Ishwa

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Ishwa
Ishwa is located in Mandatory Palestine
Ishwa
Ishwa
Arabic إشوع
Name meaning from Eshua, personal name[1]
Subdistrict Jerusalem
Coordinates 31°46′49.45″N 35°00′39.56″E / 31.7804028°N 35.0109889°E / 31.7804028; 35.0109889Coordinates: 31°46′49.45″N 35°00′39.56″E / 31.7804028°N 35.0109889°E / 31.7804028; 35.0109889
Population 719 (1948[2])
Area
Date of depopulation 18 July, 1948[3]
Cause(s) of depopulation Military assault by Yishuv forces
Current localities Eshta'ol[4]

Ishwa' (Arabic: إشوع‎) was a Palestinian village that was captured by Israel during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war. The village was located about 20 km west of Jerusalem, on the present location of Eshta'ol. In the 1931 British census of Palestine, Ishwa had a population of 468 in 126 houses. The village was captured by the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) on July 16, 1948 in Operation Dani by the Harel Brigade. All of its inhabitants fled or were expelled.

History[edit]

Ishwa was an ancient village, situated at the foot of a hill.[5]

It is thought to have been established over the site of the Canaanite city of Eshta'ol. It was known by that name during the Roman Empire era, when it fell within the administrative district of Eleutheropolis (Bayt Jibrin). However, Dayr Abu al-Qabus, located 0.5 kilometers (0.31 mi) to the north has also been identified with Eshta'ol.[6]

Ottoman era[edit]

During the 16th century CE, settlement seems to have shifted to the northwest to Islin. During the 17th or 18th century the site of Islin went out of use, and Ishwa was probably repopulated.[6]

In 1863 the French explorer Victor Guérin visited and found the village to have barely 300 inhabitants. The only ancient remains was a ruined arch near the well, which he thought was possibly dated to the Roman period.[7]

By 1875, it had a population of 450.[6] In the late 19th century, it was built near the foot of a hill and olive trees were planted below the village.[8] Ishwa had a star-shaped configuration, its mostly stone houses extending along the roads leading to other villages.[6]

British Mandate era[edit]

In the 1922 census of Palestine conducted by the British Mandate authorities, Ishwa had a population of 379, all Muslim.[9] This had increased by the time of the 1931 census to 468, still all Muslim, in 117 houses.[10]

In 1945 the population was 620, all Arabs, while the total land area was 5,522 dunams, according to an official land and population survey.[11] Of this, 473 were allocated for plantations and irrigable land, 1,911 for cereals,[12] while 47 dunams were classified as built-up areas.[13]

1948, and after[edit]

In 1949, the Israeli settlement of Eshta'ol was established on land belonging to Ishwa and nearby Islin.[4][14]

Khalidi described the place in 1992:

Only a few of the village houses remain on the site, interspersed among the settlement's houses; some serve as residences and warehouses. The village cemetery, next to the administrative building of the settlement, has been levelled and planted with grass. On the southern edge of the cemetery is a cave that contains the large grindstone of a flour mill. Olive and carob trees grow on the site, among other trees more recently planted by the settlers. At the western edge of the village is a soccer field. The walls and fallen roofs of the destroyed houses can be seen at the edge of this field.[14]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Palmer, 1881, p. 295
  2. ^ Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics
  3. ^ Morris, 2004, p. xviii, village #331. Also gives the cause for depopulation
  4. ^ a b Morris, 2004, p. xix, settlement #78
  5. ^ Dauphin, 1998, p. 902
  6. ^ a b c d Khalidi, 1992, p. 293
  7. ^ Guérin, 1869, pp. 12 -14
  8. ^ Conder and Kitchener, 1883, III:25. Quoted in Khalidi, 1992, p. 293
  9. ^ Barron, 1923, Table VII, Sub-district of Jerusalem, p. 15
  10. ^ Mills, 1932, p. 40.
  11. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in S. Hadawi, Village Statistics, 1945. PLO Research Center, 1970, p. 57
  12. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in S. Hadawi, Village Statistics, 1945. PLO Research Center, 1970, p. 102
  13. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in S. Hadawi, Village Statistics, 1945. PLO Research Center, 1970, p. 152
  14. ^ a b Khalidi, 1992, p. 294

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]