Iskander Mirza

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Iskander Mirza
ইস্কান্দার মীর্জা
اسکندر مرزا
Iskander Mirza.jpg
1st President of Pakistan
In office
March 23, 1956 – October 27, 1958
Prime Minister Chaudhry Muhammad Ali
Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy
Ibrahim Ismail Chundrigar
Feroz Khan Noon
Preceded by Elizabeth II
as Queen of Pakistan
Succeeded by Ayub Khan
Governor-General of Pakistan
In office
August 7, 1955 – March 23, 1956
Acting: August 7, 1955 – October 6, 1955
Monarch Elizabeth II
Prime Minister Chaudhry Muhammad Ali
Preceded by Malik Ghulam Muhammad
Succeeded by Position abolished
Minister of the Interior
In office
October 24, 1954 – August 7, 1955
Prime Minister Muhammad Ali Bogra
Preceded by Mushtaq Ahmed Gurmani
Succeeded by Fazlul Huq
Governor of East Bengal
In office
March 31, 1950 – March 31, 1953
Chief Minister Nurul Amin
Preceded by Chaudhry Khaliquzzaman
Succeeded by Muhammad Shahabuddin (Acting)
1st Defence Secretary of Pakistan
In office
October 23, 1947 – May 6, 1954
Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan
Khawaja Nazimuddin
Muhammad Ali Bogra
Preceded by Position established
Succeeded by Akhter Husain
Personal details
Born (1899-11-13)13 November 1899
Murshidabad, Bengal Presidency, British India
(now in West Bengal, India)
Died 13 November 1969(1969-11-13) (aged 70)
London, England, United Kingdom
Political party Independent
Spouse(s) Rifaat Begum (1912-1979) (her death)
Naheed Begum (1954-1969)
Children 6
Alma mater Elphinstone College
Royal Military Academy Sandhurst
Religion Islam
Military service
Years of service 1920–1928
Rank US-O8 insignia.svg Major General
Commands Army Corps of Military Police
Battles/wars Waziristan War
Indo-Pakistani War of 1947

Major General Sahibzada Sayyid Iskander Ali Mirza', CIE, OBE English IPA: ɪskɑndæɾ əɪiː mi(ə)ɹzə (Bengali: ইস্কান্দার মীর্জা; Urdu: اسکندر مرزا‎; November 13, 1889 – November 13, 1969), was the first President of Pakistan, serving from 1956 to 1958. Prior to that, Mirza was the last Governor-General of Pakistan from 1955 to 1956.[1] A great grandson of Mir Jafar,[2] Mirza was a career army officer, having reached the higher rank of major-general in Pakistan Army.

After a brief stint in the British Indian Army, Mirza joined the Indian Political Service. He became the Joint Defence Secretary of India in 1946. After the establishment of Pakistan in 1947, Prime minister Liaquat Ali Khan appointed Mirza as the first Defence Secretary, one of the most important government positions. He oversaw the Indo-Pakistan war of 1947, and the Balochistan conflict in 1948.[3] Serious disorder and civil unrest sparked in East Pakistan as a result of the Bengali Language Movement in 1952, prompting Prime minister Khawaja Nazimuddin to appoint him as the Governor of the province. He oversaw the success of the One Unit programme in East Pakistan in 1954, and succeeded Malik Ghulam as the governor general in 1955. After successfully promulgating the 1956 constitution, he became the first president. His presidency saw great political instability, challenges in foreign policy, and the ouster of four prime ministers in two years. He finally imposed martial law in 1958 after suspending the constitution and dissolving democratic institutions, including the Pakistan Parliament. Mirza has the distinction of being the first to bring in military influence in national politics after he appointed his army chief as chief martial law administrator of the country.

Problems with the Pakistan Armed Forces and the establishment escalated after relations with the United States deteriorated. After only 20 days of martial law, Chief Martial Law Administrator Field Marshal Ayub Khan forced him out of the presidency. He was exiled to London.

Descendent origins[edit]

Main article: Mir Jafar

Iskander Ali Mirza (Urdu/Persian for "Master Alexander Ali") was the eldest child of Sahibzada Sayyid Muhammad Fateh Ali Mirza (b. 1864–d. 1949) and his first wife, Dilshad Begum née Tyabji (b. 1869–d. 1924). (Mirza is a title meaning "master" and "educated", not a last name. It is given to all highly educated individuals in administrative position. It is equal to "Mandarin" in China. The proper way refer to him is "Iskander Mirza" (master Iskander) or Iskander Ali, but not Mirza alone.) He was born on November 13, 1899, in Murshidabad, Bengal Presidency of British Indian Empire.[2] The Mirza family was an extremely influential and wealthy feudal family in Bengal, with close ties with British monarchy. His father, Fateh Ali Mirza belonged to the ruling house of Murshidabad, grandson of the first Nawab Mansur Ali Khan.[2]

His paternal great grandfather was Mir Jafar, generally known to Indians, Pakistanis and Bangladeshis as a quisling. Mir Jafar had played an integral role bringing down Siraj ud-Daulah of Bengal, with the British Empire serving as the informant and leading provider of intelligence to British officer Robert Clive.[4]

Education and military service[edit]

Second Lieutenant Iskander Mirza, 1920

Mirza grew up in Bombay, receiving his early education at Elphinstone College, of the then University of Bombay.[1] He then joined the British Army and was educated at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst, becoming the first Indian graduate of the academy, and was commissioned into the British Indian Army in 1920.[1]

His military career was spent in the military police and he was attached to the second battalion, Cameronians starting July 16, 1920.[1] His service saw extensive operations in North West Frontier Province. He went on to serve in the "Operation Khodad Khel" in 1921, and in the Waziristan war in 1920.[1] He was transferred to the 17th Poona Horse (Queen Victoria's Own), as an army inspector.[1] However, his career was short-lived and Mirza left the army to join the Indian Political Service in 1926, being posted as the Assistant Commissioner of the North West Frontier Province.[1] In 1931, he was appointed as district officer. His career was spent in the troubled Tribal belt. He became the Political Agent of the Tribal Belt in 1938, remaining there until 1945.[1]

Mirza was appointed and served as the political agent of Odisha and North West Frontier Province from 1945 until 1946.[3] His ability to run the colonial administrative units had brought him to a prominence that prompted the British Indian Government to appointed him as the Joint Defence Secretary of India in 1946.[3] In this position, he was responsible for dividing the British Indian Army into the future armies of Pakistan and India.[3] In 1947, Mirza became Pakistan's first defense secretary in the government of Liaquat Ali Khan.[3]

Defence secretary[edit]

Upon the establishment of Pakistan, Mirza was one of the highest ranking government officer in the nation.[5] As the defense secretary, Mirza oversaw the 1947 war with India, as well as the Balochistan conflict. In 1950, Prime minister Ali Khan approved the recommendation of his appointment as honorary active duty major general in Pakistan Army, commanding the Military Police as its second General Officer Commanding. In 1951, Prime minister Liaquat Ali Khan appointed him as the director of the Department of Kashmir and Afghanistan Affairs (DKA). His stint also saw the redeployment of Military Police in East-Pakistan as a result of the Bengali Language Movement, during which the East Pakistan Army fatally shot four student activists. Within a short span of time, the Military Police had the control of the state and its officer commanding submitted the report of their course of action to Major General Iskander Mirza in 1954.

Governor of East Pakistan[edit]

Mirza's rapid control of the province brought him to national prominence, leading to national recognition.[5] Upon the dismissal of United Front, Governor General Malik Ghulam Muhammad decided to declare governor's rule in the state, with the incoming prime minister asked to appoint a governor. Appointing a new cabinet, Prime minister Muhammad Ali Bogra named him the governor of East Pakistan. Taking the oath from the Chief Justice Muhammad Munir, Mirza arrived to East Pakistan in May 1954.[5] After landing at the Dhaka Airport, Mirza sharply announced in Bengali language to the Pakistan media representatives, that he would not hesitate to use force in order to establish peace in the province.[5] On the first day of his charge, he ordered the arrest of 319 persons, including Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and Yusuf Ali Chowdhury.[5]

By mid-June 1954, the number of arrests reached 1,051, including 33 assembly members and two Dhaka University professors.[5] Although the peace was restored and law and order situation improved, such actions had sown a permanent seed of hatred for the federal government in the hearts of the people of East Pakistan.[5]

Iskander Mirza meeting the Shah of Iran, as the Governor General of Pakistan

Governor general[edit]

The same year, he was called to continue his service in federal government being appointed the minister of the interior and minister of commonwealth and Kashmir affairs in Prime minister Muhammad Ali Bogra's cabinet.[6] He was one of the most senior bureaucratic ministers in the Bogra government, and was extremely influential at that time.[6] Due to a long illness, Governor General Ghulam Muhammad went on a two-month leave to the United Kingdom, leaving the office of governor general to Iskander Mirza.[6] On August 7, 1955, Mirza assumed the office of governor general.[6] Immediately after being administered oath by chief justice of Pakistan, he spoke to the nation on radio. Owing to the continuing political instability, he forced Prime minister Bogra to resign from his office, despatching him as Pakistan Ambassador to the United States in 1955.[6]

Mirza was a big supporter of the "One Unit Programme"— a programme of integrating the provinces of West Pakistan and East Pakistan into one single entity.[6] This programme met with harsh criticism led by the nationalists, particularly in Sindh and the N.W.F.P.[6]

On August 12, Mirza appointed Chaudhry Muhammad Ali as the interim prime minister. Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy, the leader of the Awami League took over as the fifth prime minister of Pakistan on September 12, 1956, after his party formed an alliance with the Republican Party.[5]

Presidency[edit]

Iskander Mirza, being sworn in as the first President of Pakistan.

The 1956 Constitution of Pakistan replaced the position of governor general of Pakistan with the President of Pakistan.[7] For almost nine years after the nation's independence, the country's political system was driven by Parliamentary democracy.[7] The Pakistan Parliament unanimously elected Iskander Mirza as the first President of Pakistan.

President Mirza, an Establishment-backed president, widely lacked the parliamentary spirit, distrusting the civilians to ensure the integrity and sovereignty of country.[7] His presidency was marked by great political instability, civil unrest, and immigration problems.[7] The electricity problems in West Pakistan brought his government nearly to an end, prompting Prime Minister Suhrawardy to establish the plan for nuclear power in the country.[7] Relations with the United States and Soviet Union deteriorated quickly, and problems with India also mounted.[7]

Shah of Iran's first state visit to Pakistan

Under his presidency, Mirza dismissed his elected prime ministers, including Suhrawardy, also a Bengali from East Pakistan.[7]

Martial law[edit]

The Awami League began negotiating a power sharing programme with the Muslim League, reorganizing after the 1954 elections. This attempt of the Awami League threatened Mirza and his political influence nearly bringing the Muslim League to come to its end. Therefore, on October 7, 1958, Mirza issued an executive decree and a state presidential proclamation abrogating the 1956 Constitution.[8] The Pakistan Parliament, provisional assemblies were dissolved, and the government of Prime Minister Sir Feroz Khan Noon came to an end.[8]

On October 7, 1958, Iskander Mizra announced via national radio that he was introducing a new constitution "more suited to the genius of the Pakistan nation",[9] as he believed democracy was unsuited to Pakistan "with its 15% literacy rate".[9] In 1958, Mirza took the nation into confidence, saying that:

Three weeks ago, I (Iskander Mirza) imposed martial law in Pakistan and appointed General Ayub Khan as Supreme Commander of the [Armed Forces] and also as Chief Martial Law Administrator.... By the grace of God... This measure which I had adopted in the interest of our beloved country has been extremely well received by our people and by our friends and well wishers abroad... I have done best to administer in the difficult task of arresting further deterioration and bringing order out of chaos... In our efforts to evolve an effective structure for future administration of this country... Pakistan Zindabad, Pakistan Zindabad!

—President Iskander Mirza, declaring Martial law in 1958[10]

(However, Bhutto in 1967 countered Iskander Mirza's views after pointing out that "the same problem of low literacy also existed in India which had opted for democracy".)[9]

This martial law imposed by country's first Bengali president was a first martial law in Pakistan, which would continue until the dissolution of East Pakistan in 1971.[8] Iskander Mirza appointed then-Army Commander of Pakistan Army, General Ayub Khan, as the chief martial law administrator (CMLA), which proved his undoing within three weeks.[8]

Military coup[edit]

President Iskander Mirza and his Army Commander General Ayub Khan had began the new era with apparent unanimity, which was described as a two-man dictatorial regime that evolved under the "Establishment", and the Pakistan Armed Forces.[11] However, the two had very different views on dealing with the new situation, even though they were responsible for bringing about the change.[11]

President Iskander Mirza had not envisaged any change in his previous powers; he wanted to retain the ability to maneuver things in keeping with his own whims.[11] Judging from the situation, the things however had changed as the time and situation both were demanding the complete solution.[11] General Ayub Khan came to an understanding that the real political power and might rested with the Armed Forces, and the CMLA General Ayub Khan was determined to assert himself.[11] Within a week of the proclamation of martial law, President Mirza realized the delicate position he had got himself into.[11] In an interview with Dawn, President Mirza regretted his decision saying: "I did not mean to do it"[11] while offering assurances that the martial law would be for the shortest possible duration.[11]

The sharing of power soon led to the intensification of the tug-of-war between the two men.[12] This deadly game produced negative results for President Mirza after he tried to balance the power structure by illegally appointing General Ayub Khan as Prime Minister on October 24, 1958.[12] The new cabinet that President Mirza had formed consisted entirely of non-political members, mostly technocrats, one of them being Zulfikar Ali Bhutto.[12] The new cabinet did not satisfy General Ayub Khan who had more powers as the chief martial law administrator.[12]

In order to secure himself, President Iskander Mirza made a last-ditch effort by trying to get the support of Ayub Khan's rivals within the Army, Navy, and the PAF.[12] This move backfired on President Mirza when senior military officers informed General Ayub Khan of his schemes.[12] With the consensus of senior military officers, Ayub Khan forced President Mirza to resign on October 27, 1958.[12] Within days, he was exiled to London, making Ayub Khan the sole power in Pakistan.[12]

Post-presidency and death[edit]

Iskander Mirza's State Funeral in Iran, in 1969.

Iskander Mirza lived in exile in London, England, until his death. It is reported that Mirza struggled financially while living in London trying to run a small Pakistan cuisine hotel.[13] Here he lived in poverty until his death. His only regular income was an annual pension of £3,000 as a former military officer and president. People like the Ispahanis, Ardeshir Zahedi, the ambassador and later Foreign Minister of Iran, the Shah of Iran, Lord Inchcape, Lord Hume and other heads of European governments made his life in exile tolerable. At the London hospital where he died, he once said to his wife, Nahid: "We cannot afford medical treatment, so just let me die." [14]

He died of a heart attack on November 13, 1969. President Yahya Khan denied him a burial in Pakistan. The Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi sent his personal plane to London to bring President Mirza's body to Tehran, where he was given a state funeral. Hundreds of Iranians, including Prime Minister Abbas Hoveyda, and Pakistani expatriates in Iran bade farewell and offered their prayers.[13]

The funeral ceremony was marred by the absence of Iskander Mirza's relations living in Pakistan. The military government barred them from leaving Pakistan in time despite the best efforts by Ardeshir Zahedi, Iran's foreign minister, and President Iskander Mirza's friends in Pakistan and Iran. There are unfounded rumors that after the Islamic Revolution in Iran (1979), his grave was desecrated. This is untrue, as his resting place in the shrine city of Ray in the southern suburbs of Tehran and close to the former resting place of Shah's own father, remains whole and undisturbed.

Family[edit]

Mirza was married twice: his first marriage took place on November 24, 1922, when he married a Bengali woman, Rifaat Begum (1907-March 23, 1967). The couple had two sons and four daughters.[15]

Humayun Mirza is the only surviving son of Iskander Mirza. He was born in Poona, India, and was educated at Doon School.He also studied in the U.K., before moving to the U.S., where he earned his MBA from Harvard. He married the daughter of Horace Hildreth, the U.S. ambassador to Pakistan. He retired from the World Bank in 1988. He lives in Bethesda. He is the author of a book "From Plassey to Pakistan: The Family History of Iskander Mirza." Humayun's younger brother, Enver Mirza, had died in a plane crash in 1953.

In October 1954, while in West Pakistan, Mirza's second marriage took place in Karachi after he fell in love with Iranian-Pakistan woman Naheed Begum (1914–). She was the wife of an Iran's military attaché and a close friend of Begum Nusrat Bhutto. It was this friendship that brought Zulfikar Ali Bhutto into the political arena of Pakistan.[16]

Legacy[edit]

Iskander Ali Mirza is often criticized for imposing martial law.[1] Historians have noted that Mirza held that Pakistanis "lacked the parliamentary spirit and because of the lack of training in the field of democracy and the low literacy rate among the masses, democratic institutions cannot flourish in Pakistan".[1] He believed that the judicial authorities should be given the same powers which they used to enjoy during the British Indian Empire.[1]

Mizra's political ideology reflected secularism, and an image of internationalism, strongly advocating the religious separation in state matters.[1] Mirza had never had a high opinion of politicians. He was well known for his conviction that the politicians were destroying the country. He felt that in order to work towards real and responsible democracy, the country must have what he called "controlled democracy".[14]

Historians also asserted that Mirza's role as the head of state led him to play an active part in power politics, building an image of being a kingmaker in the country's politics.[1] Mirza took full advantage of the weaknesses of politicians and played them against each other, first offsetting the influence of the Muslim League by creating the Republican Party.[1]

During his short span of four years as the head of state, four prime ministers were changed, three of them were his appointees, while the only popularly elected Bengali prime minister was dismissed. Iskander Mirza is thus widely held responsible for the instability that brought the active role of Pakistan armed forces in politics.[1] Despite this criticism, Mirza was praised by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, who in a 1958 letter wrote to him:

I would like to take this opportunity to reassure you of my imperishable and devoted loyalty to you. Exactly four months before the death of my late father,he had advised me to remain steadfastly loyal to you as you were 'not an individual but an institution'. For the greater good of my own country, I feel that your services to Pakistan are indispensable. When the history of our country is written by objective historians, your name will be placed even before that of Mr. Jinnah. Sir, I say this because I mean it and not because of you are the president of my country.[17]

Honours[edit]

(ribbon bar, as it would look today)

Order of the Indian Empire ribbon.png Order of the British Empire (Civil) Ribbon.png India Service Medal BAR.svg

GeorgeVSilverJubileum-ribbon.png GeorgeVICoronationRibbon.png UK Queen EII Coronation Medal ribbon.svg PakistanIndependenceMedalRibbon.jpg

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Story of Pakistan Press. "Teething Years: Iskander Mirza". Story of Pakistan (Part-I). Retrieved 1 February 2012. 
  2. ^ a b c Baxter, Craig (1997). Bangladesh: from a nation to a state. United States: Westview Press, 1997. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-8133-2854-6. 
  3. ^ a b c d e Government of Pakistan. "President Iskandar Mirza". Ministry of Information and Public Broadcasting. Electronic Government of Pakistan. Retrieved 1 February 2012. 
  4. ^ Iskandar Mirza, Ayub Khan, and October 1958, by Syed Badrul Ahsan, The New Age, Bangladesh, October 30, 2005.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h Story of Pakistan. "Iskander Mirza". Story of Pakistan Press Directorate. The Story of Pakistan (Iskandar's life). Retrieved 2 February 2012. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Story of Pakistan. "Iskander Mirza Becomes Governor General [1955]". Story of Pakistan (Mirza became Governor-General). Retrieved 2 February 2012. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Story of Pakistan. "Iskander Mirza Becomes President [1956]". Story of Pakistan. Story of Pakistan (Mirza Becomes President). Retrieved 2 February 2012. 
  8. ^ a b c d Story of Pakistan. "Martial Law". Story of Pakistan (Martial Law). Retrieved 2 February 2012. 
  9. ^ a b c Hassan PhD (Civil Engineering), Dr. Professor Mubashir (2000). The Mirage of Power. ford University, United Kingdom: Dr. Professor Mubashir Hassan, professor of Civil Engineering at the University of Engineering and Technology and the Oxford University Press. p. 394. ISBN 0-19-579300-5. 
  10. ^ Iqbal Academy Pakistan. Pakistan "Lengthy Text of President Iskander Ali Mirza's speech". Retrieved 3 February 2012. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i Story of Pakistan. "Ouster of President Iskander Mirza". Story of Pakistan. Story of Pakistan (Ouster of President (Iskander Mirza Part-I). Retrieved 2 February 2012. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h Story of Pakistan. "Ouster of President Iskander Mirza". Story of Pakistan. Story of Pakistan (Ouster of President (Iskander Mirza Part-II). Retrieved 2 February 2012. 
  13. ^ a b Qudratullah Shahab (1998). Shahab-nama. Karachi, Pakistan: Jang Publications. p. 360. ISBN 969-35-0025-3. 
  14. ^ a b Humayun Mirza, From Plassey to Pakistan: The Family History of Iskander Mirza, 1999, Ferozsons, Lahore
  15. ^ Kabita Chowdhury (29 Dec 2011). "First Pakistan president's Bengal home in a shambles". Times of India. Retrieved 3 February 2012. 
  16. ^ a b Administration Post. "ZAB calls Iskander Mirza ‘Greater Than Jinnah’". Indian Press News. Retrieved 3 February 2012. 
  17. ^ http://www.therepublicofrumi.com/archives/58zab.htm

Offices[edit]

Political offices
New office Defence Secretary of Pakistan
1947–1954
Succeeded by
Akhter Husain
Preceded by
Chaudhry Khaliquzzaman
Governor of East Bengal
1954–1955
Succeeded by
Muhammad Shahabuddin
Acting
Preceded by
Mushtaq Ahmed Gurmani
Minister of the Interior
1954–1955
Succeeded by
Fazlul Huq
Preceded by
Malik Ghulam Muhammad
Governor-General of Pakistan
1955–1956
Position abolished
New office President of Pakistan
1956–1958
Succeeded by
Ayub Khan

External links[edit]