ "Post Office Location - CENTRAL IRVING." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on May 6, 2009.
  42. ^ "Post Office Location - LAS COLINAS." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on May 6, 2009.
  43. ^ "Post Office Location - VALLEY RANCH." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on November 26, 2009.
  44. ^ "City & State Links." City of Irving.
  45. ^ Morales, Katherine. "Residents working to retain superintendent of C-FB ISD Parents want board to counter Houston district's offer." The Dallas Morning News. Sunday December 30, 2001. Second Irving 3V. Retrieved on November 28, 2011.
  46. ^ "Home." Uplift Education. Retrieved on September 6, 2011. "Uplift Education, 606 E. Royal Lane, Irving TX 75039 214.276.0352"
  47. ^ "Infinity Preparatory." Uplift Education. Retrieved on September 6, 2011. "1401 S. MacArthur Blvd. Irving, TX 75060"
  48. ^ "North Hills Preparatory." Uplift Education. Retrieved on September 6, 2011. "606 E. Royal Lane Irving, TX 75039"
  49. ^ "Contact Us." Quest School. Retrieved on September 6, 2011. "Address: 1404 West Walnut Hill Lane Irving, Texas 75038"
  50. ^ Fort Worth Star-Telegram - Archives - "Irving artist gives his presidential portrait to Clintons" - Mon. Aug. 21,1995 - page 10A - Terry Lee Jones
  51. ^ ZZ Top has deep Dallas roots, Dallas Morning News, July 28, 2008
  52. ^ http://www.filmreference.com/film/31/Jim-Beaver.html
  53. ^ http://www.brian-bosworth.biographyinfo.org/
  54. ^ http://www.mahalo.com/Peter_MacNicol
  55. ^ http://www.cityofirving.org/news-articles/03-16-07.html
  56. ^ Paul Hill (flight director)
  57. ^ http://www.baseball-almanac.com/players/player.php?p=woodke02
  58. ^ http://www.akinayodele.net/biography.php
  59. ^ "1999". USA Today. 
  60. ^ http://www.houstontexans.com/team/player.asp?player_id=27
  61. ^ http://www.irvingisd.net/nimitzsports/facilities/
  62. ^ http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=5879536
  63. ^ J.R.'s Latest Q&A, http://www.jrsbarbq.com/, August 29, 2008
  64. ^ http://trackfield.teamusa.org/athlete/athlete/302
  65. ^ El Paso Music Scene, June 28, 2005, http://www.elpasomusicscene.com/interviews/david-garza.html
  66. ^ Hill, Gladwyn. "Evidence Against Oswald Described as Conclusive; Dallas Police Describe the Evidence Against Oswald as Enough to 'Clinch' the Case OFFICIAL EXPECTS NEW INFORMATION But Prosecutor Is Confident of Data for a Conviction-- Suspect Still Questioned Reports Photographs Had Rifle in Garage Wants to Talk Questioning Resumed." The New York Times. Sunday November 24, 1963. Retrieved on February 13, 2009.
  67. ^ "Gwyn Shea". cemetery.state.tx.us. Retrieved October 12, 2009. 
  68. ^ "Interactive City Directory". Sister Cities International. Retrieved 12 March 2014. 

External links[edit]