Jurassic Park is an American media franchise consisting of novels, films, comics, and video games centering on a disastrous attempt to create a theme park of cloned dinosaurs. It began in 1990 when Universal Studios bought the rights to the novel by Michael Crichton before it was even published.
The book was successful, as was the 1993 film adaptation, which led to three sequels, although the third and fourth films were not based on novels, as the first two were. The software developers Ocean Software, BlueSky Software, Sega of America, and Telltale Games have had the rights to developing video games since the 1993 film, and numerous games have been produced.
The Jurassic Park Ultimate Trilogy was released on Blu-ray Disc and DVD on October 25, 2011 in North America. The first film was re-released in 3D on April 5, 2013. On June 21, 1996, Universal Studios Hollywood and Universal's Islands of Adventure opened Jurassic Park: The Ride and Jurassic Park River Adventure. The rides are heavily themed on the main trilogy. The rides are similar to Thorpe Park's Tidal Wave and Parc Asterix's Le Grand Splash which translated in English is The Big Splash.
The fourth film Jurassic World was initially scheduled to be released in the summer of 2005, but has since been pushed back to a June 12, 2015 release. In March 2013, Colin Trevorrow was announced as the director. Frank Marshall and Patrick Crowley are producing the film with a script written by Trevorrow and Derek Connolly. Trevorrow said sequels to Jurassic World have been discussed.
- 1 Development
- 2 Novels
- 3 InGen
- 4 Films
- 5 Principal cast
- 6 Crew
- 7 Reception
- 8 Comic books
- 9 Video games
- 10 Rides
- 11 References
- 12 External links
Michael Crichton originally conceived a screenplay around a pterosaur being cloned from fossil DNA. After wrestling with this idea for a while, he came up with the idea of Jurassic Park. Steven Spielberg learned of the novel in October 1989 while he and Crichton were discussing a screenplay that would become the TV series ER. Before the book was published, Crichton put up a non-negotiable fee for $1.5 million as well as a substantial percentage of the gross. Warner Bros. and Tim Burton, Columbia Pictures and Richard Donner, and 20th Century Fox and Joe Dante also bid for the rights, Universal further paid Crichton $500,000 to adapt his own novel, but in May 1990, Universal eventually decided on Spielberg making the adaptation. Universal desperately needed money to keep their company alive, and partially succeeded with Jurassic Park, as it became a critical and commercial success.
After Jurassic Park was released to home video, Crichton was pressured from many sources for a sequel novel. Crichton declined all offers until Spielberg himself told him that he would be keen to direct a movie adaptation of the sequel, if one were written. Crichton began work almost immediately. After the novel was published in 1995, The Lost World: Jurassic Park began production in September 1996.
Before the production of the second film, Joe Johnston approached Steven Spielberg about directing the project. While Spielberg wanted to direct the first sequel, he agreed that if there was ever a third film, Johnston could direct. Production began on August 30, 2000.
Jurassic Park stemmed from the idea of a screenplay about cloning a pterosaur from fossilized DNA. Crichton worked on the idea for several years; he decided his first draft would have a theme park for the setting and a young boy as the main character. Response was extremely negative, so Crichton rewrote the story to make it from an adult's point of view, this story was much more well received.
A sequel novel began after readers and Steven Spielberg himself pressured Crichton for a sequel novel. Crichton confirmed that his novel had elements taken from Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's novel of the same name. The book was also an outstanding success, both with professional and amateur critics. A film adaptation was released in 1997.
The fictional company InGen (International Genetic Technologies, Inc.) is based in Palo Alto, California, and has one location in Europe. Nevertheless, most of InGen's research took place on the fictional islands of Isla Sorna and Isla Nublar. While official records indicated InGen was just one of any number of small 1980s genetic engineering start-ups, the events of the novel and film revealed to a select group that InGen had discovered a method of cloning dinosaurs and other animals (including a quagga) using blood extracted from mosquitoes trapped in amber during various periods in time, ranging from the Mesozoic era to the 1800s. Beacham's Encyclopedia of Popular Fiction describe InGen as comparable to another "sleazy organization". Other sources reference the company's receiving the baby T-Rex as an allusion to other exploitative entrepreneurs depicted in King Kong. Ken Gelder describes InGen as "resolutely secretive, just like the firm in Grisham's novel."
Jurassic Park (1993)
Before Crichton's book was even published, studios such as Warner Bros., Columbia TriStar, 20th Century Fox, and Universal had already begun bidding to acquire the picture rights. Spielberg, with the backing of Universal Studios, acquired the rights to the novel before its publication in 1990, and Crichton was hired by Universal Studios for an additional US$500,000 to adapt the novel into a proper screenplay. David Koepp wrote the final draft, which left out much of the novel's exposition and violence, and made numerous changes to the characters.
When an incident results in the death of an employee, Jurassic Park owner John Hammond (Richard Attenborough) brings in three specialists to sign off on the park to calm investors. The specialists, paleontologist Alan Grant (Sam Neill), paleobotanist Ellie Sattler (Laura Dern), and chaos theorist Ian Malcolm (Jeff Goldblum), are surprised to see the island park's main attraction are living, breathing dinosaurs, created with a mixture of fossilized DNA and genetic cross-breeding/cloning. However, when lead programmer Dennis Nedry (Wayne Knight) shuts down the park's power to sneak out with samples of the dinosaur embryos to sell to a corporate rival, the dinosaurs break free, and the survivors are forced to find a way to turn the power back on and make it out alive. The film also stars Bob Peck, Martin Ferrero, Ariana Richards, Joseph Mazzello, and Samuel L. Jackson.
Jurassic Park is regarded as a landmark in the use of computer-generated imagery, and received positive reviews from critics, who praised the effects, though reactions to other elements of the picture, such as character development, were mixed. During its release, the film grossed more than $914 million worldwide, becoming the most successful film released up to that time (surpassing E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial and surpassed 4 years later by Titanic), and it is currently the 15th highest grossing feature film (taking inflation into account, it is the 20th-highest-grossing film in North America). It is the most financially successful film for NBCUniversal and Steven Spielberg.
The Lost World: Jurassic Park (1997)
After the success of the first 1993 film, fans and critics alike pressured Crichton for a sequel novel. Having never done one before, Crichton originally declined, but when Steven Spielberg finally started pressuring Crichton, a sequel novel was announced. As soon as the novel was published, a film was in pre-production, with a target release date of mid-1997. The film was a commercial success, breaking many box-office records when released. The film had mixed reviews, similar to its predecessor in terms of characterization. Much like the first film, The Lost World made a number of changes to the plot and characters from the book, replacing the corporate rivals with an internal power struggle and changing the roles/characterizations of several protagonists.
When a vacationing family stumbles upon the dinosaurs of Isla Sorna, a secondary island where the animals were bred en masse and allowed to grow before being transported to the park, Ian Malcolm (Jeff Goldblum) is called in by John Hammond (Richard Attenborough) to lead a team to document the island to turn it into a preserve, where the animals can roam free without interference from the outside world. Malcolm agrees to go when he discovers his girlfriend, paleontologist Sarah Harding (Julianne Moore) is already on the island, while at the same time Hammond's nephew Peter Ludlow (Arliss Howard) has taken over his uncle's company and leads a team of hunters to capture the creatures and bring them back to a theme park in San Diego. The two groups clash and are ultimately forced to work together to evade the predatory creatures and survive the second island. The film also stars Pete Postlethwaite, Richard Schiff, Vince Vaughn, Vanessa Lee Chester, Peter Stormare, and a young Camilla Belle.
Jurassic Park III (2001)
Joe Johnston had been interested in directing the sequel to Jurassic Park and approached his friend Steven Spielberg about the project. While Spielberg wanted to direct the first sequel, he agreed that if there was ever a third film, Johnston could direct. Spielberg, nevertheless, stayed involved in this film by becoming its executive producer. Production began on August 30, 2000 with filming in California, Oahu, and Molokai. It is the first Jurassic Park film not to be based on a novel. The film was a success and had mixed reviews from critics. Most were split on whether the third installment was better or worse than its predecessor. The film once again suffered reviews mentioning little to no characterization.
When their son goes missing while parasailing at Isla Sorna, the Kirbys (William H. Macy & Téa Leoni) hire Alan Grant (Sam Neill) under false pretenses to help them navigate the island. Believing it to be nothing more than sight-seeing, and that he will act as a dinosaur guide from the safety of their plane, he's startled to find them landing on the ground, where they are stalked by a super-predator, the Spinosaurus, which destroys their plane. As they search for the Kirbys' son, the situation grows dire as Velociraptors (more intelligent than ever) hunt their group, and they must find a way off the island. The film also stars Alessandro Nivola, Michael Jeter, Trevor Morgan, Mark Harelik, and Laura Dern.
Jurassic World (2015)
Steven Spielberg devised a story idea for a fourth film in 2001, during production of Jurassic Park III. In 2002, William Monahan was hired to write the script, with the film's release scheduled for 2005. Monahan finished the first draft of the script in 2003, with the film's plot revolving around dinosaurs escaping to the mainland. Sam Neill and Richard Attenborough were set to reprise their characters, while Keira Knightley was in talks for two separate roles. In 2004, John Sayles wrote two drafts of the script. Sayles' first draft involved a team of deinonychus being trained for use in rescue missions. His second draft involved genetically modified dinosaur-human mercenaries. Both drafts were scrapped. In 2006, a new script was being worked on. Laura Dern was contacted to reprise her role, with the film expected for release in 2008. The film was further delayed by the 2007–08 Writers Guild of America strike. Mark Protosevich wrote two film treatments in 2011, which were rejected. Rick Jaffa and Amanda Silver were hired in 2012 to write an early draft of the script. In 2013, Colin Trevorrow was announced as a director and co-writer, with the film scheduled for release on June 12, 2015. The film will be shot in 3D.
While no official plot has been released, the film is said to feature a new park, Jurassic World, built on the remains of the original park on Isla Nublar. The film sees the park run by Simon Masrani (Irrfan Khan) and Masrani Corp, and features the return of Dr. Henry Wu (B.D. Wong) from the first film, who harbors a grudge against his former employer. Chris Pratt, Bryce Dallas Howard, and Jake Johnson star, while Vincent D'Onofrio will portray the main antagonist, Vic Hoskins. The cast also includes Lauren Lapkus, Ty Simpkins, Nick Robinson, Omar Sy, and Judy Greer. The primary dinosaur antagonist is a genetically-modified hybrid of several species, named Indominus Rex.
On the possibility of potential sequels, Trevorrow said: "We wanted to create something that would be a little bit less arbitrary and episodic, and something that could potentially arc into a series that would feel like a complete story."
|The Lost World: Jurassic Park
|Jurassic Park III
|Dr. Alan Grant||Sam Neill||Sam Neill|
|Dr. Ellie Sattler||Laura Dern||Laura Dern|
|Dr. Ian Malcolm||Jeff Goldblum||(Mentioned only)|
|John Hammond||Richard Attenborough||(Mentioned only)|
|Tim Murphy||Joseph Mazzello|
|Lex Murphy||Ariana Richards|
|Dr. Henry Wu||B. D. Wong||B. D. Wong|
|Robert Muldoon||Bob Peck||(Mentioned only in deleted scenes)|
|Ray Arnold||Samuel L. Jackson||(Mentioned only in deleted scenes)|
|Dennis Nedry||Wayne Knight|
|Donald Gennaro||Martin Ferrero||(Mentioned only in deleted scenes)|
|Lewis Dodgson||Cameron Thor|
|Dr. Gerry Harding||Jerry Molen|
|Dr. Sarah Harding||Julianne Moore|
|Kelly Curtis Malcolm||Vanessa Lee Chester|
|Nick van Owen||Vince Vaughn|
|Roland Tembo||Pete Postlethwaite|
|Peter Ludlow||Arliss Howard|
|Ajay Sidhu||Harvey Jason|
|Dr. Robert Burke||Thomas F. Duffy|
|Dieter Stark||Peter Stormare|
|Eddie Carr||Richard Schiff|
|Paul Kirby||William H. Macy|
|Amanda Kirby||Téa Leoni|
|Billy Brennan||Alessandro Nivola|
|Eric Kirby||Trevor Morgan|
|M. B. Nash||Bruce A. Young|
|Ben Hildebrand||Mark Harelik|
|Owen Grady||Chris Pratt|
|Claire Dearing||Bryce Dallas Howard|
|Vic Hoskins||Vincent D'Onofrio|
|Simon Masrani||Irrfan Khan|
|Katashi Hamada||Brian Tee|
|Year||Film||Director||Producer||Screenplay (1–2)/Writer (3–4)||Composer||Editor||Cinematographer|
|1993||Jurassic Park||Steven Spielberg||Kathleen Kennedy & Gerald R. Molen||Michael Crichton & David Koepp||John Williams||Michael Kahn||Dean Cundey|
|1997||The Lost World: Jurassic Park||Gerald R. Molen & Colin Wilson||David Koepp||Janusz Kamiński|
|2001||Jurassic Park III||Joe Johnston||Kathleen Kennedy & Larry J. Franco||Peter Buchman, Alexander Payne & Jim Taylor||Don Davis
John Williams (original themes)
|Robert Dalva||Shelly Johnson|
|2015||Jurassic World||Colin Trevorrow||Frank Marshall & Patrick Crowley||Rick Jaffa & Amanda Silver and Derek Connolly & Colin Trevorrow||Michael Giacchino
John Williams (original themes)
|Kevin Stitt||John Schwartzman|
|Jurassic Park||The Lost World: Jurassic Park||Jurassic Park III||Jurassic World|
|Jurassic Park||The Lost World: Jurassic Park||Jurassic Park III||Jurassic World|
|Best Score Soundtrack||Nomination||Nomination|
Box office performance
|Film||Release date||Box office gross||Box office ranking||Budget||Ref(s)|
|Jurassic Park||June 11, 1993||$402,453,882||$627,486,021||$1,029,939,903||#16
|The Lost World:
|May 23, 1997||$229,086,679||$389,552,320||$618,638,999||#96
|Jurassic Park III||July 18, 2001||$181,171,875||$187,608,934||$368,780,809||#167||#203||$93 million|||
|Jurassic World||June 12, 2015||$150 million|||
Critical and public response
|Jurassic Park||93% (110 reviews)||68 (20 reviews)||A|
|The Lost World: Jurassic Park||52% (64 reviews)||59 (18 reviews)||B+|
|Jurassic Park III||49% (159 reviews)||42 (30 reviews)||B-|
From June 1993 to August 1997 the now-defunct Topps Comics published comic adaptions of Jurassic Park and The Lost World: Jurassic Park, as well as several tie-in series.
- Jurassic Park #0–4 (June – September 1993). Adaptation of the film, adapted by Walter Simonson and pencilled by Gil Kane. Each issue had two covers – a main cover by Gil Kane, with the variant by Dave Cockrum. Issue #0 features two prequel stories to the film, and was only available with the trade paperback of the film adaption.
- Jurassic Park: Raptor #1–2 (November – December 1993). First part of the "Raptor" trilogy. Written by Steve Englehart and pencilled by Armando Gil and Dell Barras.
- Jurassic Park: Raptors Attack #1–4 (March – June 1994). Second part of the "Raptor" trilogy Written by Steve Englehart, pencilled by Armando Gil (#1) and Chaz Truog, with covers by Michael Golden.
- Jurassic Park: Raptors Hijack #1–4 (July – October 1994). Third part of the "Raptor" trilogy. Written by Steve Englehart, pencilled by Neil Vokes, with covers by Michael Golden.
- Jurassic Park: Annual #1 (May 1995). Featuring two stories, one being a sequel and one being a prequel. Written by Bob Almond Michael Golden and Renée Witterstaetter, pencilled by Claude St. Aubin and Ed Murr, with a cover by Michael Golden.
- Return to Jurassic Park #1–9 (April 1995 – February 1996). Ongoing series. The first four issues were written by Steve Englehart and pencilled by Joe Staton. The next four issues were written by Tom Bierbaum and Mary Bierbaum, being drawn by Armando Gil. The first 8 issues had covers by Michael Golden. The ninth and final issue was a jam book written by Keith Giffen and Dwight Jon Zimmerman, featuring artwork by such acclaimed artists as Jason Pearson, Adam Hughes, Paul Gulacy, John Byrne, Kevin Maguire, Mike Zeck, George Pérez and Paul Chadwick, with a cover by John Bolton.
- The Lost World: Jurassic Park #1–4 (May – August 1997). Adaptation of the second film. Adapted by Don McGregor and pencilled by Jeff Butler (#1–2) and Claude St. Aubin (#3–4). Each issue of the series featured two covers – one by Walter Simonson and a photo cover.
Beginning in June 2010, IDW Publishing began publishing Jurassic Park comics. They also acquired the rights to reprint the issues published by Topps in the 1990s, which they began to do in trade paperback format starting in November 2010. Mark Schultz will be drawing a future cover.
- Jurassic Park: Redemption #1–5 (June 2010 – October 2010). Five-issue series written by Bob Schreck with art by Nate van Dyke. Each issue has a main cover penciled by Tom Yeates, with variant covers by Frank Miller, Arthur Adams, Paul Pope, Bernie Wrightson, and Bill Stout, respectively.
- Jurassic Park: The Devils in the Desert #1–4 (January 2011 – April 2011) Four-issue series written and illustrated by John Byrne.
- Jurassic Park: Dangerous Games #1–5 (September 2011 – January 2012) Five-issue series written by Greg Bear and Erik Bear, with art by Jorge Jimenez and a variant cover by Geof Darrow.
This series has been collected in the following trade paperbacks:
|Title||Material collected||No° of Pages||ISBN|
|Jurassic Park||Jurassic Park #1–4||ISBN 1-85286-502-4|
|The Lost World: Jurassic Park||The Lost World: Jurassic Park #1–4||ISBN 1-85286-885-6|
|Jurassic Park Vol. 1: Redemption||Jurassic Park Redemption #1–5||120 pages||ISBN 1-60010-850-4|
|Jurassic Park: The Devils in the Desert||Jurassic Park: The Devils in the Desert #1–4||104 pages||ISBN 1-60010-923-3|
|Jurassic Park: Dangerous Games||Jurassic Park: Dangerous Games #1–5||112 pages||ISBN 1-61377-002-2|
|Classic Jurassic Park Volume 1||Jurassic Park #1–4||104 pages||ISBN 1-60010-760-5|
Classic Jurassic Park Volume 2: Raptors' Revenge
|Juassic Park #0, Jurassic Park: Raptor #1–2, Jurassic Park: Raptors Attack #1–4||192 pages||ISBN 1-60010-885-7|
|Classic Jurassic Park Volume 3: Amazon Adventure!||Jurassic Park: Raptors Hijack #1–4, Jurassic Park: Annual #1||124 pages||ISBN 1-61377-042-1|
|Classic Jurassic Park Volume 4: Return to Jurassic Park, Part 1||Return to Jurassic Park #1–4||128 pages||ISBN 1-61377-117-7|
|Classic Jurassic Park Volume 5: Return to Jurassic Park, Part 2||Return to Jurassic Park #5–9||108 pages||ISBN 978-1613775332|
|Classic Jurassic Park Volume 6: The Lost World||The Lost World: Jurassic Park #1–4||104 pages||ISBN 978-1613779156|
When the first film was released in 1993, two different video game publishers were given the rights to publish games based on it, Sega and Ocean Software. They both produced several different games based on the movie for several different game systems, including the NES and Sega Genesis. In 1994, Ocean Software produced a sequel to the first game in the series for the Game Boy and SNES systems. Universal Interactive also produced an interactive game for the ill-fated 3DO system.
For the second film in the franchise, DreamWorks Interactive released 5 games for the most popular systems at the time. The third film had the biggest marketing push, spawning seven video games for PC and Game Boy Advance. A number of lightgun arcade games were also released for all three films.
In 2003, Jurassic Park: Operation Genesis was released for the Xbox, PlayStation 2, and PC.
Jurassic Park: The Game
A new episodic video game based on the Jurassic Park franchise, bridging the story of the first two movies and entitled Jurassic Park: The Game, was developed by Telltale Games in a deal with Universal. It was released on November 15, 2011 to a generally good reception. The game was acknowledged canon with Jurassic Park continuity by writers of the original Jurassic Park. The game takes place during and after the events of the original film, and features Troodon and a Mosasaur, amongst other creatures. The game is available on PC, Mac and iPads.
Jurassic Park: Builder
A freemium game that is based on the Jurassic Park franchise, Jurassic Park Builder, was released July 23, 2012 as an app for Android and iOS devices, developed by Ludia games. Taking place in a possible future following the events of the first three films and preceding the events of the fourth, the player is tasked with rebuilding Jurassic Park on Isla Nublar and populating it with various species of dinosaurs, both carnivorous, herbivorous and insectivorous. John Hammond, Alan Grant and other film characters appear as they did in the films to deliver missions essential to progressing the game. All the dinosaurs seen in the films can be created and added to the park, as well as many new, previously unseen species. It is theorized that the building of the park is supposed to be a DIY construction of Jurassic World.
Further expansions to the game have introduced both an Aquatic Park, featuring Aquatic creatures such as Crustaceavores and Piscivores, and a Glacier park, featuring Ice Age era mammals. A further update to the game added Battle Mode, which was inspired by the T-rex vs. Spinosaurus battle from Jurassic Park III. Battle Mode allows players to make certain dinosaurs fight each other, and fight other friends' dinosaurs.
The game has met with generally favourable reviews, with most praising the attention to detail and faithfulness to the source material, while others approved of the interesting new direction presented in the game, referring to the expanded range of species as well as the two new parks.
The game is available to download for free on the Apple AppStore and the Google PlayStore, most devices and is also available to play on Facebook.
Jurassic Park water rides can be found in some of the Universal Studios theme parks.
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There were actually two roles in 'Jurassic Park IV' Steven thought I might fit. First there was the granddaughter part, which wasn't all that big a role; she was only in it at the beginning. The other part he was considering for me was substantially larger, but I won't go into any details in case I make Steven angry (laughs). ... I truly don't know if I'll end up getting either part or not. The script is pretty much locked down, but I think they're still working on final drafts at the moment.
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