Isaac Titsingh

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Dutchmen with Courtesans in Nagasaki c.1800.

Isaac Titsingh FRS (10 January 1745 in Amsterdam – 2 February 1812 in Paris) was a Dutch surgeon, scholar, merchant-trader and ambassador.[1]

During a long career in East Asia, Titsingh was a senior official of the Dutch East India Company (Dutch: Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie or VOC). He represented the European trading company in exclusive official contact with Tokugawa Japan, traveling to Edo twice for audiences with the shogun and other high bakufu officials. He was the Dutch and VOC governor general in Chinsura, Bengal. Titsingh worked with his counterpart, Charles Cornwallis, who was governor general of the British East India Company. In 1795, Titsingh represented Dutch and VOC interests in China, where his reception at the court of the Qing Qianlong Emperor stood in stark contrast to the rebuff suffered by Britain's ambassador George Macartney in 1793, just prior to celebrations of Qianlong’s sixty-year reign. In China, Titsingh effectively functioned as ambassador for his country at the same time as he represented the Dutch East India Company as a trade representative.[1]

Early life of Isaac Titsingh[edit]

Isaac Titsingh was born in Amsterdam, the son of Albertus Titsingh and Catharina Bittner (Albertus Titsing's second wife). His baptism took place at the Amstelkerk in Amsterdam on 21 January 1745.[2] His father, Albertus Titsingh was a successful and prominent Amsterdam Surgeon. He thus possessed the means of having Isaac Titsingh brought up within the scope of an ‘enlightened education’ of the 18th century. Isaac Titsingh became a member of the Amsterdam Chirurgijngilde and received the degree of a Doctor of Law from Leiden University in January 1765.[3] In March 1764 Titsingh was appointed as a freeman and 1766 went within his employment to Batavia.[2]

Japan, 1779–1784[edit]

Dejima and Nagasaki Bay, circa 1820. Two Dutch ships and numerous Chinese trading junks are depicted.

Titsingh was the commercial Opperhoofd or chief factor in Japan between 1779-1780, 1781–1783, and in 1784. The singular importance of the head of the VOC in Japan during this period was enhanced by the Japanese policy of sakoku—imposed isolation.[4] Because of earlier religious proselytizing during this period, no European or Japanese could enter or leave the Japanese archipelago on penalty of death. The sole exception to this "closed door," was the VOC "factory" or trading post on the island of Dejima in Nagasaki Bay on the southern Japanese island of Kyūshū. During this period of seclusion, Titsingh is believed to have been the first Freemason in Japan.[5]

In this highly controlled context, the traders became the sole official conduit for trade and for scientific-cultural exchanges between Europe and Japan. The VOC Opperhoofd was accorded the status of a tributary of the Shogun; and twice he had to pay an obligatory annual visit of homage to the shogun in Edo. Given the scarcity of such opportunities, Titsingh's informal contacts with bakufu officials and Rangaku scholars in Edo may have been as important as his formal audiences with the shogun, Tokugawa Ieharu.[6]

During the 18th century there was an improvement of the social positions of the Dutch merchants and the treatment of the Dutch vis-à-vis the Japanese, who showed a higher degree of respect and recognition than in the centuries before.[7] Nevertheless, the average Opperhoofden was not interested in customs or the culture of the Japanese and therefore it can noted that Titsingh showed an almost incredible interest and distinguished himself as an attentive observer in the Japanese civilization for an European of his time compared to his fellow colleagues in Dejima.[8] Titsingh arrived in Nagasaki on the 15th August 1779, where he took over the factory from Arend Willem Feith. He thus established cordial and amicable relations between the interpreters and Japanese, as before his arrival there had been constant fights over trade issues and a deep hostility vis-à-vis the Japanese interpreter, which seemed in trade issues corrupt to the Dutch traders. During his first audience to Shogun Ieharu in Edo from the 25th March 1780 until his return on 5 April 1780 he met a lot of Japanese nobles with whom he in the future established vivid letter correspondence. He became incredibly prominent with the elite society of Edo and he became friends with several daimyos and retired daimyos of the area.[9] After a short return to Batavia in 1780 Titsingh returned to Nagasaki on the 12th August 1781, due to his successes with the Dutch-Japanese trade in Dejima.[10] In relation to the 4th English war, there were no Dutch shipping’s from Batavia in 1782 and thus the trading post in Dejima had been cut off from communications between Java and Japan during this year. In this year Titsingh stayed in his position as Opperhoofd and concerned himself with befriending Japanese scholars, deepening relations with Japanese friends and researching on all scopes of Japanese customs and culture. He also achieved, due to the absence of a Dutch shipping that year, important trade talks and great concessions with the Japanese on a long-debated discussion on an increased copper export from Japan to the Dutch traders.[11] All in all Titsingh, had stayed in Japan for three years and eight months and finally left Japan and Nagasaki, end of November 1784 to Batavia, where he arrived on 3 January 1785.[12]

India, 1785–1792[edit]

In 1785, Titsingh was appointed director of the trading post at Chinsura in Bengal. He seems to have savored the intellectual life of the European community.[original research?] Titsingh was described by William Jones, the philologist and Bengal jurist, as “the Mandarin of Chinsura.”[13]

Batavia, 1792–1793[edit]

Titsingh’s return to Batavia (now Jakarta, Indonesia) led to new positions as Ontvanger-Generaal (Treasurer) and later as Commissaris ter Zee (Maritime Commissioner).

While at Batavia, he met with Lord Macartney who was en route to China. Titsingh's comments were important factors in McCartney's decision to abandon a planned expedition to Japan in 1793. Mccartney's report to London explained:

"... the expediency of attempting an intercourse with the Japanese subsists in its full force. Tho from the conversations I had at Batavia with a Dutch Gentleman of a very liberal disposition who was several years resident in Japan, Isaac Titsingh, I collected nothing that could induce me to depend on a favorable reception there, I learned nothing to deter me from the trial. The risk would, at least, be personal, as we have hitherto there no trade to lose. And no moment, if any, could be so propitious for opening up a new trade with them , as when, from the present general confusion of affairs of the Dutch East India Company, their connection with the Japanese is greatly on the decline.[14]

China, 1794–1795[edit]

The only known contemporary image of Titsingh is in van Braam book about Titsingh embassy to the Qianlong Emperor's Court. Titsingh is the seated European wearing a hat.

Titsingh was appointed Dutch ambassador to the court of the Emperor of China for the celebrations of the sixtieth anniversary of the reign of the Qianlong Emperor. In Peking (now Beijing), the Titsingh delegation included Andreas Everardus van Braam Houckgeest[15] and Chrétien-Louis-Joseph de Guignes,[16] whose complementary accounts of this embassy to the Chinese court were published in the US and Europe.

Titsingh's gruelling, mid-winter trek from Canton (now Guangzhou) to Peking allowed him to see parts of inland China which had never before been accessible to Europeans. His party arrived in Peking in time for New Year's celebrations. By Chinese standards, Titsingh and his delegation were received with uncommon respect and honors in the Forbidden City, and later in the Yuanmingyuan (the Old Summer Palace).[17] Unlike the unsuccessful British embassy of the previous year under Lord George Macartney, Titsingh made every effort to conform with the demands of the complex Imperial court etiquette—including kowtowing to the Emperor.

Neither the Chinese nor the Europeans could have known that this would be the last appearance by any European ambassador at the Imperial court until after the First and Second Opium Wars of the next century. Titsingh is believed to have been the first Freemason in China,[18] and the only to be received at the court of the Qianlong Emperor.

Return to Europe, 1796–1812[edit]

Mary Camper-Titsingh with her granddaughter, Meriah Druliner, at Père-Lachaise -- July 13, 1996
Japanese acupuncture mannequin from the Titsingh estate. Musée d'histoire de la médecine, Paris.

Titsingh died in Paris (February 2, 1812), and is buried in the Père-Lachaise cemetery. His gravestone reads: "Ici repose Isaac Titsingh. Ancien conseiller des Indes hollandaises. Ambassadeur à la Chine et au Japon. Mort à Paris le 2 février 1812, agé de 68 ans." [Here lies Isaac Titsingh, formerly a councillor of the Dutch East India Company, Ambassador to China and to Japan. Died at Paris the 2nd of February 1812, aged 68 years.]

Titsingh's library and his collection of art, cultural and scientific material was dispersed; and some entered the collections of the French state. Among the Japanese books brought to Europe by Titsingh, was a copy of Sangoku Tsūran Zusetsu (三国通覧図説 An Illustrated Description of Three Countries?) by Hayashi Shihei (1738–93). This book, which was published in Japan in 1785, deals with Chosen (now Korea), the Ryukyu Kingdom (now Okinawa), and Ezo ( now Hokkaido).[19] In Paris, the text represented the first appearance of Korean han'gŭl in Europe.[20] After Titsingh's death, the printed original and Titsingh's translation were purchased by Jean-Pierre Abel-Rémusat (1788–1832) at the Collège de France.[21] After Rémusat's death, Julius Klaproth (1783-1735) at the Institut Royal in Paris was free in 1832 to publish his edited version of Titsingh's translation.[22]

Legacy[edit]

Isaac Titsingh can be described as being the only philosophique employed by the VOC in its almost two hundred years existence and most sophisticated of all VOC employees in the trading post history of the VOC in Japan (1600-1853). Due to his extensive private correspondence on religious as well as human topics and his endeavours in the exchanges between the outside world and his own, designate him as a true philosopher of the 18th century.[23] Compared to the other VOC employees he was a polyglot, who spoke seven languages (Latin, French, English, German, Portuguese, Japanese and Chinese). His enthusiasm to introduce the European society to Japanese customs, culture was rooted in his overall passion for Japan and everything Japanese. Therefore he became a prominent figure, transmitter and interpreter in a two-way cultural, learning and knowledge exchange between the Japanese and the Europeans. For example he imported Dutch books on European knowledge to Japan. In addition, he collected authentic source materials on Japan, which consisted of the first ever European collection on Japan, entailing printed books, manuscripts, prints, maps city plans and coins. This collection was thus to form the basis of a then unique history of Japan. This Cabinet Titsingh, consisted hence of two-dimensional materials. Isaac Titsingh can as a result be seen as the founder of European Japonology.[24] Within this scope and his ambitions for a friendly exchange of knowledge, he urged the VOC officials to send learned employees, who could speak Japanese to the trading post in Deshima, to better the European-Japanese relations in Dejima, which can be found in his letter of 28 August 1785 .[25]

Titsingh had also translated as one of the first Europeans Japanese verses into Latin verses, which can be found together with an essay on Japanese poetry in his collection work on Japanese customs and culture in Bijzonderheden over Japan/Illustrations of Japan.[26]

Additionally, due to his position as a ‘voyageur philosophique’.[27] Titsingh had been a member of the following societies: the Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen, the Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen, located in Haarlem, the Asiatic Society of Bengal located in Calcutta and the Royal Society of London.[28]

His posthumous work and legacy, especially his collections were to some extent blurred later as he was unable to find Japanese or Chinese translators and scholars in Europe that could help him with the translation of his gathered sources. As his own knowledge of the Sino-Japanese written characters was limited he could only edit the translations of the Japanese accounts that were already prepared by himself and others in Dejima during his stay abroad. The majority of his work thus was published posthumously and consisted of only small parts of his broader overall work. Moreover, some parts were altered and modified to a great extent by his editors and publishers. This was due to the fact that after the bankruptcy of Titsingh’s son Willem Titsingh sold the collections and manuscripts, which then were spread all over 19th century Europe.[29]

Titsingh’s experiences and scholarly research were the genesis for published articles and books. The Batavian Academy of Arts and Sciences (Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen) published seven of Titsingh's articles about Japan.[30]

His accounts of brewing sake[31] and soy sauce[32] production in Japan were the earliest to be published in a Western language. His work was more widely disseminated throughout Europe by the beginning of the 19th century.[33]

Titsingh's published compilation of a preliminary Japanese lexicon [34] was only the early evidence of a project which continued for the rest of his life.

On Isaac Titsingh's values and perceptions[edit]

Titsingh was very keen on having his scholarly questions answered and showed an enormous inexhaustible thirst for knowledge.[35] Looking at his private correspondence three mottos of his behaviour and values can be identified: the rejection of money, as it did not satisfy his enormous thirst of knowledge; an acknowledgment and consciousness of the brevity of life and wasting this precious time not with featureless activities; and his desire to die in calmness, as a “forgotten citizen of the world”.[36] In this light he displayed the values of a European philosopher of the 18th century, who was as well interested in his fellow Japanese scholars. Therefore he also acknowledged their intellectual competences and sophistication and contributed to an intense exchange of cultural knowledge between Japan and Europe in the 18th century.[26][37]

Selected works[edit]

Titsingh's text attempts to present the Japanese in the context of their own narratives. This title page is from the 1822 English version of the French original which was published two years earlier.

In a statistical overview derived from writings by and about Seki Takakau, OCLC/WorldCat encompasses roughly 90+ works in 150+ publications in 7 languages and 1,600+ library holdings.[38]

• 1781 --"Bereiding van saké en soya," in Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen (Transactions of the Batavian society of arts and sciences), Vol. III, Batavia.[39]

• 1814 -- "Ieso-Ki, ou Description d'Yeso, par Arai-Tsi-kogo-no-Kami, Instituteur du Ziogoen (empereur militaire) Tsoena-Josi, écrite en 1720. Ieso-Ki ou Description d'Yeso, avec l'histoire de la révolte de Sam-say-In, par Kannamon, interprète japonais, écrite en 1752. Notice de deux cartes japonais, manuscrites, communiquées par M. Titsingh," in Annales des voyages, Vol. XXIV, Paris.[40]

• 1819 -- Cérémonies usitées au Japon pour les mariages et les funérailles (Ceremonies Performed at Marriages and Funerals in Japan).[1] Paris: Nepveu. OCLC [//www.worldcat.org/oclc/185485254 185485254].[39]

• 1820 -- Mémoires et anecdotes sur la dynastie régnante des djogouns, souverains du Japon (Memories of and Anecdotes about the Reigning Dynasty of Shoguns, Sovereigns of Japan),[1] avec la description des fêtes et cérémonies observées aux différentes époques de l'année à la cour de ces princes, et un appendice contenant des détails sur la poésie des Japonais, leur manière de diviser l'année, etc.; Ouvrage orné de Planches gravées et coloriées, tiré des Originaux Japonais par M. Titsingh; publié avec des notes et éclaircissemens Par M. Abel Rémusat. Paris: Nepveu. OCLC [//www.worldcat.org/oclc/255146140 255146140].[39]

• 1822 -- Illustrations of Japan; consisting of Private Memoirs and Anecdotes of the reigning dynasty of The Djogouns, or Sovereigns of Japan; a description of the Feasts and Ceremonies observed throughout the year at their Court; and of the Ceremonies customary at Marriages and Funerals: to which are subjoined, observations on the legal suicide of the Japanese, remarks on their poetry, an explanation of their mode of reckoning time, particulars respecting the Dosia powder, the preface of a work by Confoutzee on filial piety, &c. &c. by M. Titsingh formerly Chief Agent to the Dutch East India Company at Nangasaki. Translated from the French, by Frederic Shoberl with coloured plates, faithfully copied from Japanese original designs. London: R. Ackermann. OCLC [//www.worldcat.org/oclc/5911523 5911523].[39]

Element of a wedding ceremony

• 1824 -- Bijzonderheden over Japan: behelzende een verslag van de huwelijks plegtigheden, begrafenissen en feesten der Japanezen, de gedenkschriften der laatste Japansche Keizers en andere merkwaardigheden nepens dat Ryk. Uit het Engelsch, met gekleurde platen naar Japansche originelen. S Gravenhage: De Wed. J. Allart. OCLC [//www.worldcat.org/oclc/7472268 7472268].[39]

• 1834 -- [Siyun-sai Rin-siyo/Hayashi Gahō, (1652)] Nihon Ōdai Ichiran (Nipon o daï itsi ran); ou, Annales des empereurs du Japon, tr. par M. Isaac Titsingh avec l'aide de plusieurs interprètes attachés au comptoir hollandais de Nangasaki; ouvrage re., complété et cor. sur l'original japonais-chinois, accompagné de notes et précédé d'un Aperçu d'histoire mythologique du Japon, par M. J. Klaproth. Paris: Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC [//www.worldcat.org/oclc/84067437 84067437].[39]

See also[edit]

Media related to Isaac Titsingh at Wikimedia Commons

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Isaak Titsingh" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 966, p. 966, at Google Books.
  2. ^ a b Boxer, C.R. (1950). Jan Compagnie in Japan, 1600-1850. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. p. 135. 
  3. ^ Lequin, Frank. "Isaac Titsingh's Private Correspondence (1783-1812) as the reflection of an enlightend 'voyageur philosophique'". 東京大学史料編纂所研究紀要 / 東京大学史料編纂所 編 17 (3): 2. 
  4. ^ Edo-Tokyo Museum exhibition catalog. (2000). A Very Unique Collection of Historical Significance: The Kapitan (the Dutch Chief) Collection from the Edo Period -- The Dutch Fascination with Japan, p. 207.
  5. ^ Far East Lodge No. 1, "A Brief History of Freemasonry in Japan;" excerpt, Titsingh "is believed to be the first mason to visit Japan" in 1779
  6. ^ Edo-Tokyo Museum exhibition catalog, p. 210.
  7. ^ Boxer, C.R. (1950). Jan Compagnie in Japan, 1600-1850. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. p. 138. 
  8. ^ Boxer, C.R (1950). Jan Compagnie in Japan, 1600-1850. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. p. 140. 
  9. ^ Boxer, C.R. (1950). Jan Compagnie in Japan, 1600-1850. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. p. 142. 
  10. ^ Boxer, C.R. (1950). Jan Compagnie in Japan, 1600-1850. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. p. 143. 
  11. ^ Boxer, C.R. (1950). Jan Compagnie in Japan, 1600-1850. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. p. 144. 
  12. ^ Boxer, C.R. (1950). Jan Compagnie in Japan, 1600- 1850. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. p. 145. 
  13. ^ Jones, William. (1835). Memoirs of the life, writings and correspondence of Sir William Jones, by Lord Teignmouth. London.
  14. ^ Macartney to Dundas, 23 December 1793, British Library, India and Oriental, Factory Records, China, 1084 G/12/20.
  15. ^ van Braam Houckgeest, Andreas Everardus. (1797). Voyage de l'ambassade de la Compagnie des Indes Orientales hollandaises vers l'empereur de la Chine, dans les années 1794 et 1795; see also 1798 English translation: An authentic account of the embassy of the Dutch East-India company, to the court of the emperor of China, in the years 1974 and 1795, Vol. I.
  16. ^ de Guignes, Chrétien-Louis-Joseph (1808). Voyage a Pékin, Manille et l'Ile de France.
  17. ^ van Braam, An authentic account..., Vol. I (1798 English edition) pp. 283-284.
  18. ^ Screech, Timon. (2006). Secret Memoirs of the Shoguns: Isaac Titsingh and Japan, 1779-1822, p. 58., p. 58, at Google Books: excerpt, "Titsingh became the first Freemason ever to set foot in China" in 1794-1795.
  19. ^ Cullen, Louis M. (2003). A History of Japan, 1582-1941: Internal and External Worlds, p. 137.
  20. ^ Vos, Ken. "Accidental acquisitions: The nineteenth-century Korean collections in the National Museum of Ethnology, Part 1," p. 6.
  21. ^ Kublin, Hyman. "The Discovery of the Bonin Islands: A Reexamination," Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 43, Issue 1 (March 1, 1953). p. 35.
  22. ^ Pouillon, François. (2008). Dictionnaire des orientalistes de langue française, p. 542.
  23. ^ Lequin, Frank (2007). "Isaac Titsingh’s Private Correspondence (1783-1812) as the Reflection of an Enlightened ’Voyageur Philosophique’". , 東京大学史料編纂所研究紀要 / 東京大学史料編纂所 編 17 (3): 2. 
  24. ^ Lequin, Frank (2007). "Isaac Titsingh’s Private Correspondence (1783-1812) as the Reflection of an Enlightened ’Voyageur Philosophique’". 東京大学史料編纂所研究紀要 / 東京大学史料編纂所 編, 17 (3): 3–5. 
  25. ^ Lequin, Frank (2007). "Isaac Titsingh’s Private Correspondence (1783-1812) as the Reflection of an Enlightened ’Voyageur Philosophique’". 東京大学史料編纂所研究紀要 / 東京大学史料編纂所 編 17 (3): 6. 
  26. ^ a b Boxer, C.R. (1950). Jan Compagnie in Japan, 1600-1850. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. p. 170. 
  27. ^ Lequin, Frank (2007). "Isaac Titsingh’s Private Correspondence (1783-1812) as the Reflection of an Enlightened ’Voyageur Philosophique’". 東京大学史料編纂所研究紀要 / 東京大学史料編纂所 編 17 (3): 1. 
  28. ^ Lequin, Frank. "Isaac Titsingh’s Private Correspondence (1783-1812) as the Reflection of an Enlightened ’Voyageur Philosophique’". , 東京大学史料編纂所研究紀要 / 東京大学史料編纂所 編 17 (3): 2. 
  29. ^ Boxer, C.R. (1950). Jan Compagnie in Japan, 1600-1850. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. pp. 168–169. 
  30. ^ viaLibri: Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen: Verhandelingen (Batavian Academy of Arts and Sciences: Transactions).
  31. ^ Titsingh, Isaac. (1781). "Bereiding van de Sacki" ("Producing Sake"), Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap (Transactions of the Batabian Academy), Vol. III. OCLC [//www.worldcat.org/oclc/9752305 9752305]
  32. ^ Titsingh, Isaac. (1781). "Bereiding van de Soya" ("Producing Soy Sauce"), Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap (Transactions of the Batavian Academy), Vol. III. OCLC [//www.worldcat.org/oclc/9752305 9752305]
  33. ^ Morewood, Samuel. (1824). An Essay on the Inventions and Customs of Both Ancients and Moderns in the Use of Inebriating Liquors, p. 136.
  34. ^ Titsingh, Isaac. (1781). "Eenige Japansche Woorden" ("Some Japanese Words"), Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap (Transactions of the Batabian Academy), Vol. III. OCLC [//www.worldcat.org/oclc/9752305 9752305]
  35. ^ Lequin, Frank (2007). "Isaac Titsingh’s Private Correspondence (1783-1812) as the Reflection of an Enlightened ’Voyageur Philosophique’". 東京大学史料編纂所研究紀要 / 東京大学史料編纂所 編 17 (3): 5. 
  36. ^ Lequin, Frank. "Isaac Titsingh’s Private Correspondence (1783-1812) as the Reflection of an Enlightened ’Voyageur Philosophique’". 東京大学史料編纂所研究紀要 / 東京大学史料編纂所 編, 17 (3): 7. 
  37. ^ Boxer, C.R. (1950). Jan Compagnie in Japan, 1600-1850. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. p. 146. 
  38. ^ WorldCat Identities: Titsingh, Isaac 1744-1812
  39. ^ a b c d e f Boxer, Charles Ralph. (1936). Jan Compagnie in Japan, 1600-1850: an essay on the cultural, artistic and scientific influence exercised by the Hollanders in Japan from the seventeenth to the nineteenth centuries, p. 172.
  40. ^ Boxer, p. 172; Malte-Brun, Conrad et al. (1853). Géographie universelle, p. 209.

References[edit]

  • Association of American Geographers. (1911). Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. I.
  • Boxer, Charles Ralph. (1936). Jan Compagnie in Japan, 1600-1850: an essay on the cultural, artistic and scientific influence exercised by the Hollanders in Japan from the seventeenth to the nineteenth centuries. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. OCLC [//www.worldcat.org/oclc/221034415 221034415]
  • Boxer, C.R. (1950). "Jan Compagnie in Japan, 1600-1850, an essay on the cultural, artistic and scientific influence exercised by the Hollanders in Japan from the seventeenth to the nineteenth centuries." The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.
  • Duyvendak, J.J.L. (1937). "The Last Dutch Embassy to the Chinese Court (1794-1795)." T'oung Pao 33:1-137.
  • Edo-Tokyo Museum exhibition catalog. (2000). A Very Unique Collection of Historical Significance: The Kapitan (the Dutch Chief) Collection from the Edo Period—The Dutch Fascination with Japan. Catalog of "400th Anniversary Exhibition Regarding Relations between Japan and the Netherlands," a joint-project of the Edo-Tokyo Museum, the City of Nagasaki, the National Museum of Ethnology, the National Natuurhistorisch Museum and the National Herbarium of the Netherlands in Leiden, the Netherlands. Tokyo.
  • de Guignes, Chrétien-Louis-Joseph. (1808). Voyage a Pékin, Manille et l'Ile de France. Paris.
  • Jones, William. (1835). Memoirs of the life, writings and correspondence of Sir William Jones, by Lord Teignmouth. London.
  • Lequin, F. (2007). International Research Symposium on Foreign Historical Documents Relating to Japan: Titsingh and Sebold. "Isaac Titsingh’s Private Correspondence (1783-1812) as the Reflection of an Enlightened ’Voyageur Philosophique’", 東京大学史料編纂所研究紀要 / 東京大学史料編纂所 編, 17, pp.1-22.
  • (English) Lequin, F. (2013). Varia Titsinghiana. Addenda & corrigenda. Leiden. (Titsingh Studies, vol. 6) ISBN 978-90-820366-0-2
  • (Dutch) _____. (2011) Isaac Titsingh, opperhoofd van Japan. Drie geschriften als filosoof, diplomaat & koopman. Alphen aan den Rijn. (Titsingh Studies, vol. 5) ISBN 978-90-6469-858-3
  • (French) _____. (2009) De particuliere correspondentie van Isaac Titsingh (1783-1812). Alphen aan den Rijn. 2 vols. (Titsingh Studies, vol. 4) ISBN 978-90-6469-846-0
  • (Dutch) _____. (2005) Isaac Titsingh in China (1794-1796). Alphen aan den Rijn. (Titsingh Studies, vol. 3) ISBN 90-6469-809-0
  • (English) _____. (2003) À la recherche du Cabinet Titsingh. Its history, contents and dispersal. Catalogue raisonné of the collection of the founder of European Japanology. Alphen aan den Rijn. (Titsingh Studies, vol. 2) ISBN 90-6469-794-9
  • (Dutch) _____. (2002). Isaac Titsingh (1745-1812). Een passie voor Japan, leven en werk van de grondlegger van de Europese Japanologie. Leiden. (Titsingh Studies, vol. 1) ISBN 90-6469-771-X
  • (English) _____. (1990-92). The Private Correspondence of Isaac Titsingh. Amsterdam. (Japonica Neerlandica, vol. 4-5). 2 vols. 1: ISBN 0-506-30529-2: ISBN 90-5063-057-X
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External links[edit]

Preceded by
Arend Willem Feith
VOC Opperhoofd of
Dejima

1779–1784
Succeeded by
Hendrik Casper Romberg