Isa-Beg Isaković

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Isa-Beg Ishaković
Native name İshakoğlu İsa Bey
Birth name Hranić or Pavlović
Allegiance Ottoman Empire
Years of service 15th century
Rank sanjakbey

Isa-Beg Ishaković (Turkish: İshakoğlu İsa Bey) was an Ottoman general of Bosnian origin and the first governor of the Ottoman province of Bosnia. He ruled during the 1450s and 1460s. He made much of the initial conquests for the Ottoman Empire in the region, and was one of the then Sultan's most trusted generals. He was succeeded by Gazi Husrev-beg.

Origin[edit]

There are two main theories about his identity.[1]

  • Isak Hranić Kosača, brother of Bosnian nobleman Stefan Vukčić Kosača who sent him to sultan Mehmed II as hostage and guarantee of his loyalty. After being adopted by Isak-beg (hence the surname Isaković) he was converted into Islam and had by contemporary measures a significant military and political career within the Ottoman Empire.[1]
  • Isak Hranić/Hranušić, taken prisoner when the akinci intruded a holding of the magnate family of Pavlović (lords of eastern Bosnia including medieval župa of Vrhbosna). He proved himself exceptionally able while a prisoner, so the akinci leader freed him (prompted him to leave the property, as well as his title).[1]

Life[edit]

Isa-Beg Isaković was appointed as sanjakbeg of Sanjak of Skopje in spring of 1439, instead of his father, Isak-Beg who was sent to lead military actions in Serbia.[2]

As governor of the province of Bosnia, Isa-Beg assured its future prosperity. He founded Sarajevo in 1461 in the former Bosnian province of Vrhbosna. Between then and 1463 he built the core of the city's Old Town district, including a mosque, a closed marketplace, a public bath, a hostel, and the Governor's castle (Saray), which gave the city its present name. In much the same way and year he also founded Novi Pazar in Serbia, rendered from Turkish: Yeni Pazar literally meaning new marketplace. In addition, he decided to built Novi Pazar eleven kilometers from medieval settlement Trgovište. At first he built a mosque, a marketplace, a public bath, a hostel, and a compound. The city was the capital of the Ottoman Sanjak of Novi Pazar that existed between the 15th and the 20th century as a constitutive part of Bosnia Eyalet. He is also responsible for establishing a number of other cities and towns in the region.

Isaković built many important buildings in Old Bazaar in Skopje in Skopje, like Cifte hammam, Kapan an, Isak-Beg's Mosque (dedicated to his father Isak-Beg, also known as Isaklija or Aladža), madressa and library (within Isak-Beg's Mosque, one of the first Islamic libraries in Europe[3]) and many other buildings that belonged to his endowment (vakuf).

He had three sons and a daughter, Muhamed, Mehmed-Beg, Masa Arifovic, and Ali-Beg.[citation needed]

Family tree[edit]

After Franz Babinger in the Encyclopedia of Islam:[4]

 
 
 
 
Pasha Yiğit Bey
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ishak Bey
 
 
 
 
Turahan Bey
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Isa Bey Isaković
 
Ahmed Bey
 
 
Ömer Bey
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Hasan Bey
 
 
Idris Bey
 

Annotations[edit]

  • Name: He is referred to as Isa-Beg Ishaković in most Serbo-Croatian sources. Some sources spell his surname "Isaković". Based on his possible origins, he may be referred to as Isak Hranić or Isak Pavlović.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Suljović 2010:

    Ta dvojenja idu u smjeru – da je riječ o bratu Stjepana Vukčića Kosače, koji ga je predao Mehmedu II kao garanciju lojalnosti. Po ovoj teoriji Isa-beg je, nakon što ga je usvojio Ishak-beg (otud prezime), konvertirao na islam, te za ondašnje prilike izgradio zavidnu vojničku i političku karijeru. Po drugima, Isak Hranić/Hranušić zarobljen je tijekom jednog upada akindžija na posjed velikaške obitelji Pavlović, inače gospodara velikog dijela Istočne Bosne, uključujući i srednjovjekovnu župu Vrhbosnu. U zarobljeništvu se dokazao kao izuzetno sposoban, što je vođu spomenutih akindžija potaknulo da mu ostavi imetak, ali i poziciju koju je obnašao. Potpuno drukčiji pristup na porijeklo Ishakovića imaju istraživanja historičarke umjetnosti Lidije Bogojević Kumbaradži iz Skoplja. Ona smatra da je rodonačelnik Ishakovića Pašajigit-beg iz Saruhana (Kapadokije), a da je Ishak-beg bio njegov sin. Zanimljivosti idu do mjere u kojoj se skopski begovi Kumbaradžije smatraju izravnim potomcima Isa-bega Ishakovića, o čemu posjeduju i autentičnu dokumentaciju. Iznad ulaza u nekadašnji bazar u Skopju, građevine koju je podigao Ishaković, stoji ploča o obnovi bazara. Natpis kazuje da su bazar obnovili begovi Kumbaradžije, nasljednici Isa-begov

  2. ^ Godišnjak (in Serbo-Croatian) (Sarajevo, SFR Yugoslavia: Društvo Istoričara Bosne i Hercegovine): 46. 1953. "To se najbolje vidi iz sadržine vijesti na osnovu koje znamo za njihovu prisutnost u Bosni 1438 godine, a još bolje iz činjenice da se u proljeće sljedeće godine ovdje pojavio novi skopski sandžakbeg Isa-beg, sin dotadašnjeg skopskog sandžaka Ishak bega koji je bio upućen na akcije u Srbiji" 
  3. ^ "AT-TAFSĪR AL-KABĪR". The European Library. Retrieved 23 December 2010. 
  4. ^ Babinger, Franz (1987) [1936]. "Turakhān Beg". In Houtsma, Martijn Theodoor. E.J. Brill's first encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913–1936, Volume VIII. Leiden: BRILL. pp. 876–878. ISBN 90-04-09794-5. 

Sources[edit]

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