Judas Iscariot

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Iscariot)
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the biblical figure. For the band, see Judas Iscariot (band).
Judas Iscariot (right), retiring from the Last Supper, painting by Carl Bloch, late 19th century

Judas Iscariot (Hebrew: יהודה‎, Yəhûḏāh) was, according to the New Testament, one of the twelve original apostles of Jesus Christ, and the son of Simon Iscariot. He is notoriously known for his kiss and betrayal of Jesus to the hands of the chief Sanhedrin priests in exchange for a payment of thirty silver coins.[1] His name is often invoked to accuse someone of betrayal, and is sometimes confused with Jude Thaddeus.

Though there are varied accounts of his death, the traditional version sees him as having hanged himself out of remorse following his betrayal. His place among the Twelve Apostles was later filled by Matthias. Tradition holds that he was the first apostle to die, and that he and John were the only apostles not to die a martyr's death.

Despite his notorious role in the Gospel narratives, Judas is still somewhat of an ambivalent figure in Christian history. Judas' betrayal, for instance, set in motion the events that lead to Jesus' Crucifixion and Resurrection, which, according to traditional Christian theology, brought salvation to humanity. Gnostic texts actually praise Judas for his role in triggering humanity's alleged salvation, and view Judas as the best of the apostles.[2]

Etymology[edit]

In the Greek New Testament, Judas is called Ιούδας Ισκάριωθ and Ισκαριώτης. "Judas" (spelled "Ioudas" in ancient Greek and "Iudas" in Latin, pronounced yudas in both) is the Greek form of the common name Judah (יהודה, Yehûdâh, Hebrew for "God is praised"). The Greek spelling underlies other names in the New Testament that are traditionally rendered differently in English: Judah and Jude. The significance of "Iscariot" is uncertain. There are several major theories on etymology:

  • One popular explanation derives Iscariot from Hebrew איש־קריות, Κ-Qrîyôth, or "man of Kerioth". The Gospel of John refers to Judas as "son of Simon Iscariot" (although some translations only refer to him as "the son of Simon" (Jn 6:71, Jn 13:26, King James Version)),[3] implying it was not Judas, but his father, who came from there.[4] Some speculate that Kerioth refers to a region in Judea, but it is also the name of two known Judean towns.[5]
  • A second theory is that "Iscariot" identifies Judas as a member of the sicarii.[6] These were a cadre of assassins among Jewish rebels intent on driving the Romans out of Judea. However, some historians maintain the sicarii arose in the 40s or 50s of the 1st century, in which case Judas could not have been a member.[7]
  • A third possibility advanced by Ernst Wilhelm Hengstenberg is that Iscariot means "the liar" or "the false one," perhaps from the Hebrew אִשְׁקַרְיָא.[8]
  • Fourth, some have proposed that the word derives from an Aramaic word meaning "red color," from the root סקר.[8]
  • Fifth, the word derives from one of the Aramaic roots סכר or סגר. This would mean "to deliver," based on the LXX rendering of Isaiah 19:4a—a theory advanced by J. Alfred Morin.[9]
  • Finally, the epithet could be associated with the manner of Judas' death, i.e., hanging. This would mean Iscariot derives from a kind of Greek-Aramaic hybrid: אִסְכַּרְיוּתָא, Iskarioutha, "chokiness" or "constriction." This might indicate that the epithet was applied posthumously by the remaining disciples, but Joan E. Taylor has argued that it was a descriptive name given to Judas by Jesus, since other disciples such as Simon Peter/Cephas (Kephas = "rock") were also given such names.[10]

Role as an apostle[edit]

Judas is mentioned in the synoptic gospels, the Gospel of John and at the beginning of Acts of the Apostles. Judas was a common name in New Testament times. Judas Iscariot should not be confused with Jude Thomas (Saint Thomas the Apostle), or with Saint Jude Thaddaeus who was also one of the Twelve Apostles.

Mark states that the chief priests were looking for a sly way to arrest Jesus. They decided not to do so during the feast since they were afraid that people would riot; instead, they chose the night before the feast to arrest him. In the Gospel of Luke, Satan enters Judas at this time.[11]

According to the account in the Gospel of John, Judas carried the disciples' money bag.[12] He betrayed Jesus for a bribe of "thirty pieces of silver"[13][14] by identifying him with a kiss — "the kiss of Judas" — to arresting soldiers of the High Priest Caiaphas, who then turned Jesus over to Pontius Pilate's soldiers.

The death of Judas in Biblical accounts[edit]

Judas Iscariot from Tarzhishte Monastery, Strupets, Bulgaria, 16th-century fresco

There are a few descriptions of the death of Judas, two of which are included in the modern Biblical canon:

  • Matthew 27:310 says that Judas returned the money to the priests and committed suicide by hanging himself. They used it to buy the potter's field. The Gospel account presents this as a fulfillment of prophecy.[15]
  • The Acts of the Apostles says that Judas used the money to buy a field, but fell headfirst, and burst asunder in the midst, and all his bowels gushed out. This field is called Akeldama or Field of Blood.[16]
  • The non-canonical Gospel of Judas says Judas had a vision of the disciples stoning and persecuting him.[17]
  • Another account was preserved by the early Christian leader, Papias: "Judas walked about in this world a sad example of impiety; for his body having swollen to such an extent that he could not pass where a chariot could pass easily, he was crushed by the chariot, so that his bowels gushed out."[18]

The existence of conflicting accounts of the death of Judas has caused problems for scholars who have seen them as threatening the reliability of Scripture.[19] This problem was one of the points causing C. S. Lewis, for example, to reject the view "that every statement in Scripture must be historical truth".[20] Various attempts at harmonization have been suggested, such as that of Augustine that Judas hanged himself in the field, and the rope eventually snapped and the fall burst his body open,[19][21] or that the accounts of Acts and Matthew refer to two different transactions.[22]

Modern scholars tend to reject these approaches[23][24][25] stating that the Matthew account is a midrashic exposition that allows the author to present the event as a fulfillment of prophetic passages from the Old Testament. They argue that the author adds imaginative details such as the thirty pieces of silver, and the fact that Judas hangs himself, to an earlier tradition about Judas' death.[26]

Matthew's description of the death as fulfilment of a prophecy "spoken through Jeremiah the prophet" has caused difficulties, since it does not clearly correspond to any known version of the Book of Jeremiah but does appear to refer to a story from the Book of Zechariah[27] which describes the return of a payment of thirty pieces of silver.[28] Even writers such as Jerome and John Calvin concluded that this was obviously an error.[29]

More recently, scholars have suggested that the Gospel writer may also have had a passage from Jeremiah in mind,[30] such as chapters 18:1–4 and 19:1–13 which refers to a potter's jar and a burial place, and chapter 32:6–15 which refers to a burial place and an earthenware jar.[31] Raymond Brown suggested, "the most plausible [explanation] is that Matthew 27:9–10 is presenting a mixed citation with words taken both from Zechariah and Jeremiah, and ...he refers to that combination by one name. Jeremiah 18–9 concerns a potter (18:2–; 19:1), a purchase (19:1), the Valley of Hinnom (where the Field of Blood is traditionally located, 19:2), ‘innocent blood’(19:4), and the renaming of a place for burial (19:6, 11); and Jer 32:6–5 tells of the purchase of a field with silver."[32] Randel Helms gives this as an example of the 'fictional and imaginative' use by early Christians of the Old Testament: "Matthew's source has blended Jeremiah's buying of a field and placing the deed in a pot with Zechariah's casting of thirty pieces of silver down in the temple and the purchase of the Potter's Field. The story of Judas's actions after the betrayal is one of the most revealing examples of the early Christians' fictional and imaginative use of the Old Testament as a book about Jesus. "[33]

Theology[edit]

Betrayal of Jesus[edit]

The kiss of Judas Iscariot, coloured engraving, 15th century.

There are several explanations as to why Judas betrayed Jesus.[34] In the earliest account, in the Gospel of Mark, when he goes to the chief priests to betray Jesus, he is offered money as a reward, but it is not clear that money is his motivation.[35] In the Gospel of Matthew account, on the other hand, he asks what they will pay him for handing Jesus over.[36] In the Gospel of Luke[37] and the Gospel of John,[38] Satan 'enters into' Judas, causing him to offer to betray Jesus. The Gospel of John account has Judas complaining that money has been spent on expensive perfumes to anoint Jesus which could have been spent on the poor, but adds that he was the keeper of the apostles' purse and used to steal from it.[39]

One suggestion has been that Judas expected Jesus to overthrow Roman rule of Israel. In this view, Judas is a disillusioned disciple betraying Jesus not so much because he loved money, but because he loved his country and thought Jesus had failed it.[40] Another is that Jesus was causing unrest likely to increase tensions with the Roman authorities and they thought he should be restrained until after the Passover, when everyone had gone back home and the commotion had died down.[41]

The Gospels suggest that Jesus foresaw (John 6:64, Matthew 26:25) and allowed Judas's betrayal (John 13:27–28).[42] One explanation is that Jesus allowed the betrayal because it would allow God's plan to be fulfilled. Another is that regardless of the betrayal, Jesus was ultimately destined for crucifixion.[43] In April 2006, a Coptic papyrus manuscript titled the Gospel of Judas from 200 AD was translated, suggesting that Jesus told Judas to betray him,[44] although some scholars question the translation.[45][46]

Judas is the subject of philosophical writings, including The Problem of Natural Evil by Bertrand Russell and "Three Versions of Judas", a short story by Jorge Luis Borges. They allege various problematic ideological contradictions with the discrepancy between Judas's actions and his eternal punishment. John S. Feinberg argues that if Jesus foresees Judas's betrayal, then the betrayal is not an act of free will,[47] and therefore should not be punishable. Conversely, it is argued that just because the betrayal was foretold, it does not prevent Judas from exercising his own free will in this matter.[48] Other scholars argue that Judas acted in obedience to God's will.[49] The gospels suggest that Judas is apparently bound up with the fulfillment of God's purposes (John 13:18, John 17:12, Matthew 26:23–25, Luke 22:21–22, Matt 27:9–10, Acts 1:16, Acts 1:20),[42] yet woe is upon him, and he would have been better unborn (Matthew 26:23–25). The difficulty inherent in the saying is its paradoxicality: if Judas had not been born, the Son of Man would apparently no longer do "as it is written of him." The consequence of this apologetic approach is that Judas's actions come to be seen as necessary and unavoidable, yet leading to condemnation.[50]

Erasmus believed that Judas was free to change his intention, but Martin Luther argued in rebuttal that Judas's will was immutable. John Calvin states that Judas was predestined to damnation, but writes on the question of Judas's guilt: "surely in Judas' betrayal, it will be no more right, because God himself willed that his son be delivered up and delivered him up to death, to ascribe the guilt of the crime to God than to transfer the credit for redemption to Judas."[51] The Catholic Church has no view on his damnation. The Vatican only proclaims individuals' Eternal Salvation through the Canon of Saints. There is no 'Canon of the Damned', nor any official proclamation of the damnation of Judas.

It is speculated that Judas's damnation, which seems possible from the Gospels' text, may not stem from his betrayal of Christ, but from the despair which caused him to subsequently commit suicide.[52] This position is not without its problems since Judas was already damned by Jesus even before he committed suicide (see John 17:12), but it does avoid the paradox of Judas's predestined act setting in motion both the salvation of all mankind and his own damnation.

The Kiss of Judas, by Giotto di Bondone

Modern interpretations[edit]

Reenactment of the hanging of Judas during a Passion Play in Texcoco, Mexico

The betrayal of Jesus by one of his disciples is widely regarded by scholars as authentic, based on the criterion of embarrassment: it is considered unlikely that the early church would have invented this tradition, since it appears to reflect badly on Jesus.[53]

In his 1965 book The Passover Plot British New Testament scholar Hugh J. Schonfield suggested that the crucifixion of Christ was a conscious re-enactment of Biblical prophecy and that Judas acted with the full knowledge and consent of Jesus in "betraying" him to the authorities. The book has been variously described as 'factually groundless',[54] based on 'little data' and 'wild suppositions',[55] 'disturbing' and 'tawdry'.[56]

Bart Ehrman, though suggesting that the betrayal is "about as historically certain as anything else in the tradition", argues that what was betrayed was not the whereabouts of Jesus, but his private teachings.[57]

Theologian Aaron Saari contends in his work The Many Deaths of Judas Iscariot that Judas Iscariot was the literary invention of the Markan community. As Judas does not appear in the Epistles of Paul, Saari argues that the language indicates a split between Pauline Christians, who saw no reason for the establishment of an organized Church, and the followers of Peter. Saari contends that the denigration of Judas in Matthew and Luke-Acts has a direct correlation to the elevation of Peter.[58]

In his book The Sins of Scripture, John Shelby Spong says 'the whole story of Judas has the feeling of being contrived'.[59] He writes, "the act of betrayal by a member of the twelve disciples is not found in the earliest Christian writings. Judas is first placed into the Christian story by the Gospel of Mark (3:19), who wrote in the early years of the eighth decade of the Common Era."[59] He points out that some of the Gospels, after the Crucifixion, refer to the number of Disciples as "Twelve", as if Judas were still among them. Comparing the three conflicting descriptions of Judas's death — hanging, leaping into a pit, and disemboweling — with three Old Testament betrayals followed by similar suicides, he suggests that these were the real source of the story.

Spong's conclusion is that early Bible authors, after the First Jewish-Roman War, sought to distance themselves from Rome's enemies. They augmented the Gospels with a story of a disciple, personified in Judas as the Jewish state, who either betrayed or handed over Jesus to his Roman crucifiers. Spong identifies this augmentation with the origin of modern Anti-Semitism.

Jewish scholar Hyam Maccoby, suggests that in the New Testament, the name "Judas" was constructed as an attack on the Judaeans or on the Judaean religious establishment held responsible for executing Jesus.[60]

Role in apocrypha[edit]

Judas has been a figure of great interest to esoteric groups, such as many Gnostic sects. Irenaeus records the beliefs of one Gnostic sect, the Cainites, who believed that Judas was an instrument of the Sophia, Divine Wisdom, thus earning the hatred of the Demiurge. In the Hebrew Bible, the book of Zechariah, the one who casts thirty pieces of silver, as Judas does in the Gospels, is a servant of God. His betrayal of Jesus thus was a victory over the materialist world. The Cainites later split into two groups, disagreeing over the ultimate significance of Jesus in their cosmology.

Gospel of Judas[edit]

Main article: Gospel of Judas

During the 1970s, a Coptic papyrus codex (book) was discovered near Beni Masah, Egypt which appeared to be a 3rd- or 4th-century-AD copy of a 2nd-century original,[61][62] describing the story of Jesus's death from the viewpoint of Judas. At its conclusion, the text identifies itself as "the Gospel of Judas" (Euangelion Ioudas).

The discovery was given dramatic international exposure in April 2006 when the US National Geographic magazine (for its May edition) published a feature article entitled The Gospel of Judas with images of the fragile codex and analytical commentary by relevant experts and interested observers (but not a comprehensive translation). The article's introduction stated: "An ancient text lost for 1,700 years says Christ's betrayer was his truest disciple".[63] The article points to some evidence that the original document was extant in the 2nd century: "Around A.D. 180, Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyon in what was then Roman Gaul, wrote a massive treatise called Against Heresies [in which he attacked] a 'fictitious history,' which 'they style the Gospel of Judas.'"[64]

Before the magazine's edition was circulated, other news media gave exposure to the story, abridging and selectively reporting it.[44]

In December 2007, a New York Times op-ed article by April DeConick asserted that the National Geographic's translation is badly flawed: For example, in one instance the National Geographic transcription refers to Judas as a "daimon", which the society’s experts have translated as "spirit". However, the universally accepted word for "spirit" is "pneuma" — in Gnostic literature "daimon" is always taken to mean "demon".[65] The National Geographic Society responded that "Virtually all issues April D. DeConick raises about translation choices are addressed in footnotes in both the popular and critical editions".[66] In a later review of the issues and relevant publications, critic Joan Acocella questioned whether ulterior intentions had not begun to supersede historical analysis, e.g., whether publication of The Gospel of Judas could be an attempt to roll back ancient anti-semitic imputations. She concluded that the ongoing clash between scriptural fundamentalism and attempts at revision were childish because of the unreliability of the sources. Therefore, she argued, "People interpret, and cheat. The answer is not to fix the Bible but to fix ourselves."[67] Other scholars have questioned the initial translation and interpretation of the Gospel of Judas by the National Geographic team of experts.[45]

Gospel of Barnabas[edit]

Main article: Gospel of Barnabas

According to medieval copies (the earliest copies from the 15th century) of the Gospel of Barnabas it was Judas, not Jesus, who was crucified on the cross. This work states that Judas's appearance was transformed to that of Jesus', when the former, out of betrayal, led the Roman soldiers to arrest Jesus who by then was ascended to the heavens. This transformation of appearance was so identical that the masses, followers of Christ, and even the Mother of Jesus, Mary, initially thought that the one arrested and crucified was Jesus himself. The gospel then mentions that after three days since burial, Judas's body was stolen from his grave, and then the rumors spread of Jesus being risen from the dead. When Jesus was informed in the third heaven about what happened, he prayed to God to be sent back to the earth, and descended and gathered his mother, disciples, and followers, and told them the truth of what happened. He then ascended back to the heavens, and will come back at the end of times as a just king.

This Gospel is considered by the majority of academics, including Christians and some Muslims (such as Abbas el-Akkad) to be late and pseudepigraphical; however, some academics suggest that it may contain some remnants of an earlier apocryphal work (perhaps Gnostic, Ebionite or Diatessaronic), redacted to bring it more in line with Islamic doctrine. Some Muslims consider the surviving versions as transmitting a suppressed apostolic original. Some Islamic organizations cite it in support of the Islamic view of Jesus.

Representations and symbolism[edit]

The term Judas has entered many languages as a synonym for betrayer, and Judas has become the archetype of the traitor in Western art and literature. Judas is given some role in virtually all literature telling the Passion story, and appears in a number of modern novels and movies.

In the Eastern Orthodox hymns of Holy Wednesday (the Wednesday before Pascha), Judas is contrasted with the woman who anointed Jesus with expensive perfume and washed his feet with her tears. According to the Gospel of John, Judas protested at this apparent extravagance, suggesting that the money spent on it should have been given to the poor. After this, Judas went to the chief priests and offered to betray Jesus for money. The hymns of Holy Wednesday contrast these two figures, encouraging believers to avoid the example of the fallen disciple and instead to imitate Mary's example of repentance. Also, Wednesday is observed as a day of fasting from meat, dairy products, and olive oil throughout the year in memory of the betrayal of Judas. The prayers of preparation for receiving the Eucharist also make mention of Judas's betrayal: "I will not reveal your mysteries to your enemies, neither like Judas will I betray you with a kiss, but like the thief on the cross I will confess you."

A red-haired Judas betrays Jesus with a kiss in a Spanish paso figure.

Judas Iscariot is often represented with red hair in Spanish culture[68][69][70] and by William Shakespeare.[70][71] The practice is comparable to the Renaissance portrayal of Jews with red hair, which was then regarded as a negative trait and which may have been used to correlate Judas Iscariot with contemporary Jews.[72]

In paintings depicting the Last Supper, Judas is occasionally depicted with a dark-colored halo (contrasting with the lighter halos of the other apostles) to signify his former status as an apostle. More commonly, however, he is the only one at the table without one.

Art and literature[edit]

Judas has become the archetype of the betrayer in Western culture, with some role in virtually all literature telling the Passion story.

  • Judas is the subject of one of the oldest surviving English ballads, which dates from the 13th century. In the ballad, the blame for the betrayal of Christ is placed on his sister.[73]
  • In Dante's Inferno, he is condemned to the lowest circle of Hell, the Ninth Circle for Traitors, also known as Cocytus, where he is one of three sinners deemed evil enough that they are doomed to be chewed for eternity in the mouths of the triple-headed Satan (the others being Brutus and Cassius, the assassins of Julius Caesar).[74]
  • In art, one of the most famous depictions of Judas Iscariot and his kiss of betrayal of Jesus is The Taking of Christ by Italian Baroque artist, Caravaggio, done in 1602.[75]
  • In Memoirs of Judas (1867) by Ferdinando Petruccelli della Gattina, he is seen as a leader of the Jewish revolt against the rule of Romans.[76]
  • Edward Elgar's oratorio, The Apostles, depicts Judas as wanting to force Jesus to declare his divinity and establish the kingdom on earth.[77]
Cathédrale Saint-Lazare, Autun. Judas hangs himself

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Matthew 26:14, Matthew 26:47, Mark 14:10, Mark 14:42, Luke 22:1, Luke 22:47, John 13:18, John 18:1
  2. ^ See Gospel of Judas
  3. ^ John 6:71 and John 13:26
  4. ^ Richard Bauckham, Jesus and the Eyewitnesses: The Gospels as Eyewitness Testimony, Eerdmans (2006), p. 106.
  5. ^ New English Translation Bible, n. 11 in Matthew 11.
  6. ^ Bastiaan van Iersel, Mark: A Reader-Response Commentary, Continuum International (1998), p. 167.
  7. ^ Brown, Raymond E. (1994). The Death of the Messiah: From Gethsemane to the Grave: A Commentary on the Passion Narratives in the Four Gospels v.1 pp. 688–92. New York: Doubleday/The Anchor Bible Reference Library. ISBN 0-385-49448-3; Meier, John P. A Marginal Jew: Rethinking the Historical Jesus (2001). v. 3, p. 210. New York: Doubleday/The Anchor Bible Reference Library. ISBN 0-385-46993-4.
  8. ^ a b Joan E. Taylor, "The name 'Iskarioth' (Iscariot)," pages 367–383 in Journal of Biblical Literature 129 no 2 (Sum 2010), 369. Online: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rfh&AN=ATLA0001790392&site=ehost-live&scope=site. Accessed 2011-03-12.
  9. ^ Joan E. Taylor, "The name 'Iskarioth' (Iscariot)," pages 367–383 in Journal of Biblical Literature 129 no 2 (Sum 2010), 370. Online: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rfh&AN=ATLA0001790392&site=ehost-live&scope=site. Accessed 2011-03-12.
  10. ^ Joan E. Taylor, "The name 'Iskarioth' (Iscariot)," pages 367–383 in Journal of Biblical Literature 129 no 2 (Sum 2010), 379–383. Online: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rfh&AN=ATLA0001790392&site=ehost-live&scope=site. Accessed 2011-03-12.
  11. ^ "BibleGateway.com – Passage Lookup: Luke 22:3". BibleGateway. Retrieved 2008-06-21. 
  12. ^ John 12:6
  13. ^ These "pieces of silver" were most likely intended to be understood as silver Tyrian shekels.
  14. ^ Matthew 26:14
  15. ^ Matthew 27:9–10
  16. ^ Acts 1:18.
  17. ^ Gospel of Judas 44–45.
  18. ^ (Papias Fragment 3, 1742–1744).
  19. ^ a b Zwiep, Arie W. Judas and the choice of Matthias: a study on context and concern of Acts 1:15–26. p. 109. 
  20. ^ letter to Clyde S. Kilby, 7 May 1959, quoted in Michael J. Christensen, C. S. Lewis on Scripture, Abingdon, 1979, Appendix A.
  21. ^ "Easton’s Bible Dictionary: Judas". christnotes.org. Retrieved 2007-06-26. 
  22. ^ "The purchase of "the potter's field", Appendix 161 of the Companion Bible". Retrieved 2008-02-15. 
  23. ^ Raymond E. Brown, An Introduction to the New Testament, p. 114.
  24. ^ Charles Talbert, Reading Acts: A Literary and Theological Commentary, Smyth & Helwys (2005) p. 15.
  25. ^ Frederick Dale Bruner, Matthew: A Commentary, Eerdmans (2004), p. 703.
  26. ^ Reed, David A. (2005). ""Saving Judas"—A social Scientific Approach to Judas’s Suicide in Matthew 27:3–10" (PDF). Biblical Theology Bulletin. Archived from the original on 2007-06-29. Retrieved 2007-06-26. 
  27. ^ Zechariah 11:12–13
  28. ^ Vincent P. Branick, Understanding the New Testament and Its Message, (Paulist Press, 1998), pp. 126–128.
  29. ^ Frederick Dale Bruner, Matthew: A Commentary (Eerdmans, 2004), p. 710; Jerome, Epistolae 57.7: "This passage is not found in Jeremiah but in Zechariah, in quite different words and a different order" [1]; John Calvin, Commentary on a Harmony of the Evangelists, Matthew, Mark and Luke, 3:177: "The passage itself plainly shows that the name of Jeremiah has been put down by mistake, instead of Zechariah, for in Jeremiah we find nothing of this sort, nor any thing that even approaches to it." [2].
  30. ^ Donald Senior, The Passion of Jesus in the Gospel of Matthew (Liturgical Press, 1985), pp. 107–108; Anthony Cane, The Place of Judas Iscariot in Christology (Ashgate Publishing, 2005), p. 50.
  31. ^ See also Maarten JJ Menken, 'The Old Testament Quotation in Matthew 27,9–10', Biblica 83 (2002): 9–10.
  32. ^ Brown, Raymond (December 1, 1998). The Death of the Messiah, From Gethsemane to the Grave, Volume 1: A Commentary on the Passion Narratives in the Four Gospels. Yale University Press. p. 912. ISBN 0300140096. 
  33. ^ p116 of chapter vi, ' The Passion Narrative ' from " Gospel fictions " by Randel Helms, published 1988 by Prometheus Books
  34. ^ Joel B. Green, Scot McKnight, I. Howard Marshall (1992). Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels. InterVaristy Press. p. 406. ISBN 978-0-8308-1777-1. 
  35. ^ (Mark 14:10–11)
  36. ^ (Matthew 26:14–16)
  37. ^ Luke 22:3–6
  38. ^ John 13:27
  39. ^ John 12:1–6
  40. ^ Joel B. Green, Scot McKnight, I. Howard Marshall (1992). Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels. InterVaristy Press. p. 407. ISBN 978-0-8308-1777-1. 
  41. ^ Dimont, Jews, God & History at 135 (New York: North American Library, 2d ed. 1962).
  42. ^ a b Judas and the choice of Matthias: a study on context and concern of Acts 1:15–26, Arie W. Zwiep. Books.google.ca. Retrieved 2011-02-08. 
  43. ^ Did Judas betray Jesus Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance, April 2006
  44. ^ a b Associated Press, "Ancient Manuscript Suggests Jesus Asked Judas to Betray Him," Fox News Thursday, 6 April 2006.
  45. ^ a b André Gagné, "A Critical Note on the Meaning of APOPHASIS in Gospel of Judas 33:1." Laval théologique et philosophique 63 (2007): 377–83.
  46. ^ Deconick, April D. (December 1, 2007). "Gospel Truth". New York Times. Retrieved 2007-12-01. 
  47. ^ John S. Feinberg, David Basinger (2001). Predestination & free will: four views of divine sovereignty & human freedom. Kregel Publications. p. 91. ISBN 978-0-8254-3489-1. 
  48. ^ John Phillips (1986). Exploring the gospel of John: an expository commentary. InterVaristy Press. p. 254. ISBN 978-0-87784-567-6. 
  49. ^ Authenticating the activities of Jesus, Bruce Chilton, Craig A. Evans. Books.google.ca. Retrieved 2011-02-08. 
  50. ^ The place of Judas Iscariot in christology, Anthony Cane. Books.google.ca. Retrieved 2011-02-08. 
  51. ^ A Dictionary of biblical tradition in English literature, David L. Jeffrey. Books.google.ca. Retrieved 2011-02-08. 
  52. ^ A Dictionary of biblical tradition in English literature, David L. Jeffrey. Books.google.ca. Retrieved 2011-02-08. 
  53. ^ Robert H. Stein, "Criteria for the Gospels' Authenticity", in Paul Copan, William Lane Craig, Contending with Christianity's Critics: Answering New Atheists & Other Objectors (B&H Publishing Group, 2009), page 93; John P. Meier, "Criteria: How Do We Decide What Comes from Jesus?" in James D. G. Dunn, Scot McKnight, The Historical Jesus in Recent Research (Eisenbrauns, 2005) pages 127–128.
  54. ^ John A. T. Robinson, Can We Trust the New Testament? cited in Gary R. Habermas, The Historical Jesus: Ancient Evidence for the Life of Christ (College Press, 1996) page 71.
  55. ^ John Shelby Spong, The Easter Moment (HarperCollins, 2010) page 150.
  56. ^ Susan Gubar, Judas: A Biography (W. W. Norton & Company, 2009) page 298–299 (referring to several books, including this one).
  57. ^ Bart Ehrman, Jesus: Apocalyptic Prophet of the New Millennium (Oxford University Press, 1999) pages 216–7.
  58. ^ Saari, Aaron Maurice. The Many Deaths of Judas Iscariot: A Meditation on Suicide London: Routledge, 2006.
  59. ^ a b John Shelby Spong, The Sins of Scripture (HarperCollins, 2009)
  60. ^ Hyam Maccoby, Antisemitism And Modernity, Routledge 2006, p. 14.
  61. ^ Timeline of early Christianity at National Geographic
  62. ^ Judas 'helped Jesus save mankind' BBC News, 7 May 2006 (following National Geographic publication)
  63. ^ Cockburn A The Gospel of Judas National Geographic (USA) May 2006
  64. ^ Cockburn A at page 3
  65. ^ Deconick A D Gospel Truth New York Times 1 December 2007
  66. ^ Statement from National Geographic in Response to April DeConick's New York Times Op-Ed "Gospel Truth"
  67. ^ Acocella J Betrayal: Should we hate Judas Iscariot? The New Yorker 3 August 2009
  68. ^ pelo de Judas ("Judas hair") in the Diccionario de la Real Academia Española.
  69. ^ Page 314 of article Red Hair from Bentley's Miscellany, July 1851. The eclectic magazine of foreign literature, science, and art, Volumen 2; Volumen 23, Leavitt, Trow, & Co., 1851.
  70. ^ a b Page 256 of Letters from Spain, Joseph Blanco White, H. Colburn, 1825.
  71. ^ Judas colour in page 473 of A glossary: or, Collection of words, phrases, names, and allusions to customs, proverbs, etc., which have been thought to require illustration, in the words of English authors, particularly Shakespeare, and his contemporaries, Volumen 1. Robert Nares, James Orchard Halliwell-Phillipps, Thomas Wright. J.R. Smith, 1859
  72. ^ Judas's Red Hair and The Jews, Journal of Jewish Art (9), 1982, Melinnkoff R.M
  73. ^ http://www.jstor.org/stable/456954
  74. ^ Dante's Inferno – Circle 9 – Cantos 31-34
  75. ^ NGA – Caravaggio's The Taking of Christ
  76. ^ Baldassare Labanca, Gesù Cristo nella letteratura contemporanea, straniera e italiana, Fratelli Bocca, 1903, p.240
  77. ^ Adams, Byron, ed. (2007), Edward Elgar and His World (book), Princeton University Press, pp. 140–141, ISBN 978-0-691-13446-8 
  78. ^ The Magazine of poetry, Volume 2, Issues 1–4 (1890) Charles Wells Moulton, Buffalo, New York [3]
  79. ^ http://rt.com/all-about-russia/literature/mikhail-bulgakov/the-master-and-margarita/how-the-procurator-tried-to-save-judas-of-karioth/
  80. ^ Equinox – Books – Book Details
  81. ^ The Last Temptation of Christ: An Essay in Film Criticism and Faith
  82. ^ Ben Brantley (3 March 2005). "THEATER REVIEW; Judas Gets His Day in Court, but Satan Is on the Witness List". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 November 2013. 
  83. ^ Diski, Jenny (2006-11-17). "Review: My Name Was Judas by CK Stead". The Guardian (London). 
  84. ^ Z Magazine. Institute for Social and Cultural Communications. 1992. p. 92. 

External links[edit]