Iskandar of Johor

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This is a Malay name; the name Ismail Al-Khalidi is a patronymic, not a family name, and the person should be referred to by the given name, Mahmud Iskandar Al-Haj.
Iskandar
Sultan of Johor
Iskandar2006cropped.jpg
Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia
Reign 26 April 1984 – 25 April 1989[1]
Predecessor Ahmad of Pahang
Successor Azlan of Perak
Regent Ibrahim Ismail
Sultan of Johor
Reign 1981–2010
Predecessor Sultan Ismail
Successor Sultan Ibrahim Ismail
Spouse Kalsom binti Abdullah[2]
née Josephine Trevorrow (1956–62)
Sultanah Zanariah (1961–2010)
Issue 10 children (2 sons and 8 daughters),[3] including:
1. Kamariah
2. Zabedah
3. Sultan Ibrahim Ismail
4. Azizah
5. Mariam
6. Noraini
7. Maimunah Ismailiah
8. Abdul Majid
9. Muna Najiah
10. Masera
Full name
Mahmud Iskandar Al-Haj ibni Ismail Al-Khalidi[4]
House House of Temenggong (Johor)[5]
Father Sultan Ismail
Mother Sultanah Ungku Tun Aminah
Born (1932-04-08)8 April 1932[6]
Johor Bahru, Johor
British Malaya
Died 22 January 2010(2010-01-22) (aged 77)[7]
Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia[7]
Burial 23 January 2010
Mahmoodiah Royal Mausoleum, Johor Bahru, Johor
Religion Sunni Islam[1]

Iskandar ibni Ismail Al-Khalidi[8][9][10][γ][δ] (8 April 1932 – 22 January 2010) was the eighth Yang di-Pertuan Agong (Malay for Paramount Chieftain, Supreme King or High King) of Malaysia, from 26 April 1984 to 25 April 1989. He succeeded his father, Sultan Ismail, to become the 24th Sultan of Johor[ε] upon the former's death in 1981. Sultan Iskandar's reign lasted for almost 29 years until his death in January 2010, upon which he was succeeded by his oldest son, Ibrahim.

As was the case with his grandfather, Sultan Ibrahim,[11] Sultan Iskandar's independent mindset resulted in strained relations with the Malaysian federal government on numerous occasions. This was more so during his days as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong,[12] whereby a number of notable public incidents involved Sultan Iskandar.[13] Nevertheless, Sultan Iskandar was reputed to show great concern to his subjects, and was held in high esteem by many of his subjects–particularly the Malays and Orang Aslis.[14]

Sultan Iskandar is reputed to have been a staunch disciplinarian, with willingness to occasionally voice personal opinions on governmental issues. On the personal side, subjects who have personally approached the Sultan in his later years described him as a person with a warm[15] and generous personality.[16] However, past critics had also argued that Sultan Iskandar was a person with a turbulent temper.[17][18] These claims were made by citing records of past notorious incidents,[19] which include an experience of being disinherited from being the Mahkota (or Crown Prince in English) by his father, in 1961, as well as a series of alleged criminal acts occurring between the 1970s and the 1990s which were published in the press and provoked widespread moral outrage within the Malaysian public.[20][21]

During his younger days as a prince, [[Malay titles#Malay royalty|]][22] Iskandar was commonly known by his first name, "Mahmud"[γ][23][24] or his full name "Mahmud Iskandar". He largely discontinued the use of his first name after he became Sultan in 1981,[25][ζ] although some people still refer to him by his full name on an occasional basis.[26][27]

Early life[edit]

Sultan Iskandar (known as Mahmud Iskandar[γ] until 1981) was the third son of Sultan Ismail ibni Sultan Ibrahim by Sultanah Ungku Tun Aminah binti Ungku Paduka Bena Sri Maharaja Utama Ahmad, and was born on 8 April 1932 in Istana Semayam, Johor Bahru.[6] (He had two older brothers, both of whom died in infancy.)[28] Mahmud received his primary and secondary education in Ngee Heng Primary School and the English College Johore Bahru (now Maktab Sultan Abu Bakar) in Johor Bahru. In 1952, he was sent to Australia for tertiary education at the Trinity Grammar School. After graduating in 1953, Mahmud travelled to the Isle of Wight in the United Kingdom, where he enrolled into the Upper Chine School for three years.[29] Upon completing his studies, Mahmud returned to Malaysia in 1956 and briefly served as a cadet officer in the Johor Civil Service,[30] taking charge of affairs in District Affairs, Land and Treasury departments until his appointment as the Mahkota of Johor in May 1959.[14]

In 1956, Mahmud married Josephine Trevorrow, from Cornwall, United Kingdom, with whom he had four children, including the crown prince, Ibrahim Ismail. The marriage ended with divorce in 1962.[31] He remarried in 1961 – shortly before his divorce to Trevorrow, to Tengku Zanariah, who came from the Kelantan royal family. Tengku Zanariah had six children with the Sultan.[8][32] Analysts such as Kate Wharton have observed that any literal references to Trevorrow's association with Sultan Iskandar was carefully omitted in all official biographies.[33]

Mahmud was appointed the Mahkota of Johor from 1959 to 1961, and Raja Muda from 1966 to 1981, by Sultan Ismail. On 29 April 1981, he was re-appointed as the Mahkota shortly before his father's death.[34]

Sultan of Johor[edit]

On 10 May 1981, Mahmud was appointed as the Regent of Johor following the death of his father, and was sworn in as Sultan a day later, shortly before his father was buried.[35] In turn, his younger brother, Abdul Rahman (not to be confused with Abdul Rahman, Malaysia's first Prime Minister), formerly the Mahkota of Johor for twenty years under Sultan Ismail, was appointed the Bendahara of Johor, a post which he held until his death in 1989.[17] In the same year on 12 December, Sultan Iskandar was appointed as the Chancellor of Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.[36] Unlike the other preceding Sultan of Johors who had their own coronation ceremony, he did not make one.[37]

Under the elective monarchy system of Malaysia, Sultan Iskandar was elected to be the new Yang Di-Pertuan Agong on 9 February 1984 by the council of rulers—shortly before his predecessor's term expired on 26 April 1984. He succeeded the Sultan of Pahang as the Yang-Di Pertuan Agong on 26 April.[38] A royal investiture was held shortly after that, in which he donned the traditional suit of the Agong, whereby he was officially installed.[39] Sultan Iskandar served in the capacity as the Yang-Di Pertuan Agong until 1989, whereby the Sultan of Perak succeeded him.[40] As the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, Sultan Iskandar was automatically designated under constitutional provisions as the Supreme Commander of the Malaysian Armed Forces, holding the rank of the Marshal of the Royal Malaysian Air Force, Admiral of the Fleet of the Royal Malaysian Navy and Field Marshal of the Army.[41]

On 8 April 2006, the Sultan appointed his grandson Ismail Ibrahim—the son of the Mahkota—as the Raja Muda during an investure in conjunction on his birthday. The rank of Raja Muda denotes that Ismail is third in position in terms of the order of succession to the Johor royal throne.[42]

State affairs[edit]

Sultan Iskandar held annual open house events either at Istana Bukit Serene, his official residence, or at Istana Besar.[43] On these days, the Sultan and his eldest son, the Mahkota, held special sessions whereby Johoreans came up to pay their respects to him.[44] The Sultan also bestowed honorary awards on distinguished Malaysians from his annual birthday honours list on his birthdays.[45] As a matter of convention, the state government gazetted 8 April as a state public holiday to mark his birthday.[46][47]

Shortly before he became Agong in April 1984, Sultan Iskandar issued a proposal for the Orang Aslis to be referred to as the "Bumiputera Asli" (literally, Original Sons of the Soil). The proposal was made as Sultan Iskandar suggested that the Orang Aslis maintained a distinct identity from the Malays as the majority of them were not Muslims. The proposal was subsequently scrapped, and the government made subsequent attempts to assimilate the Orang Aslis with the mainstream Malay society.[48] After his inauguration as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, he donated his Agong's salary to various scholarship boards that were open to Malaysians of all races.[49]

Steps to the main hall of Istana Besar, Johor Bahru

Sultan Iskandar issued a decree in 2007 which only allowed residences and properties owned by the Sultan and the Mahkota to be called Istana, while properties belonging to other members of the royal family are to be known as "Kediaman". The terms "Istana" and "Kediaman" are translated as "Palace" and "Residences" in English, respectively.[50] The following December, Sultan Iskandar gave his endorsement for the state government to gazette a proposed legislation which bans Muslims in the state from practising Yoga, citing that Hindu elements in the exercise went against Islamic teachings. Applications to seek the Sultan's consent came from the state religious council, who acted under the instructions of the National Fatwa Council.[51][52]

Sultan Iskandar graced the official landmark opening of the Sultan Iskandar customs, immigration and quarantine complex on 1 December 2008, in the presence of the Mahkota and several key cabinet ministers. The complex was named in honour of the Sultan,[53] who expressed optimism in its success during his opening speech.[54][55]

Foreign relations[edit]

Since his ascension to the throne, Sultan Iskandar fostered particularly close neighbourly ties with Singapore, by developing a personal rapport with top Singaporean leaders. This practice has also been taken up by his sons, the Mahkota and Bendahara.[56] Media reports highlighted the particularly warm reception which leaders of both countries received whenever they visited each other's domains,[57][58] particularly in July 1988, when Sultan Iskandar's visit to Singapore marked[59] the first official visit by any Yang di-Pertuan Agong since 1957.[60][61] Between these years, Sultan Iskandar has been awarded or been given the following awards by Singaporean political leaders:

  • 1988: Then-Singapore Deputy Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong received the Dato' Paduka Mahkota Johor (Kehormat) from the Sultan himself[62]
  • 2007: Sultan Iskandar was presented with the Honorary Master Parachutist Wing by then-Singapore Defence Minister Teo Chee Hean[63]
  • 2007: Conferred the Honorary Degree of Doctor of Laws by the National University of Singapore.[63]

Relations with Singapore took a dive after the International Court of Justice ruled in Singapore's favour following a long legal battle over the sovereignty of Pedra Branca. At the inaugural session of the 12th Johor State Assembly in 2008, the Sultan stated his stand on Malaysia's sovereignty over Pedra Branca, and vowed to find legal means to retrieve the island's sovereignty.[64]

Sultan Iskandar also fostered a fairly close relationship with the Sultan of Brunei, Hassanal Bolkiah, particularly during his days as the Yang Di-Pertuan Agong.[65] In 2006, they were again seen together in public, after Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah made a state visit to Johor to express his interest in Iskandar Development Region.[66]

Controversies[edit]

Succession[edit]

Prior to his life as the Sultan or Agong, and even during the 1980s and early 1990s, Mahmud's reputation was more or less marred by a number of alleged controversial incidents which received occasional attention from the media. One of these earliest incidents was the loss of his status as Mahkota in 1961—a position which his father, Sultan Ismail, appointed to him two years earlier, citing reasons of alleged misbehaviour[13] after confidential reports accusing him of incarcerating a policeman reached the Sultan.[67] Iskandar's younger brother, Abdul Rahman[22] was appointed as the Mahkota in favour of him. Nevertheless, in 1966, Iskandar was appointed the Raja Muda—which puts him second in line to the throne.[32] In April 1981, Mahmud was reinstated as Mahkota shortly before his father's death the following month and was subsequently installed as the Sultan of Johor,[68] under the orders of his father.[35]

However, some eyewitnesses challenged the legitimacy of Mahmud's reappointment as the Mahkota, by arguing that they witnessed Sultan Ismail already having lapsed into coma at the time of his appointment as the Regent.[67] Records stated that Sultan Ismail lapsed into a coma on 8 May, three days before his death.[69] Relations with the Menteri Besar of Johor, Othman Saat deteriorated when the latter questioned Iskandar's legitimacy to the throne, which led to an incident which saw the Sultan issuing an order to the Menteri Besar to vacate his office within 24 hours, shortly after Sultan Ismail's death, citing reasons for the need for that office space for his own. The Menteri Besar heeded his order, though the Sultan did not move in as he had said.[70] Othman Saat subsequently resigned the following year as the Menteri Besar.[13]

Allegations of criminal misconduct[edit]

In 1972, Mahmud was charged for causing assault with a mace to two men for overtaking his car and was convicted the following year.[71] A year later, reports also surfaced another similar attack upon a young couple, when Iskandar, together with his bodyguard, attacked them with chemicals and a mace after having offended him. Another alleged incident took place at about this time when Mahmud chained up two policemen in a dog kennel for a day after having angered him.[72]

Five years later, Mahmud was charged and convicted of manslaughter[73] after shooting and killing a man near his private helicopter whom he took to be a smuggler. In both cases, his father, Sultan Ismail, intervened and granted official pardons to Mahmud.[74][75][76] Similarly, his eldest son, Ibrahim Ismail, was convicted in the 1980s of shooting dead a man in a nightclub during a feud, but was quickly pardoned.[77]

In 1987, Sultan Iskandar was accused of causing the death of a golf caddy in Cameron Highlands by assault, following an incident in which the golf caddy laughed when the Sultan missed a hole. Abdul Rahman, Malaysia's first Prime Minister, pointed out that the Sultan (then the Agong) could not be prosecuted due to the immunity that was accorded to the rulers, yet he condemned Sultan Iskandar's actions at the same time. In the end the matter was let off without much public attention. The brother of the caddy – who also suffered injuries from the incident, being distressed from what he saw, subsequently ran amok in Kuala Lumpur and had to be quarantined in a mental hospital.[78][79]

Gomez Incident[edit]

Assault[edit]

In late 1992, two separate assault cases by the Sultan himself as well as his younger son, Abdul Majid Idris, on hockey coaches culminated in the stripping of immunity of rulers from prosecution. Both cases received considerable headlines in the local and international news which was aptly dubbed as "The Gomez Incident".[80][81] The incident was kicked off on 10 July 1992, when Sultan Iskandar's second son, the Bendahara–Abdul Majid Idris, lost his temper during a hockey match with the Perak hockey team after Perak won the match by a penalty stroke, and assaulted the Perak goalkeeper, Mohamed Jaafar Mohamed Vello.[82] The goalkeeper later lodged a police report on 30 July. The incident received public attention, especially when the matter was debated in parliament.[83] The incident resulted in the Malaysian Hockey Federation issuing Majid, (then second-in line to the throne after his elder brother) facing a ban of five years from participating in any tournaments following investigations.[84] Majid was later convicted of assault in January 1993, of which the chief justice sentenced him to a year in prison, on top of a RM 2000 fine. He was released on a bail, and these charges were later dropped on grounds of immunity, which was still applicable at the time when the act was committed.[85]

The Sultan responded to the ban by putting pressure on the state authorities to enforce isolation of the Johor hockey teams from all national tournaments.[83] In November 1992, Douglas Gomez, a coach for the Maktab Sultan Abu Bakar field hockey team, expressed his displeasure of being called to withdraw from a semi-final national hockey match by the Director of the Johor Education Department. The incident attracted the attention of the Sultan, who personally summoned Gomez to his palace, Istana Bukit Serene, where he was promptly reprimanded and assaulted by the Sultan.[86] Following Gomez's meeting with the Sultan, Gomez sought treatment to his face and stomach. Subsequently, he lodged a police report against the Sultan for assault. Gomez elaborated that the Sultan bodyguards, members of the Johor Military Force personnel, were merely onlookers, and that the Sultan was solely responsible for the injuries.[87]

Public responses and follow ups[edit]

The assault resulted in a public outcry over the event[88] which pressured all levels of the government right up to the top ranks of the federal government to investigate into the matter.[89] In the closing months of 1992, and also the opening months of 1993, dozens of articles mentioning misdeeds by the royal families of several states–but in particular Sultan Iskandar himself were published.[90] A good deal of these alleged misdeeds that were mentioned included the charging of exorbitant fines–way above the prescribed legal limits–upon offenders who had obstructed the Sultan's car, amongst others.[91] Sultan Iskandar, nevertheless bore the brunt of the backlash by the numerous references centred towards alleged acts of criminal wrongdoings even though many of the listed acts were committed by other members of the royal family.[92]

The vociferous spate of criticisms roused by the press prompted Members of Parliament of the Dewan Rakyat to convene a special session on 10 December 1992. All 96 parliamentarians present on that day passed a unanimous resolution[93] which called for action to curb the powers of the rulers if necessary. During the special meeting, parliamentarians disclosed past criminal records of Sultan Iskandar and his two sons, all of whom had been involved in a total of at least 23 cases of assault and manslaughter,[94][95] five of which were cases committed by the Sultan after 1981, two cases by the Mahkota and three cases by the Bendahara.[96]

A bill was passed by both the Dewan Rakyat and Dewan Negara on 19 and 20 January 1993 respectively.[97] The bill, which proposed to remove legal immunity was approved by six out of nine sultans[98]—but saw stiff opposition from three, two of which included the Ismail Petra, the Sultan of Kelantan and the Sultan Iskandar himself. Sultan Iskandar took up the initiative to obtain more royal support to stall the implementation of the proposed bill. The bill, which proposed to strip rulers and members of the royal families of legal immunity, would make them prosecutable by the law in any cases of proven criminal wrongdoings.[99]

Sultan Iskandar organised a rally which was to be held outside the palace with the aim of garnering public support to stall the bill's implementation. However, this was cancelled after intense pressure from the government. A report made during the rally quoted Sultan Iskandar calling upon all local civil servants to boycott state and federal functions in a show of support for his motion.[100] Meanwhile, the federal government continued to pressure the rulers into assenting to the bills, which they did after several revisions of the bill were made by the government. Following which, the proposed bill was enshrined into the Federal Constitution in March 1993.[101]

The bill allowed rulers who violated the laws to be prosecuted, while the Sedition Act of 1948 was also amended to allow public criticism of the rulers.[102] A special court was created–presided by the Lord President of the Federal Court–to empower and prosecute members of the rulers and immediate members of the royal household.[103]

Aftermath[edit]

DYMM Sultan Iskandar Johor at the 9th Pasir Gudang International Kite Festival 2004

Sultan Iskandar and his family members were not prosecuted for their past violations of the law on grounds that the royal immunity was still applicable when the incidences occurred.[104] Nevertheless, shortly after the incident, Sultan Iskandar was prompted to take steps to rehabilitate his public image, which was more or less tarnished by the incident. In a public speech shortly after the episode, the Sultan was noted to have toned down somewhat on his hardline image and appeared to be somewhat more humble, appealing to Johoreans to maintain their loyalty to him.[85]

The Gomez incident also led to a review and proposal by the Federal Government in August 1993 to disband the Johor Military Force (JMF).[105] However, the bill to disband the JMF was subsequently repealed by parliament.[106][107]

Political[edit]

Days as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia (1980s)[edit]

Shortly before his election as the Yang-Di Pertuan Agong in 1983, a spate of reports alleging Sultan Iskandar's intention to launch a coup d'état by launching a state of emergency to overthrow the government circulated within political circles, which reached Mahathir himself. The Sultan was reportedly having fostered close relations with several key military personnel, including the Army chief himself. The government subsequently took action to curb constitutional loopholes within the constitution and took to task of reducing the power of royal veto in passing legislation, culminating to a constitutional crisis in late 1983.[108] Nevertheless, during his inaugural speech as the Agong in 1984, about a month after the constitutional amendments were passed in parliament, Sultan Iskandar voiced public support for the revised constitution and pledged to act in accordance to the Prime Minister's advise.[109]

A diplomatic scandal between the United Kingdom and Malaysia broke out in 1984, when several British newspapers published pieces on Sultan Iskandar's coronation, citing the headlines such as "Killer becomes King" and "King a Killer", which enraged the Malaysian government, who demanded an apology from the British government. The British government refused to apologise on behalf of the newspapers, hence triggering tensions between the two countries.[95] Two months later, in June 1984, Sultan Iskandar in his capacity as the Agong, surprised the Malaysian public when he publicly called upon the then-Deputy Prime Minister, Musa Hitam, to make a public apology in front of the entire congregation present at the National Mosque. Sultan Iskandar, on his part, was angry over remarks which Musa made during the course of the 1983 constitutional crisis that he deemed to be disrespectful. Musa abided to the Agong's demand and boldly came forward to make the apology, which was greeted by a thunderous applause from the entire congregation. The event, which was broadcast live throughout the nation on Malaysian Radio (although the television stations abruptly terminated its broadcast halfway), was seen by many observers as an act of confrontation by the Agong to put Musa in his place.[110]

In 1988, also serving in his capacity as the Yang-Di Pertuan Agong, the Lord President of the Federal Court Tun Salleh Abas was sacked by the Agong in what led to the 1988 Malaysian constitutional crisis.[111] However, observers suggested a remarkably warm relationship[78] between then-Prime Minister Dr. Mahathir Mohamad with the Agong, both of whom shared common resentment against the chief justice, Salleh Abas. In 1973, Iskandar was convicted of assault and was sentenced to six months imprisonment, of which Salleh Abas served as the public prosecutor hearing the case. As the public prosecutor, Salleh had appealed to the chief justice, Raja Azlan Shah (now the Sultan of Perak), for handing down a heavier sentence for Iskandar, which naturally earned his wrath.[20][112][113] The sacking of the Lord President, was however not without controversy, given the alleged manner in which the Agong and Prime Minister had handled the matter–including an incident which the Agong had refused to forgive the Lord President in spite of Salleh's willingness to offer his apology to the Agong, which he turned down.[114][115]

Later years (2000 onwards)[edit]

Sultan Iskandar's public call to support Abdullah Badawi's administration in October 2006 created a minor stir among Mahathir's supporters, when he remarked that "Mahathir should act like a pensioner". The call came at a time when Mahathir's spate of criticisms against Abdullah's were at its most vociferous period.[116] The Sultan was the first state ruler to publicly defend the policy of the government during the period of Mahathir's criticisms against the Abdullah administration.[117] Earlier sources however, noted Sultan Iskandar's concerns with the deepening rift between Mahathir and Abdullah and had asked to be photographed together with the two leaders during the United Malays National Organisations (UMNO) 60th anniversary celebrations in Johor Bahru.[118]

A month later, in November 2006, another small stir erupted during the launching ceremony of the Iskandar Development Region, when Sultan Iskandar voiced his opinion that the Causeway, which connects Johor and Singapore, should be removed to allow ships to pass through and promoting development of the state. He also remarked that the people should be wary of all foreigners as they were "vultures" and also urged the people not to hold them in high regard, citing his displeasure that his ancestors were "deceived" by dirty tactics employed by colonialists to build the Causeway.[119][120]

At the inaugural 12th Johor State Assembly Seating in April 2008, a minor controversy erupted when one opposition member of parliament (MP), Gwee Tong Hiang, flouted dress regulations by appearing in a lounge suit and tie instead of the usual official attire and songkok. This resulted in him being dismissed from the assembly chamber shortly before the Sultan's arrival.[121] Gwee, a Democratic Action Party (DAP) MP, reportedly argued that there was no stated order to wear the official attire and songkok and stated his desire to wear a western suit,[122] promptly drew flak from other MPs and the Menteri Besar, Abdul Ghani Othman who had earlier on met to agree to don in the official attire and songkok prior to the assembly, whereby Gwee was absent.[123] The Sultan, apparently angry at Gwee, sharply criticised him two days later[124] and publicly called upon Gwee to seek an audience with him.[125]

Lifestyle[edit]

During his days as the Agong, Sultan Iskandar was often seen in public carrying a pistol in his waistband, which drew considerable concern and discomfort from the Malaysian public due to his past record of criminal offences.[126] He was also reputed to have led a flamboyant lifestyle, which also drew similar scepticism.[126] He was also known to be a motorbike enthusiast; documentaries on national patriotism would feature Sultan Iskandar, the then-Agong, riding out on a police motorbike and his flamboyant appearance during a few public ceremonies. These documentaries drew criticisms from the Malaysian public, who felt that the television clips of Sultan Iskandar were inappropriate for its theme and national image.[127]

Personal life[edit]

As a youth, Mahmud qualified as a pilot, having trained in handling light and medium aircraft and helicopters. He was also apt in handling motorcycles, reportedly possessing the skills to strip a motorcycle down to its component parts and then reassembling it.[14]

The Sultan is also well known for his passion in many types of open-air sports, especially golf. In his later years, he spent much of his free time at the Royal Johor Country Club.[14][128] In addition, he also played tennis and squash on a regular basis.[32] Within private circles, Sultan Iskandar was fondly known as "Moody", a testimony to his first name "Mahmud."[27] His son, Abdul Majid, inherited his interest in amateur golf and once served as the President of the Malaysian Golf Association.[129]

He is involved in the 1988 Malaysian Constitution crisis[130] which the then prime minister Mahathir Mohammad used his killing of an innocent caddy with a golf club as a leverage to hijack the Malaysian judiciary system by sacking the then Lord of President of the Federal Court of Malaysia (Now known as Chief Justice of Malaysia), Tun Haji Mohamed Salleh bin Abas in an effort to claim his political success.

In addition, he kept a large collection of pets, particularly peacocks, at his Istana Bukit Serene compound, where he lived with the Sultanah.[15][16] In his youth, Iskandar resided at Istana Bukit Coombe, located at the top of Coombe Hill. It was built upon Dutch architectural designs, and was later renamed Istana Bukit Iskandar. The palace was later demolished in 1987, six years after Sultan Iskandar succeeded his late father as Sultan.[131]

Health[edit]

After undergoing a coronary bypass operation in the United States in 2000, close aides reported that Sultan Iskandar slowed down somewhat in his pace of life and took to playing golf only on an occasional basis.[14] About with bronchitis in January 2008 saw the Sultan being briefly admitted and treated in a local hospital.[132]

Death[edit]

Sultan Iskandar died on 22 January 2010 at the Puteri Specialist Hospital after being admitted earlier in the day following an illness.[7] Although he died around 7.15 p.m, his death was only officially announced at 11.20 p.m by the Menteri Besar of Johor Datuk Abdul Ghani Othman. He was buried in the Mahmoodiah Royal Mausoleum the next day at 2 pm. Before that, the public was allowed to pay their last respects to Sultan Iskandar from early morning.[133]

Prime Minister Najib Tun Razak[134] cut short his visit to India to attend his funeral. Other dignitaries who paid their last respects are the then Yang Di-Pertuan Agong Tuanku Mizan Zainal Abidin and Raja Permaisuri Agong Tuanku Nur Zahirah, Brunei's Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah, Sultan Ahmad Shah of Pahang, Tengku Mahkota Tengku Abdullah of Pahang, Sultan Sharafuddin Idris Shah of Selangor, Tuanku Muhriz, the Yang di-Pertuan Besar of Negeri Sembilan, Sultan Azlan Shah of Perak, Sultan Abdul Halim of Kedah and Regent of Kelantan Tengku Muhammad Faris Petra. Also present were Singapore Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong and Senior Minister Goh Chok Tong.[133]

His son the Mahkota Johor Ibrahim Ismail was proclaimed as the next Sultan of Johor also on 23 January.[135]

Legacy[edit]

Several projects and institutions were named after the Sultan, including:

Educational institutions[edit]

Buildings[edit]

Bangunan Sultan Iskandar–Customs, Immigration and Quarantine centre was opened in December 2008.

Roads[edit]

Others[edit]

One of his grandsons (the son of his second son, Abdul Majid), Mahmood Iskandar, was named after him.[153] Some of his children and grandchildren are also similarly named after his forebears, notably his older son, Ibrahim, who was named after the Sultan's grandfather, Sultan Ibrahim.[27] Sultan Iskandar also followed his grandfather's and father's footsteps of using the royal monogram "S.I.". The monogram's letters represent the initials of their title and names respectively.[154]

Honours[edit]

He was awarded:[155]

Johor Honours[edit]

National and Sultanal Honours[edit]

Foreign Honours[edit]

Ancestry[edit]

Sultan Iskandar is a fourth generation descendant of Sultan Abu Bakar, who in turn was the son of Temenggong Daeng Ibrahim, the Temenggong of Johor.[η][156] In turn, some of Daeng Ibrahim's patrilineal ancestors were also Temenggongs of Johor serving under their respective Sultans. It is from this ancestral heritage to which the dynastical name of his lineage is known—Temenggong dynasty.[5] The preceding Sultan prior to Sultan Abu Bakar, Ali and his predecessors who ruled Johor from the 17th to 19th centuries, were descended from Abdul Jalil, a Bendahara. Abdul Jalil became Sultan in 1699 after the death of Sultan Mahmud Shah and adopted the title Sultan Abdul Jalil Shah IV. In this pattern, the names of the dynasties which the ruling houses of Johor were known.[157] The Temenggong dynasty is also related to the Bendahara dynasty by bloodline; genealogical records show that Sultan Abdul Jalil IV is also a direct patrilineal ancestor of Sultan Iskandar.[158]

Footnotes[edit]

α. ^ Al-Mutawakkil Alallah (also spelled in Arabic as Motawakkil Alallah), which means "He who puts his trust in God" is an Islamic title used by the Sultan. (Najeebabadi, pg 465)

β. ^ In Islamic cultures, the title Al-Marhum means "to one whom mercy has been shown. This is used for Muslim rulers who are deceased. (Schimmel (1989), pg 59)

γ. a b c His first name, Mahmud, is also sometimes spelled as Mahmood by some sources. Bowker-Saur, pg 297

δ. ^ In Malaysian royalty, ibni means "son of" in English, derived from the Arabic term "ibn. Most laymen would otherwise use the term "bin" to denote "son of" in their names. Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (1978), pg 390

ε. ^ Section B Planning and Implementation, Part 3 Physical Planning Initiatives, CHAPTER 13, Johor Bahru City Centre, Iskandar Malaysia, pg 6, "... This was followed later by the 21st Sultan of Johor – Sultan Abu Bakar (1862–1895) who laid the foundation for developing Johor into a modern state. ..." NB: Sultan Abu Bakar of Johor is the great-grandfather of Sultan Iskandar.

ζ. ^ On Sultan Iskandar's 69th birthday, various companies and organisations published congratulatory advertisements wishing him well for the birthday. In these advertisements, the Sultan was addressed by his honorary titles and name: Duli Yang Maha Mulia Baginda Al Mutawakkil Alallah Sultan Iskandar Ibni Almarhum Sultan Ismail, D.K. Sultan Dan Yang Dipertuan Bagi Negeri Dan Jajahan Takluk Johor Darul Ta'zim. (His first name "Mahmud" was not mentioned.) Advertisements, 8 April 2001, pg 2–3, 5–7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17–19, New Sunday Times Special (Sultan of Johor's Birthday)

η. ^ The Temenggong is a high-ranking Malay official in ancient times, who is responsible to the Sultan. The duty of the Temenggong is to maintain law and order within the kingdom. In the case of Johor during the 19th century, the Sultan's powers were gradually diminished over the decades and it was under Temenggong Daeng Ibrahim when his authority supersedes those of the Sultan, effectively becoming Johor's paramount ruler. (Sardesai (1989), pg 58)

θ. ^ Haji Othman (2002), pg 24 "... Acheh yang berasal dari keluarga Naqib (ketua golongan Sayyid) di Hadramaut, Yaman, iaitu Sayyid Zainal Abidin bin Sayyid Abdullah Al 'Aidrus ke dalam keluarga Tun Jenal Bendahara Sekudai (putera Tun Seri Lanang) sebagai menantu telah membawa suatu era baru dalam sejarah pemerintahan keluarga bendahara Johor Lama yang merupakan pewaris kepada keluarga bendahara-bendahara Melaka."

ι. ^ The title Tun is an ancient Malay title used to refer to people of royal lineage. In modern Malaysia it is the highest title bestowed upon commoners by the rulers. The title Daing (also spelled Daeng) is a Buginese title; Temenggong Ibrahim inherited this title from his matrilineal Buginese ancestors. (Mackie (1964), pg 157)

κ. ^ Not to be confused with Bendahara Tun Ali (the son of Mani Purindan), the Bendahara of Melaka and the uncle of Muzaffar Shah of Malacca. (Brown (1971), pg 51)

λ. ^ Not to be confused with Tun Mutahir of Malacca, who lived between the 15th to 16th centuries. Tun Mutahir of Pahang lived during the 19th century.

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ a b Karim et al. (1990), pg 359
  2. ^ The Who's who in Malaysia (1967), pg 198
  3. ^ His Royal Highness Seri Paduka Baginda Almutawakkil Alallah, Sultan Iskandar Ibni Al-Marhum Sultan Ismail, by Official Portal of Johor State Government, Retrieved 3 January 2009
  4. ^ Tan, Chee Khoon (1985), pg 29
  5. ^ a b Johore and the Origins of British Control, Nesalamar Nadarajah, pg 44
  6. ^ a b Pemerintah dan pemimpin-pemimpin kerajaan Malaysia, Siti Rosnah Haji Ahmad, pg 71
  7. ^ a b c "Sultan of Johor passes away (Updated)". The Star (Malaysia). 23 January 2010. Retrieved 22 January 2010. 
  8. ^ a b JOHOR (Sultanate) Retrieved 3 January 2009
  9. ^ Negara Brunei Darussalam: A Biographical Dictionary (1860–1996), Horton, pg 290
  10. ^ Siapa kebal, Mahathir atau raja-raja Melayu?, Yahaya Ismail, pg 42
  11. ^ Johore and the Origins of British Control, Nesalamar Nadarajah, pg 128
  12. ^ Asian Recorder (1984), pg 17808
  13. ^ a b c Constitutional Heads and Political Crises: Commonwealth Episodes, 1945–85 (1988), Low, pg 185
  14. ^ a b c d e Thanam Visvanathan, Ruler with deep concern for people–Sultan Iskandar revered as protective guardian and helpful to all his subjects, pg 1, 8 April 2001, New Sunday Times Special (Sultan of Johor's Birthday)
  15. ^ a b Inspiring ruler, Nelson Benjamin, 8 April 2007, The Star (Malaysia)
  16. ^ a b Johor Sultan's birthday celebration at Dataran Bandaraya in JB today, 8 April 2008, The Star (Malaysia)
  17. ^ a b Tan, Chee Khoon (1985), pg 5
  18. ^ Milne, Mauzy (1999), pg 32
  19. ^ Clad (1989), pg 57
  20. ^ a b Abdullah (2003), pg 148
  21. ^ Kershaw (2001), pg 102–3
  22. ^ a b Tengku is spelled as in Johor. Tengku Ahmad Rithauddeen: His Story, K.N. Nadarajah, pg 50
  23. ^ Facts on File Yearbook, by Facts on File, inc., 1957, Phrase: "Married: Prince Tengku Mahmud, 24, grandson of the Sultan of Johore, & Josephine Ruby Trevorrow, 21, daughter of an English textile ..."
  24. ^ Malaysia, by British Association of Malaysia, British Association of Malaysia and Singapore, Phrase: " Mahmood of Jo-hore. On 5 August 1960, at the Istana Bukit ..."
  25. ^ Andresen (1992), pg 138
  26. ^ Demolish causeway: Johor Sultan, 5 November 2006, Dailyexpress
  27. ^ a b c Azizah is one tough princess, The Star, Kee Hua Chee, 19 March 2005
  28. ^ Johor15, by Christopher Buyers, Retrieved 22 February 2009
  29. ^ Information Malaysia (1985), pg 58
  30. ^ His Majesty and Her Majesty, Website of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, Retrieved 3 January 2009
  31. ^ Andresen (1992), pg 123
  32. ^ a b c Sleeman (2004), pg 827
  33. ^ Abdul Rahman, Solomon (1985), pg 21
  34. ^ Duli Yang Maha Mulia Seri Paduka Baginda Almutawakkil Alallah, Sultan Iskandar Ibni Al-Marhum Sultan Ismail Portal Rasmi Kerajaan Negeri Johor Darul Ta'zim
  35. ^ a b Asian Recorder Published by K. K. Thomas at Recorder Press, 1981, pg 16108
  36. ^ Information Malaysia (1990), pg 906
  37. ^ Ismail, Fauziah (17 August 2012). "Ruler close to the people's heart". New Straits Times. Retrieved 6 December 2012. 
  38. ^ The Europa Year Book: A World Survey (1984), pg xiv
  39. ^ Milne, Mauzy (1999), pg 35
  40. ^ DYMM Seri Paduka Baginda Almutawakkil Alallah, Sultan Iskandar Ibni Al-Marhum Sultan Ismail, Kerajaan Negeri Johor Darul Ta'zim, Retrieved 3 January 2009
  41. ^ Alagappa (2001), pg 267
  42. ^ Mahkota's son named Raja Muda of Johor, The Star online, Star Publications, 9 April 2006.
  43. ^ Thousands at PM's open house (update 4), Manjit Kaur, Royce Cheah and Ng Si Hooi, 13 October 2007, The Star (Malaysia)
  44. ^ Day of fun and feasting, Teh Eng Hock and Meera Vijayan, 15 October 2007, The Star (Malaysia)
  45. ^ Sultan of Johor's birthday honours list, 9 April 2004, The Star (Malaysia)
  46. ^ Anniversaries and Holidays (2000), pg 109
  47. ^ Event: 'Sultan Of Johor's Birthday', Minerals and Geoscience Department Malaysia (JMG), 13 February 2009
  48. ^ Benjamin, Chou, (2002), pg 121
  49. ^ Low (1988), pg 192
  50. ^ A palace in the sun, Fauziah Ismail, JohorBuzz, New Straits Times
  51. ^ Ban on yoga likely in Johor, 5 December 2008, New Straits Times
  52. ^ Johor prepares to enforce yoga ban, JohorBuzz, New Straits Times
  53. ^ Bangunan Sultan Iskandar Jadi Pintu Masuk Kepada Sembilan Juta Pengunjung, Hamirul Hairi Mohd Noh, 2 December 2008
  54. ^ Glaring glitches mar historic opening, Syed Umar Ariff, 21 December 2008, New Straits Times
  55. ^ DYMM Sultan Iskandar Sultan Ismail Merasmikan Bangunan Sultan Iskandar, 2 December 2008, MedKom
  56. ^ "Ministers convey Hari Raya wishes to Sultan of Johor". People's Action Party. 13 October 2007. 
  57. ^ "Visit To Singapore By His Majesty Sultan Iskandar Ibni Almarhum Sultan Ismail, Sultan And Sovereign Ruler of the State And Territories of Johor Darul Ta'zim, 12 To 13 April 2007". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Singapore. 11 April 2007. 
  58. ^ "Warm friendship toasted at annual Hari Raya lunch with Johor Sultan". People's Action Party. 25 October 2006. 
  59. ^ The Little Red Dot: Reflections by Singapore's Diplomats, Koh, Chang, pg 417
  60. ^ Singapore-Malaysia Relations Under Abdullah Badawi, pg 77, Saw, Kesavapany
  61. ^ Political Handbook of Asia 2007, Banks, Muller, Overstreet, pg 423
  62. ^ "First Deputy Prime Minister And Minister For Defence Goh Chok Tong Receiving Johor's Second Highest Award, Dato Paduka Mahkota Johor (Kehormat) From Yang Di-Pertuan Agong, Sultan Iskandar of Johor in Istana State Room (Description of Event Provided By Transferring Agency)". Singapore Press Holdings. 27 July 1988. 
  63. ^ a b "Sultan of Johor Visits HQ Commando". MINDEF. 13 April 2007. 
  64. ^ Farik Zolkepli (20 June 2008). "Sultan vows to reclaim Batu Puteh island". The Star. 
  65. ^ Negara Brunei Darussalam: A Biographical Dictionary (1860–1996) (1996), pg 290
  66. ^ "Brunei eyes Iskandar Malaysia project". The Star. 28 August 2008. 
  67. ^ a b Kershaw (2001), pg 103
  68. ^ His Majesty and Her Majesty, Retrieved 3 January 2009
  69. ^ Who's who in Malaysia (1982), pg 463
  70. ^ Southeast Asian Affairs (1982), pg 251
  71. ^ Aliran Monthly, Aliran Kesedaran Negaran, 1992, Malaysia, pg3
  72. ^ Downton (1986), pp 203–4
  73. ^ Crouch (1996), pg 144
  74. ^ Copetas, Rich (2001), pg 145
  75. ^ UPI (26 April 1984). "AROUND THE WORLD; Elected King's Reign Ending in Malaysia". The New York Times. 
  76. ^ Clad (1989), pg 15
  77. ^ De Ledesma, Lewis, Savage (2003), pg 366
  78. ^ a b Crouch (1996), pg 146
  79. ^ World of Information (Firm), (1993), pg 124
  80. ^ Crouch (1996), pg 146–7
  81. ^ Michael Richardson (15 December 1992). "Malaysia Prepares To Strip Sultans of Their Immunity". International Herald Tribune. 
  82. ^ Prince to appear before MHF board, by Gerald Martinez, 10 August 1992, New Straits Times
  83. ^ a b Kershaw (2001), pg 110
  84. ^ MHF ban Majid for five years, by Lazarus Rokk, 19 October 1992, New Straits Times
  85. ^ a b Asian Bulletin, Asian Peoples' Anti-Communist League, Asian Peoples' Anti-Communist League (China: Republic: 1949– ), Asian-Pacific Anti-Communist League, APLFD (Organization), Published by APACL Publications, 1993, pg 30
  86. ^ "Bending the rulers: Sultan's behaviour raises doubts over role of royalty". Far Eastern Economic Review. 24–31 December 1992. p. 16. 
  87. ^ K. Vijayan (7 December 1992). "Gomez: Sultan beat me". New Straits Times. pp. 1, 3. 
  88. ^ "Abdullah: Rakyat ashamed and angry". New Straits Times. 7 December 1992. p. 4. 
  89. ^ "Stem violence, Malay congress to government". New Straits Times. 7 December 1992. p. 4. 
  90. ^ "List of criminal acts done by the Johor Sultan". New Straits Times. 20 January 1993. p. 4. 
  91. ^ "Motorist: I was fined $500 for blocking royal motorcade". New Straits Times. 14 December 1992. p. 2. 
  92. ^ Aliran Monthly, Aliran Kesedaran Negaran, 1984, pg 30
  93. ^ Abdul Aziz Bari (2 December 2008). "On bringing back royal immunity". The Malaysian Insider. 
  94. ^ Malaysia, Singapore & Brunei (2004), Rowthorn, Benson, Benson, Kerr, Niven, pg 235
  95. ^ a b Asian Recorder (1993), pg 22904
  96. ^ "List of criminal acts done by the Johor Sultan". New Straits Times. 20 January 1993. p. 4. 
  97. ^ Change to take its course: PM tables amendment Bill despite Rulers' disagreement, New Straits Times, 19 January 1993, pg 1, 4.
  98. ^ Six Rulers say 'Yes', New Straits Times, 16 January 1993, pg 1, 2
  99. ^ Kershaw (2001), pg 110–2
  100. ^ Summary of World Broadcasts (1993), Phrase: "... Straits Times of 21 January, the Sultan of Johor is reported as"
  101. ^ Crouch (1996), pg 147
  102. ^ Mahathir, the Secret of the Malaysian Success: The Secret of the Malaysian Success, Somun, Somun-Krupalija, pg 155
  103. ^ A BILL intituled: An Act to amend the Federal Constitution., Dewan Rakyat, January 1993, Retrieved 7 January 2009
  104. ^ Jendela masa: kumpulan esei sempena persaraan (2001), Othman, Khoo, pg 393
  105. ^ "End to Joh or Military Force, Muhyiddin: Sultan's private army will be disbanded". New Straits Times. 14 August 1993. pp. 1, 2. 
  106. ^ Rang Undang-Undang Askar Timbalan Setia Negeri Johor (Pembubaran Dan Pemansuhan) 1994, Susunan Fasal, Dewan Rakyat, 1994
  107. ^ Johore Military Forces (Disbandment And Repeal) Bill 1994, Dewan Rakyat, 1994, Retrieved 7 January 2009
  108. ^ Milne, Mauzy (1999), pg 32–33
  109. ^ Shome, Shome (2002), pg 137
  110. ^ Milne, Mauzy (1999), pg 35–36
  111. ^ Anwar's Second Sex Case Puts Malaysia Courts on Trial, Bloomberg, Angus Whitley, 20 August 2008
  112. ^ Malaysian Politics: The Second Generation, Means, pg 239
  113. ^ Kershaw (2001), pg 224
  114. ^ Press Statement of Tun Salleh Abas, The Malaysian Bar, Tun Salleh Abas, 26 September 2006
  115. ^ Comment: Tun Salleh and the judiciary, The Malaysian Bar, Suppiah s/o Pakrisamy, 29 April 2008
  116. ^ Agence France-Pesse. "Malaysian sultan calls for scrapping of causeway to Singapore". The Nation (Thailand). 
  117. ^ Nelson Benjamin and Meera Vijayan (24 October 2006). "Johor Sultan: Support Pak Lah". The Star. 
  118. ^ "Johor Sultan Tells Dr Mahathir To Act Like A Pensioner". Bernama. 24 October 2006. 
  119. ^ Michael Richardson (5 November 2006). "Sultan's Causeway remark causes a stir". The Star (Malaysia). 
  120. ^ "Demolish Causeway – Sultan Iskandar". Bernama. 4 November 2006. 
  121. ^ DAP rep thrown out of assembly, Gladys Tay and Farik Zolkepli, 20 June 2008, The Star (Malaysia)
  122. ^ No uniform or songkok? Please leave assembly, 22 June 2008, The Electric New Paper
  123. ^ Johor DAP reps can wear songkok, Nelson Benjamin, 10 June 2008, The Star (Malaysia)
  124. ^ Sultan Reprimands Bentayan State Assemblyman Over Attire, 21 June 2008, Bernama
  125. ^ Johor Sultan unhappy with DAP's Gwee, Meera Vijayan, 21 June 2008, The Star (Malaysia)
  126. ^ a b Asia & Pacific (1984), pg 229
  127. ^ Kershaw (2001), pg 225
  128. ^ GOLF MALAYSIA, The No 1 Golf Magazine in Malaysia, Retrieved 3 January 2009[dead link]
  129. ^ "MGA turmoil takes new twist". New Straits Times. 11 December 2008. 
  130. ^ 1988 Malaysian constitutional crisis
  131. ^ Magnificent abode for royals, Fauziah Ismail, JohorBuzz, New Straits Times
  132. ^ Johor Sultan Recovering From Bronchitis (Southern Region News), 13 January 2008, Bernama
  133. ^ a b "Sultan Iskandar laid to rest (Update)". The Star (Malaysia). 23 January 2010. Retrieved 23 January 2010. 
  134. ^ Najib Cuts Short Visit To India, Arrives Home Early Saturday Bernama
  135. ^ Tengku Ibrahim Proclaimed As The Sultan Of Johor Bernama
  136. ^ Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment (1999), pg 165
  137. ^ Jurnal Pendidikan (1974), pg 177
  138. ^ Senarai Sekolah Menengah Kerajaan Dan Bantuan Kerajaan Di Negeri Johor Seperti Pada 30 June 2008, by MOE Malaysia
  139. ^ 30 November 2007, 8.00 Pagi – Majlis Perhimpunan Bulanan Peringkat Daerah Pontian, Perkarangan SK. TENGKU MAHMOOD ISKANDAR 1., by Johor Web Portal
  140. ^ Syed Umar Ariff (22 December 2008). "Glaring glitches mar historic opening". New Straits Times. 
  141. ^ Pengenalan JKR Daerah Kota Tinggi, Jabatan Kerja Raya Malaysia (JKR). Retrieved 17 January 2009
  142. ^ Alamat Jabatan Belia Dan Sukan Negeri Dan Daerah, Kementerian Belia dan Sukan Malaysia (Ministry for Youth and Sports Malaysia). Retrieved 25 February 2009
  143. ^ 389 pelatih IKM Johor Bahru terima diploma, sijil 30 October 2008, Utusan Malaysia
  144. ^ Planetarium Sultan Iskandar official site
  145. ^ Sarawak, Beautiful and Captivating: Beautiful and Captivating (1994), pg 19
  146. ^ Program 'Nostalgia Irama Lagu – Lagu Melayu Asli', JH/30/12/07, Kementerian Penerangan Malaysia
  147. ^ Project Experience, Environment Asia Sdn. Bhd. Retrieved 17 January 2009
  148. ^ [1], Search everysingleplace – Takungan Air Sultan Iskandar, 27. Februar 2011
  149. ^ Haresh Deol (10 December 2008). "Exco: No, you're not". Malay Mail. 
  150. ^ "IDR Is Now Iskandar Malaysia". Bernama. 11 April 2008. 
  151. ^ Commandos of Iskandar, JohorBuzz, New Straits Times
  152. ^ Laman Web Rasmi Majlis Bandaraya Johor Bahru – BERITA & PERISTIWA, Majlis Bandaraya Johor Bahru. Retrieved 28 February 2009
  153. ^ Q&A with HRH Abdul Majid, President of the Malaysian Golf Association, Sunday, 25 May 2008, Malaysian Golf Association
  154. ^ A physical symbol of loyalty and posterity Fauziah Ismail, JohorBuzz, New Straits Times
  155. ^ Royal Ark, Johor genealogy details - p.15
  156. ^ Malays/Muslims in Singapore: Selected Readings in History, 1819–1965, Khoo, Abdullah, Wan, pg 43
  157. ^ Andaya (1982), pg 78
  158. ^ Winstedt (1992), pg 181, 187
  159. ^ A History of Johore (1365–1941) (1992), pg 195
  160. ^ a b c The validity of this marriage is disputed. See A History of Johore (1992), pg 195
  161. ^ A History of Johore (1365–1941) (1992), pg 54
  162. ^ A Portrait of Malaysia and Singapore (1978), pg 102
  163. ^ Sejarah Johor (1980), pg 211
  164. ^ Federation of Malaya Official Year Book (1962), pg 26
  165. ^ a b c Died in infancy. Johor15, by Christopher Buyers, retrieved February 22, 2009

References[edit]

  • Abdul Rahman, J. S. Solomon, Challenging Times, Pelanduk Publications, 1985, ISBN 967-978-094-5
  • Abdullah, Kamarulnizam, The Politics of Islam in Contemporary Malaysia, published by Penerbit Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 2003, ISBN 967-942-592-4
  • Adil, Buyong bin, Sejarah Johor, published by Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, 1980
  • Alagappa, Muthiah, Coercion and Governance: The Declining Political Role of the Military in Asia, published by Stanford University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8047-4227-8
  • Andaya, Barbara Watson; Andaya, Leonard Y., A History of Malaysia, published by Macmillan, 1982, ISBN 0-333-27672-8
  • Andresen, Paul, Mads Lange fra Bali: Og Hans Efterslaegt Sultanerne af Johor, published by Odense Universitetsforlag, 1992, ISBN 87-7492-851-1
  • Asia & Pacific, Pharos Books, published by World of Information, 1984, ISBN 0-911818-62-6
  • Banks, Arthur S.; Muller, Thomas C; Overstreet, William R., Political Handbook of Asia 2007, published by CQ Press, ISBN 0-87289-497-5
  • Benjamin, Geoffrey; Chou, Cynthia, Tribal Communities in the Malay World: Historical, Cultural and Social Perspectives, published by Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2002, ISBN 981-230-166-6
  • Bhattacharyya, Ranjit Kumar, Sarawak, Beautiful and Captivating: Beautiful and Captivating, published by Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, Kementerian Pendidikan, Malaysia, 1994, ISBN 983-62-4540-5
  • Bowker-Saur, Who's who in Asian and Australasian Politics, 1991, ISBN 0-86291-593-7
  • British Broadcasting Corporation Monitoring Service, Summary of World Broadcasts, published by British Broadcasting Corporation, 1993
  • Brown, Charles Cuthbert, S?jarah M?layu: Or Malay Annals, Oxford University Press, 1971
  • Chang, Li Lin, Koh, Tommy Thong Bee, The Little Red Dot: Reflections by Singapore's Diplomats, published by World Scientific, 2005, ISBN 981-256-414-4
  • Cheong, Mei Sui, Information Malaysia, published by Berita Publ. Sdn. Bhd., 1985
  • Cheong, Mei Sui, Information Malaysia, published by Berita Publishing, 2002
  • Clad, James, Behind the Myth: Business, Money and Power in Southeast Asia, published by Unwin Hyman, 1989
  • Crouch, Harold A., Government and Society in Malaysia, published by Cornell University Press, 1996, ISBN 0-8014-3218-9
  • De Ledesma, Charles; Lewis, Mark; Savage, Pauline, Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei, published by Rough Guides, 2003, ISBN 1-84353-094-5
  • Dowton, Eric, Pacific Challenge: Canada's Future in the New Asia, published by Stoddart, 1986, ISBN 0-7737-2058-8
  • Federation of Malaya Official Year Book (1962), by Jabatan Penerangan Malaysia (Malaya (Federation)), published by Federal Dept. of Information, Ministry of Information, Malaysia., 1962
  • Gorman, Michael; Winkler, Paul Walter, Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, American Library Association, 1978, ISBN 0-8389-3211-8
  • Gregory, Ruth Wilhelme; Trawicky, Bernard, Anniversaries and Holidays, ALA Editions, 2000, ISBN 0-8389-0695-8
  • Haji Ahmad, Siti Rosnah, Pemerintah dan Pemimpin-Pemimpin Kerajaan Malaysia, published by Golden Books Centre, 2006, ISBN 983-72-0430-3
  • Haji Othman, Suzana Tun, Institusi Bendahara: Permata Melayu yang Hilang: Dinasti Bendahara Johor-Pahang, published by Pustaka BSM Enterprise, 2002, ISBN 983-40566-6-4
  • Horton, A. V. M, Negara Brunei Darussalam: A Biographical Dictionary (1860–1996), 1996, ISBN 0-9524831-0-6
  • Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Southeast Asian Affairs, published by Institute of Southeast Asian Studies., 1982, Item notes: 1982
  • Ismail, Yahya, Siapa kebal, Mahathir atau Raja-Raja Melayu?, published by Dinamika Kreatif, 1993
  • Jurnal Pendidikan, Universiti Malaya Faculti Pendidikan, University of Malaya, by Faculty of Education, published by Faculty of Education, University of Malaya, 1974
  • Karim, Gulrose; Tate, Desmond Muzaffar, Information Malaysia, published by Berita Publishing Sdn. Bhd., 1989
  • Karim, Gulrose; Tate, Desmond Muzaffar, Information Malaysia, published by Berita Publishing Sdn. Bhd., 1990, Item notes: 1990/91
  • Kershaw, Roger, Monarchy in South-East Asia: The Faces of Tradition in Transition, published by Routledge, 2001, ISBN 0-415-18531-9
  • Khoo, Kay Kim; Abdullah, Elinah; Wan, Meng Hao, Malays/Muslims in Singapore: Selected Readings in History, 1819–1965, Association of Muslim Professionals (Singapore), Centre for Research on Islamic & Malay Affairs (Singapore), published by Pelanduk Publications, 2006
  • Khoo, Kay Kim; Othman, Mohammad Redzuan, Jendela masa: Kumpulan Esei Sempena Persaraan, Penerbit Universiti Malaya, 2001, ISBN 983-100-120-6
  • Low, Donald Anthony, Constitutional Heads and Political Crises: Commonwealth Episodes, 1945–85, published by Macmillan, 1988, ISBN 0-333-46420-6
  • Mackie, Ronald Cecil Hamlyn, Malaysia in Focus published by Angus and Robertson, 1964
  • Means, Gordon Paul, Malaysian Politics: The Second Generation, published by Oxford University Press, 1991, ISBN 0-19-588983-5
  • Milne, Robert Stephen; Mauzy, Diane K., Malaysian Politics Under Mahathir, published by Routledge, 1999, ISBN 0-415-17143-1
  • Morais, John Victor, The Who's who in Malaysia, published by Solai Press., 1967
  • Morais, John Victor, Who's who in Malaysia ... & Profiles of Singapore, published by Who's Who Publications, 1982
  • Nadarajah, K. N, Tengku Ahmad Rithauddeen: His Story, Pelanduk Publications, 2000, ISBN 967-978-709-5
  • Nadarajah, Nesalamar, Johore and the Origins of British Control, 1895–1914, Arenabuku, 2000, ISBN 967-970-318-5
  • Najeebabadi, Akbar Shah, History of Islam (Vol 2), published by Darussalam, ISBN 9960-892-88-3
  • Petts, Judith, Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment, published by Blackwell Publishing, 1999, ISBN 0-632-04771-2
  • Rich, Mark; Copetas, A. Craig, Metal Men: How Marc Rich Defrauded the Country, Evaded the Law, and Became the World's Most Sought-After Corporate Criminal, by A. Craig Copetas, Marc Rich, published by Little Brown, 2001, ISBN 0-349-10684-3
  • Richmond, Simon; Cambon, Marie; Rowthorn, Chris; Harper, Damian, Malaysia, Singapore & Brunei, published by Lonely Planet, 2004, ISBN 1-74059-357-X
  • Sardesai, D. R., Southeast Asia Past and Present: Past and Present, published by Macmillan Education, 1989, ISBN 0-333-51120-4
  • Schimmel, Annemarie, Islamic Names: An Introduction, published by Edinburgh University Press, 1989, ISBN 0-85224-563-7
  • Saw, Swee-Hock; Kesavapany, K., Singapore-Malaysia Relations Under Abdullah Badawi, published by Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2006, ISBN 981-230-378-2
  • Shome, Anthony S. K.; Shome, Tony, Malay Political Leadership, published by Routledge, 2002, ISBN 0-7007-1629-7
  • Sleeman, Elizabeth, The International Who's Who 2004, Europa Publications, published by Routledge, 2003, ISBN 1-85743-217-7
  • Somun, Hajrudin; Somun-Krupalija, Lejla, Mahathir, the Secret of the Malaysian Success, published by Pelanduk Publications, 2003, ISBN 967-978-879-2
  • Tan, Chee KhoonSistem beraja di Malaysia, by Tan Chee Khoon, published by Pelanduk Publications, 1985
  • Tan, Ding Eing, A Portrait of Malaysia and Singapore, published by Oxford University Press, 1978, ISBN 0-19-580722-7
  • Taylor & Francis Group, Bernan Associates, The Europa Year Book: A World Survey, Europa Publications Limited, published by Europa Publications, 1984
  • Thomas, K.K, Asian Recorder, published by Recorder Press, 1984
  • Thomas, K.K, Asian Recorder, published by Recorder Press, 1993
  • Winstedt, R. O, A History of Johore (1365–1941), (M.B.R.A.S. Reprints, 6.) Kuala Lumpur: Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1992, ISBN 983-99614-6-2
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Ahmad Shah of Pahang
(Sultan of Pahang)
Yang di-Pertuan Agong
(Supreme King of Malaysia)

1984–1989
Succeeded by
Sultan Azlan Shah
(Sultan of Perak)
Preceded by
Sultan Ismail
Sultan of Johor
1981–2010
Succeeded by
Sultan Ibrahim Ismail