Isaac Komnenos of Cyprus

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Cape Andreas, where Isaac is said to have been taken prisoner by the Crusaders

Isaac Komnenos or Comnenus (Greek: Ἰσαάκιος Κομνηνός, Isaakios Komnēnos; c. 1155 – 1195/1196), was the ruler of Cyprus from 1184 to 1191, before Richard I's conquest during the Third Crusade.

Family[edit]

He was a minor member of the Komnenos family. He was son of an unnamed Doukas Kamateros and Irene Komnene. His maternal grandparents were sebastokratōr Isaac Komnenos and his first wife Theodora.

His namesake maternal grandfather was the third son of John II Komnenos and Piroska of Hungary. He was the senior surviving son of John II at his death but his younger brother Manuel I Komnenos successfully claimed the throne for himself.

Both Isaacs should not be confused with the Byzantine emperor Isaac I Komnenos (1057–1059). He was an uncle of Alexios I Komnenos and great-uncle of John II.

Life[edit]

The following account of his life is mainly based on the Byzantine historian Niketas Choniates.

Emperor Manuel made Isaac governor of Isauria and the town of Tarsus in present-day eastern Turkey, where he started a war with the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia and was subsequently captured by the enemy. As Emperor Manuel had died in the meantime (1180), nobody seems to have greatly cared about Isaac's fate, and he remained a prisoner for a long time, which seems to have done nothing for improving his disposition in general. As he was married to an Armenian princess when on Cyprus, his terms of captivity may not have been too harsh.

Finally his aunt Theodora Komnene, who had an affair with the new Emperor Andronikos I Komnenos (1183–1185) convinced the Emperor to contribute to his ransom, as did his uncle Constantine Makrodoukas and Andronikos Doukas, another relative and a childhood friend, a sodomite and debaucher, as Niketas tells us. Strangely enough, the Templars (the Phreri, as Niketas Choniates calls them) contributed as well.

When Isaac was released in 1185, it was clear he had tired of the Imperial service. He used the rest of the money to hire a troop of mercenaries and sailed to Cyprus. He presented falsified imperial letters that ordered the local administration to obey him in everything and established himself as ruler of the island.

Arms of Isaac Komenos of Cyprus

Constantine Makrodoukas and Andronikos Doukas had had to stand surety for Isaac's fealty to the Emperor. When he failed to return, Andronikos I Komnenos had them arrested for treason, although Constantine had been his loyal supporter so far. Andronikos I was afraid that Isaac would try to usurp the throne, as a water-oracle conducted by the courtier Stephen Hagiochristophorites had given I (iota) as the initial of the next Emperor. When the prisoners were led out of prison to face the charges, Hagiochristophorites started to stone them and forced the others to join him. Both prisoners were then impaled at the front of the Mangana palace.

Another oracle gave the date when the next Emperor would start to rule, and Andronikos I was greatly relieved, as the time was much too short for Isaac to make the crossing from Cyprus.

Meanwhile Isaac had taken many other Romans into his service. He created an independent patriarch of Cyprus, who crowned him as emperor in 1185. According to Niketas Choniates, he soon started to plunder Cyprus, raping women and defiling virgins, imposing overly cruel punishments for crimes and stealing the possessions of the citizens. "Cypriots of high esteem, comparable to Job in riches now were seen begging in the streets, naked and hungry, if they were not put to the sword by this irascible tyrant." Furthermore, he had the foot of his old teacher Basil Pentakenos hacked off, which Niketas finds even more despicable.

In 1185 Isaac II Angelos became Emperor after a popular uprising at Constantinople. He raised a fleet of 70 ships to take back Cyprus. The fleet was under the command of John Kontostephanos and Alexios Komnenos, a nephew once removed of the Emperor. Neither seems to have been very fit, as John was quite old, and Alexios had been blinded by order of Andronikos I.

They landed in Cyprus, but Margaritone of Brindisi, a pirate in the service of King William II of Sicily (1166–1189) captured the ships after the troops had left them. Isaac, or more likely Margaritone, won a victory over the Byzantine troops and captured the captains, whom he took off to Sicily, while the rest of the sailors remained on Cyprus, to fend for themselves as best they could. "Only much later did they return home, if they had not perished altogether."

In 1191, Berengaria of Navarre the fiancée of the English King Richard I Lionheart, and also his sister Joan, the dowager Queen of Sicily, were traveling together when shipwrecked on Cyprus and then taken captive by Isaac. In retaliation Richard (whom Niketas calls "King of the Inglines") conquered the island while on his way to Tyre. Isaac was taken prisoner near Cape St. Andreas on the Karpass Peninsula, the northernmost tip of the island. According to tradition, Richard had promised Isaac not to put him into irons, so he kept him prisoner in chains of silver. Isaac was turned over to the Knights of St. John, who kept him imprisoned in Margat near Tripoli. Upon Richard I's return to Europe from the Third Crusade, he was imprisoned by Leopold V, Duke of Austria and Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor. As part of Richard I's ransom agreement, Isaac and his daughter were freed into the care of Leopold V, Duke of Austria,[1] for Leopold was the son of Theodora Comnena, Isaac's aunt.[2]

Isaac now traveled to the Sultanate of Rum, where he attempted to gain support against the new Byzantine Emperor Alexios III Angelos (1195–1203). However, Isaac's ambitions came to nothing, as he died by poisoning in 1195 or 1196.

Isaac is described as an irascible and violent man, "boiling with anger like a kettle on the fire", but Niketas clearly is not very partial to him. The cruelties attributed to him pale somewhat in comparison with Emperor Andronikos I. He seems to have been in league with William II of Sicily, who was a powerful thorn in the side of the Empire, which helped him to hold the island as long as he did, and had close connections to sultan Saladin as well.

His daughter[edit]

Isaac's daughter, whose name seems to be unrecorded (she is usually called the "Damsel of Cyprus" in the sources), joined Richard I's court when her father was deposed. She traveled to the Kingdom of England by sea with other ladies of this court, including Richard's sister Joan Plantagenet, former Queen Consort of Sicily, and his wife, Berengaria of Navarre. In 1194, as part of Richard I's ransom agreement, the Cypriot Princess was released into the care of Leopold V, Duke of Austria, a distant relative.[3]

Later she lived in Provence, where in 1199 she encountered Count Raymond VI of Toulouse and, once again, Joan Plantagenet, who was now Raymond's wife and pregnant with his second child. The couple split up suddenly and Raymond began a relationship (a marriage, some say) with Isaac's daughter. This was over by about 1202, when she married Thierry, an illegitimate son of Baldwin, Count of Flanders. These two sailed from Marseille in 1204, with a convoy of warriors who intended to join the Fourth Crusade and did not turn aside to Constantinople. On reaching Cyprus, the couple attempted to claim the island as inheritors of Isaac. The attempt failed, and they fled to Armenia.[4]

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ Boyle, The Troubador's Song, p.182
  2. ^ Boyle, p.83
  3. ^ Boyle, p.83, 182
  4. ^ Boyle, p.268

Bibliography[edit]

  • Boyle, David, The Troubador's Song: The Capture and Ransom of Richard I, Walker Publishing Company, 2005
  • Brudndage, J.A., ‘Richard the Lion-Heart and Byzantium’, Studies in Medieval Culture 6-7 (1970), 63-70 and reprinted in J.A. Brundage, The Crusades, Holy War and Canon Law, Variorum, 1991, No. IV
  • Coureas, Nicolas, 'To what extent was the crusaders’ capture of Cyprus impelled by strategic considerations', Epetêris 19 (1992), 197-202
  • Edbury, P.W., The Kingdom of Cyprus and the Crusades, 1191-1374, Cambridge University Press, 1991
  • Harris, Jonathan, Byzantium and the Crusades, Bloomsbury, 2nd ed., 2014. ISBN 978-1-78093-767-0
  • Harris, Jonathan, 'Collusion with the infidel as a pretext for military action against Byzantium', in Clash of Cultures: the Languages of Love and Hate, ed. S. Lambert and H. Nicholson, Brepols, 2012, pp. 99–117
  • The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, 1991
  • Rudt de Collenberg, W.H., 'L'empereur Isaac de Chypre et sa fille (1155–1207)', Byzantion 38 (1968), 123–77

External links[edit]