Islam and war
The beginnings of Jihad are traced back to the words and actions of Muhammad and the Quran. This encourages the use of Jihad against non-Muslims. The Qu’ran, however, never uses the term Jihad for fighting and combat in the name of Allah; qital is used to mean “fighting.” The struggle for Jihad in the Qu’ran was originally intended for the nearby neighbors of the Muslims, but as time passed and more enemies arose, the Quranic statements supporting Jihad were updated for the new adversaries. The first documentation of the law of Jihad was written by ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Awza’i and Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Shaybani. The document grew out of debates that had surfaced ever since Muhammad's death.
- 1 Early instances
- 2 Crusades
- 3 Islamic Spain and Portugal
- 4 Indian subcontinent
- 5 West Africa
- 6 Caucasus
- 7 Mahdists in Sudan
- 8 Wahabbists
- 9 Ottoman Empire
- 10 Afghanistan
- 11 Algeria
- 12 China
- 13 Past holy wars
- 13.1 Early Islam (622-634)
- 13.2 Shia Martyrdom (680)
- 13.3 Córdoba revolt (818)
- 13.4 Execution of Christians in Córdoba (850-859)
- 13.5 Anti-Jewish violence in Muslim Spain (1010-1013)
- 13.6 Pogrom in Fez (1033)
- 13.7 Massacre of Jews in Granada (1066)
- 13.8 Almohads of Spain
- 13.9 The Assassins (1124)
- 13.10 Forced conversions of Jews in Yemen
- 13.11 Ibn Taymiyyah
- 13.12 Bahmani sultans (1347-1480)
- 13.13 Timur (Tamerlane)
- 13.14 Fes Massacre (1465)
- 13.15 Safavid kings (1501)
- 13.16 Massacre after the battle of Chitod (1568)
- 13.17 Barbary pirates
- 13.18 Expulsion of Jews from Yemen (1679-1680)
- 13.19 Massacre of Jews in Safed (1660)
- 13.20 Rise of Wahhabism (1744)
- 13.21 el Djezzar (1783-1801)
- 13.22 Tetouan Pogrom (1790)
- 13.23 Jihad in Africa (1810-1818)
- 13.24 Java War (1825-1830)
- 13.25 Suleika affair (1834)
- 13.26 Safed and Hebron violence (1834-1835)
- 13.27 Forced conversions of Jews in Iran (1838-1839)
- 13.28 Damascus Blood Libel (1840)
- 13.29 Massacres of the Assyrians (1840-1860)
- 13.30 Jihad in Africa (1861)
- 13.31 Rafin Jaki battle (1873)
- 13.32 April Uprising (1876-1912)
- 13.33 Jihad in Sudan and Egypt (1880)
- 13.34 Hamidian massacres (1894-1896)
- 13.35 Settat and Taza pogrom 1903/1907
- 13.36 Greek Genocide (1914-1923)
- 13.37 Arab riots 1920-1921
- 13.38 Moplah rebellion
- 13.39 Forced conversion of Jewish orphans in Yemen
- 13.40 Muslim Brotherhood
- 13.41 Hebron massacre
- 13.42 Simele massacre
- 13.43 Jaffa Massacre
- 13.44 Rashid Ali coup
- 13.45 Farhud pogrom
- 14 Nazi Germany
- 15 See also
- 16 References
- 17 Further reading
- 18 External links
The first forms of military Jihad occurred after the migration (hijra) of Muhammad and his small group of followers to Medina from Mecca and the conversion of several inhabitants of the city to Islam. The first revelation concerning the struggle against the Meccans was surah 22, verses 39-40:
To those against whom war is made, permission is given (to fight), because they are wronged;- and verily, Allah is most powerful for their aid. (They are) those who have been expelled from their homes in defiance of right,- (for no cause) except that they say, "our Lord is Allah". Did not Allah check one set of people by means of another, there would surely have been pulled down monasteries, churches, synagogues, and mosques, in which the name of Allah is commemorated in abundant measure. Allah will certainly aid those who aid his (cause);- for verily Allah is full of Strength, Exalted in Might, (able to enforce His Will).
At this time, Muslims had been persecuted and oppressed by the Meccans. There were still Muslims who could not flee from Mecca and were still oppressed because of their faith. Surah 4, verse 75 is referring to this fact:
And why should ye not fight in the cause of Allah and of those who, being weak, are ill-treated (and oppressed)?- Men, women, and children, whose cry is: "Our Lord! Rescue us from this town, whose people are oppressors; and raise for us from thee one who will protect; and raise for us from thee one who will help!
The Meccans also refused to let the Muslims enter Mecca and by that denied them access to the Ka'aba. Surah 8, verse 34:
But what plea have they that Allah should not punish them, when they keep out (men) from the sacred Mosque—and they are not its guardians? No men can be its guardians except the righteous; but most of them do not understand.
However hadith from Sahih al-Bukhari formalized the rules for warfare, which legitimized warfare against hypocrites.
It has been reported from Sulaiman b. Buraid through his father that when the Messenger of Allah appointed anyone as leader of an army or detachment he would especially exhort him to fear Allah and to be good to the Muslims who were with him. He would say: Fight in the name of Allah and in the way of Allah. Fight against those who disbelieve in Allah. Make a holy war, do not embezzle the spoils; do not break your pledge; and do not mutilate (the dead) bodies; do not kill the children. When you meet your enemies who are polytheists, invite them to three courses of action. If they respond to any one of these, you also accept it and withhold yourself from doing them any harm. Invite them to (accept) Islam; if they respond to you, accept it from them and desist from fighting against them. Then invite them to migrate from their lands to the land of Muhairs and inform them that, if they do so, they shall have all the privileges and obligations of the Muhajirs. If they refuse to migrate, tell them that they will have the status of Bedouin Muslims and will be subjected to the Commands of Allah like other Muslims, but they will not get any share from the spoils of war or Fai' except when they actually fight with the Muslims (against the disbelievers). If they refuse to accept Islam, demand from them the Jizya. If they agree to pay, accept it from them and hold off your hands. If they refuse to pay the tax, seek Allah's help and fight them. When you lay siege to a fort and the besieged appeal to you for protection in the name of Allah and His Prophet, do not accord to them the guarantee of Allah and His Prophet, but accord to them your own guarantee and the guarantee of your companions for it is a lesser sin that the security given by you or your companions be disregarded than that the security granted in the name of Allah and His Prophet be violated When you besiege a fort and the besieged want you to let them out in accordance with Allah's Command, do not let them come out in accordance with His Command, but do so at your (own) command, for you do not know whether or not you will be able to carry out Allah's behest with regard to them."
The main focus of Muhammad’s later years was increasing the number of allies as well as the amount of territory under Muslim control. The Qu’ran is unclear as to whether Jihad is acceptable only in defense of the faith from wrong-doings or in all cases.
Major battles in the history of Islam arose between the Meccans and the Muslims; one of the most important to the latter was the Battle of Badr in 624 AD. This Muslim victory over polytheists showed “demonstration of divine guidance and intervention on behalf of Muslims, even when outnumbered.” Other early battles included battles in Uhud (625), Khandaq (627), Mecca (630) and Hunayn (630). These battles, especially Uhud and Khandaq, were unsuccessful in comparison to the Battle of Badr. In relating this battle, the Qu’ran states that Allah sent an “unseen army of angels” that helped the Muslims defeat the Meccans.
The European crusaders re-conquered much of the territory seized by the Islamic state, dividing it into four kingdoms, the most important being the state of Jerusalem. The Crusades originally had the goal of recapturing Jerusalem and the Holy Land(former Christian territory) from Muslim rule and were originally launched in response to a call from the Eastern Orthodox Byzantine Empire for help against the expansion of the Muslim Seljuk Turks into Anatolia. There was little drive to retake the lands from the crusaders, save the few attacks made by the Egyptian Fatimids. This changed, however, with the coming of Zangi, ruler of what is today northern Iraq. He took Edessa, which triggered the Second Crusade, which was little more than a 47-year stalemate. The stalemate was ended with the victory of Salah al-Din al-Ayyubi (known in the west as Saladin) over the forces of Jerusalem at the Horns of Hattin in 1187. It was during the course of the stalemate that a great deal of literature regarding Jihad was written. While amassing his armies in Syria, Saladin had to create a doctrine which would unite his forces and make them fight until the bitter end, which would be the only way they could re-conquer the lands taken in the First Crusade. He did this through the creation of Jihad propaganda. It stated that any one who would abandon the Jihad would be committing a sin that could not be washed away by any means. It also put his amirs at the center of power, just under his rule. While this propaganda was successful in uniting his forces for a time, the fervor burned out quickly. Much of Saladin's teachings were rejected after his death.
Islamic Spain and Portugal
Muslims conquered Spain in the year 711. The medieval Iberian Peninsula was the scene of almost constant warfare between the Muslim al-Andalus (and later Taifas) and Christian kingdoms. Periodic raiding expeditions were sent from Al-Andalus to ravage the Christian Iberian kingdoms, bringing back treasure and slaves. In raid against Lisbon, in 1189, for example, the Almohad caliph Yaqub al-Mansur took 3,000 female and child captives, while his governor of Córdoba, in a subsequent attack upon Silves in 1191, took 3,000 Christian slaves.
The Almohad Dynasty (from Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun ("the monotheists") or "the Unitarians"), was a Berber, Muslim dynasty that was founded in the 12th century, and conquered all Northern Africa as far as Libya, together with Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberian Peninsula). The Almohads, who declared an everlasting Jihad against the Christians, far surpassed the Almoravides in fundamentalist outlook, and they treated the dhimmis harshly. Faced with the choice of either death or conversion, many Jews and Christians emigrated. Some, such as the family of Maimonides, fled east to more tolerant Muslim lands, while others went northward to settle in the growing Christian kingdoms.
Sir Jadunath Sarkar contends that several Muslim invaders were waging a systematic Jihad against Hindus in India to the effect that "Every device short of massacre in cold blood was resorted to in order to convert heathen subjects." In particular the records kept by al-Utbi, Mahmud al-Ghazni's secretary, in the Tarikh-i-Yamini document several episodes of bloody military campaigns. In the late tenth century, a story spread that before Muhammad destroyed the idols at the Kaaba, that of Manāt was secretly sent to a Hindu temple in India; and the place was renamed as So-Manāt or Somnath. Acting on this, the Shiva idol at the Somnath temple was destroyed in a raid by Mahmud Ghazni in CE 1024; which is considered the first act of Jihad in India. In 1527, Babur ordered a Jihad against Rajputs at the battle of Khanwa. Publicly addressing his men, he declared the forthcoming battle a Jihad. His soldiers were facing a non-Muslim army for the first time ever. This, he said, was their chance to become either a Ghazi (soldier of Islam) or a Shaheed (Martyr of Islam). The Mughal emperor Aurangzeb waged a Jihad against those identified as heterodox within India's Islamic community, such as Shi'a Muslims.
The Fula or Fulani jihads, were a series of independent but loosely connected events across West Africa between the late 17th century and European colonization, in which Muslim Fulas took control of various parts of the region. Between 1750 and 1900, between one- to two-thirds of the entire population of the Fulani jihad states consisted of slaves.
In 1784, Imam Sheikh Mansur, a Chechen warrior and Muslim mystic, led a coalition of Muslim Caucasian tribes from throughout the Caucasus in a ghazavat, or holy war, against the Russian invaders. Sheikh Mansur was captured in 1791 and died in the Schlüsselburg Fortress. Avarian Islamic scholar Ghazi Muhammad preached that Jihad would not occur until the Caucasians followed Sharia completely rather than following a mixture of Islamic laws and adat (customary traditions). By 1829, Mullah began proselytizing and claiming that obeying Sharia, giving zakat, prayer, and hajj would not be accepted by Allah if the Russians were still present in the area. He even went on to claim that marriages would become void and children bastards if any Russians were still in the Caucasus. In 1829 he was proclaimed imam in Ghimry, where he formally made the call for a holy war. In 1834, Ghazi Muhammad died at the battle of Ghimri, and Imam Shamil took his place as the premier leader of the Caucasian resistance. Imam Shamil succeeded in accomplishing what Sheik Mansur had started: to unite North Caucasian highlanders in their struggle against the Russian Empire. He was a leader of anti-Russian resistance in the Caucasian War and was the third Imam of Dagestan and Chechnya (1834–1859).
Mahdists in Sudan
During the 1870s, European initiatives against the slave trade caused an economic crisis in northern Sudan, precipitating the rise of Mahdist forces. Muhammad Ahmed Al Mahdi was a religious leader, who proclaimed himself the Mahdi—the prophesied redeemer of Islam who will appear at end times—in 1881, and declared a Jihad against Ottoman rulers. He declared all "Turks" infidels and called for their execution. The Mahdi raised an army and led a successful religious war to topple the Ottoman-Egyptian occupation of Sudan. Victory created an Islamic state, one that quickly reinstituted slavery. In the West he is most famous for defeating and later killing British general Charles George Gordon, in the fall of Khartoum.
The Saudi Salafi sheiks were convinced that it was their religious mission to wage Jihad against all other forms of Islam. In 1801 and 1802, the Saudi Wahhabists under Abdul Aziz ibn Muhammad ibn Saud attacked and captured the holy Shia cities of Karbala and Najaf in Iraq, massacred the Shiites and destroyed the tombs of the Shiite Imam Husayn and Ali bin Abu Talib. In 1802 they overtook Taif. In 1803 and 1804 the Wahhabis overtook Mecca and Medina.
Upon succeeding his father, Suleiman the Magnificent began a series of military conquests in Europe. On August 29, 1526, he defeated Louis II of Hungary (1516–26) at the battle of Mohács. In its wake, Hungarian resistance collapsed and the Ottoman Empire became the preeminent power in South-Eastern Europe. In July 1683 Sultan Mehmet IV proclaimed a Jihad and the Turkish grand vizier, Kara Mustafa Pasha, laid siege to Vienna with an army of 138,000 men.
On November 14, 1914, in Constantinople, capital of the Ottoman Empire, the religious leader Sheikh-ul-Islam declares Jihad on behalf of the Ottoman government, urging Muslims all over the world—including in the Allied countries—to take up arms against Britain, Russia, France, Serbia and Montenegro in World War I. On the other hand, Sheikh Hussein ibn Ali, the Emir of Mecca, refused to accommodate Ottoman requests that he endorse this jihad, a requirement that was necessary were a jihad to become popular, due to British pressure and on the grounds that:
'the Holy War was doctrinally incompatible with an aggressive war, and absurd with a Christian ally: Germany'
Ahmad Shah, founder of the Durrani Empire, declared a jihad against the Marathas, and warriors from various Pashtun tribes, as well as other tribes answered his call. The Third battle of Panipat (January 1761), fought between largely Muslim and largely Hindu armies who numbered as many as 100,000 troops each, was waged along a twelve-kilometre front, and resulted in a decisive victory for Ahmad Shah.
In response to the Hazara uprising of 1892, the Afghan Emir Abdur Rahman Khan declared a "Jihad" against the Shiites. The large army defeated the rebellion at its center, in Oruzgan, by 1892 and the local population was severely massacred. According to S. A. Mousavi, "thousands of Hazara men, women, and children were sold as slaves in the markets of Kabul and Qandahar, while numerous towers of human heads were made from the defeated rebels as a warning to others who might challenge the rule of the Amir". Until the 20th century, some Hazaras were still kept as slaves by the Pashtuns; although Amanullah Khan banned slavery in Afghanistan during his reign, the tradition carried on unofficially for many more years.
The First Anglo-Afghan War (1838–42) was one of Britain’s most ill-advised and disastrous wars. William Brydon was the sole survivor of the invading British army of 16,500 soldiers and civilians. As in the earlier wars against the British and Soviets, Afghan resistance to the American invaders took the traditional form of a Muslim holy war against the infidels.
During September 2002, the remnants of the Taliban forces began a recruitment drive in Pashtun areas in bothAfghanistan and Pakistan to launch a renewed "jihad" or holy war against the pro-Western Afghan government and the U.S-led coalition. Pamphlets distributed in secret during the night also began to appear in many villages in the former Taliban heartland in southeastern Afghanistan that called for jihad. Small mobile training camps were established along the border with Pakistan by al-Qaeda and Taliban fugitives to train new recruits in guerrilla warfare and terrorist tactics, according to Afghan sources and a United Nations report.
Most of the new recruits were drawn from the madrassas or religious schools of the tribal areas of Pakistan, from which the Taliban had originally arisen. As of 2008, the insurgency, in the form of a Taliban guerrilla war, continues.
Although there is no evidence that the CIA directly supported the Taliban or Al Qaeda, some basis for military support of the Taliban was provided when, in the early 1980s, the CIA and the ISI (Pakistan's Interservices Intelligence Agency) provided arms to Afghan mujahideens resisting the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, and the ISI assisted the process of gathering radical Muslims from around the world to fight against the Soviets. Osama Bin Laden was one of the key players in organizing training camps for the foreign Muslim volunteers. The U.S. poured funds and arms into Afghanistan, and "by 1987, 65,000 tons of U.S.-made weapons and ammunition a year were entering the war."
In 1830, Algeria was invaded by France; French colonial domination over Algeria supplanted what had been domination in name only by the Ottoman Empire. Within two years, Abd al-Qādir was made an amir and with the loyalty of a number of tribes began a jihad against the French. He was effective at using guerrilla warfare and for a decade, up until 1842, scored many victories. He was noted for his chivalry. On December 21, 1847, Abd al-Qādir was forced to surrender.
Abd al-Qādir is recognized and venerated as the first hero of Algerian independence. Not without cause, his green and white standard was adopted by the Algerian liberation movement during the War of Independence and became the national flag of independent Algeria.
The Algerian Civil War (1991–2002) was an armed conflict between the Algerian government and various Islamist rebel groups which began in 1991. By 1997, the organized jihad in Algeria had disintegrated into criminal thuggery and Algeria was wracked by massacres of intense brutality and unprecedented size.
Uyghur Muslim forces under Yaqub Beg declared a Jihad against Chinese Muslims under T'o Ming during the Dungan revolt. Yaqub Beg enlisted non Muslim Han Chinese militia under Hsu Hsuehkung in order to fight against the Chinese Muslims. T'o Ming's forces were defeated by Yaqub, who planned to conquer Dzungharia. Yaqub intended to seize all Dungan territory.
Past holy wars
The following are some highlighted dates in timeline of violence by Muslims(it includes: Muhammad's followers in Islam's early days acting for his honor/sake, Muslims using Islamic themes, Quranic text or/and ideas, mobilized forced conversions, "religious cleansing" campaigns to cleanse the area of non-Muslims, attacks by Islamic religious authorities often explained with declaration of clear 'Islamic' goals, war with a clear subjugation of Dhimmitude / infidels status, [regarding the massacres in early Islam in Spain.] violence triggered by Islamic clerics preaching in mosques, battles described as Jihad or holy war and emerging of radical-Islamic movements- which take its roots from Muhammad/Quran - inspiring source for violence) from its early days till post WW2, 622-1946.
Early Islam (622-634)
Early Islam - 622-634
1. The killing of Abu Afak.
The poet who mocked Muhammad was killed with "one blow of his sword when the latter slept outside his house."
2. The killing of Asma Marwan.
3. Attack upon the 'Banu Qaynuqa' Jews
4. The killing of Kab Ashraf
5. The killing of Ibn Sunayna
The Jewish merchant who was killed at the hands of a Muslim zealot.
6. Attack against the Banu Nadir Jews.
7. Massacre of the Banu Qurayza Jews.
Medina in 627, Muhammad's followers killed between 600 and 900 of the men, and divided the surviving Jewish women and children amongst themselves, after the Jewish tribe had committed treason to the treaty of Madinah and were punished according to the torah.
8. The killing of the shepherd.
9. The torture and killing of Kenana ibn al-Rabi
10. The slaying of an old woman from Banu Fazara
11. The killing of Abdullah Khatal and his daughter.
12. The attack upon Tabuk. for becoming an apostate.
Though they offered to surrender, Muhammad felt the need to make an example of them. "The adult males were condemned to death, and the women and children to slavery. Between 600 and 900 males were beheaded ." Three large Jewish tribes dwelled in Medina in Muhammad's time: the Banu Nadir, Banu Kainuka, and Banu Qurayza. When war broke out between Muhammad's new supporters and the Meccans, the Jewish clans of Medina remained neutral and were at first unharmed. Nevertheless after the 627 failed Meccan siege of Medina, Muhammad accused the Jews of siding with the Meccans and ordered an attack on them. The reference to this episode in Islamic text is in Sura 33 of the Qu'ran, known as “The Clans.” (The Quran tells of three Jewish tribes conquered by Mohammed near Medina, "Two were permitted to choose conversion or exile, but the third was allowed only conversion or death.").
Shia Martyrdom (680)
The Shia [Shiite] Martyrdom. - October, 680 It began on the morning of 3 October 680 CE. Some link it to the "Roots of terror: suicide, martyrdom, self-redemption and Islam." Even outside the Shi'ite martyrdom, violent death seems to have followed the event.
The Basiji in Iran, founded in 1979 by the order of Ayatollah Khomeini, invoked the 680 Shia martyrdom to its "contemporary" Iran-Iraq war in the 1980s, it promoted and established "soldiers of God," carried out and instituted self-sacrifice which was accepted by at least 500,000 Iranian Shia Muslims ready for self infliction, it created child sacrifice, thousands of children, were sent out to clear the mines at the border with Iraq. Between 700,000-800,000 Basij volunteers were sent to the front during the eight-year Iran-Iraq War, when self-sacrifice was the quintessential value of the Islamic revolution, used as cannon fodder when the Islamic regime, often with a plastic "key to paradise" hanging around their necks and the promise that they would automatically go to paradise if they died in battle."
From a research on Child Soldiers:
in 1984, Iranian President Ali-Akbar Rafsanjani declared that "all Iranians from 12 to 72 should volunteer for the Holy War." Thousands of children were pulled from schools, indoctrinated in the glory of martyrdom, and sent to the front lines only lightly armed with one or two grenades or a gun with one magazine of ammunition. Wearing keys around their necks (to signify their pending entrance into heaven), they were sent forward in the first waves of attacks to help clear paths through minefields with their bodies and overwhelm Iraqi defenses. Iran's spiritual leader at the time, Ayatollah Khomeini, delighted in the children's sacrifice and extolled that they were helping Iran to achieve "a situation which we cannot describe in any way except to say that it is a divine country."
Córdoba revolt (818)
Córdoba revolt - 818 A revolt in Muslim Spain by Christians, which was put down by massacres for three days. Many of the insurgents were crucified, as prescribed in the Quran (5:33): "The revolt in Cordova of 818 was crushed by three days of massacres and pillage."
Execution of Christians in Córdoba (850-859)
Christians beheaded in Córdoba, Spain Between 850 and 859, accused of "blasphemy against Islam."
Anti-Jewish violence in Muslim Spain (1010-1013)
Between 1010-1013 Anti-Jewish violence in Muslim Spain.
Pogrom in Fez (1033)
Pogrom in Fez, Morocco, 1033. Between five and six thousand Jews lost their lives in the hands of Muslims. The women were dragged off into slavery. According to "Islam at war" more than 6,000 Jews died.
Massacre of Jews in Granada (1066)
Granada massacre of Jews by Muslims, Andalusia Spain - December 1066.
The 1066 Granada massacre took place on 30 December 1066 (9 Tevet 4827), when a Muslim mob stormed the royal palace in Granada, crucified Jewish vizier Joseph ibn Naghrela and massacred most of the Jewish population of the city. "More than 1,500 Jewish families, numbering 4,000 persons, fell in one day."
According to historian Bernard Lewis, the massacre - in Muslim narrative - is "usually ascribed to a reaction among the Muslim population against a powerful and ostentatious Jewish vizier." Muslims' sentiments of resentments of refusal of Jews to be subjugated by Muslims as Dhimmis can be seen in the following:
Particularly instructive in this respect is an ancient Anti-Semitic poem of Abu Ishaq, written in Granada in 1066. This poem, which is said to be instrumental in provoking the anti-Jewish outbreak of that year, contains these specific lines: "Do not consider it a breach of faith to kill them, the breach of faith would be to let them carry on. They have violated our covenant with them, so how can you be held guilty against the violator? - How can they have any pact when we are obscure and they are prominent? - Now we are humble, beside them, as if we were wrong and they were right!"
Historian Walter Laqueur characterizes this episode as a pogrom: "Jews could not as a rule attain public office (as usual there were exceptions), and there were occasional pogroms, such as in Granada in 1066." Some 4000 Jews were massacred in the 1066 Granada pogrom, inspired in part by an anti-Jewish ode containing a line (based on a Quranic idea of referring to infidels as apes and pigs), "Many a pious Muslim is in awe of the vilest infidel ape," referring to the Jewish communal leader, the vizier Joseph b. Samuel Naghrela. (In Spain, during periods of friction between the various religious communities, the Muslims called the Jews "apes" and the Christians "pigs and dogs." Research revealed that "viewing Jews as the 'descendants of apes and pigs' is grounded in the most important Islamic religious sources.")
Almohads of Spain
The Almohads arose in the Atlas mountains and declared a Jihad on the moderate Almoravides in order to restore the original Islamic values, conquering most of Morocco, then invading (again) Spain in 1150 to combat Christians. The fanatical warriors alienated Muslims and Jews alike, causing the Arab-Jewish cooperation and the previous usual tolerance in Andalucia came to an end.
When the liberal Almoravids came to power in 1062, conditions for Jews improved, but when the Almohades took over in the middle of the 12th century Jews were forced to embrace Islam or emigrate. It was during that time that Jews were forced to wear a particular costume a precursor of the Jewish badge. After the ouster of the Almohades in the 14th century the situation of Jews stabilized.
It was during the reign of Abu Ya'Qub Yusuf (1165–84) when the upsurge in Almohad fanaticism in Fez came about, it brought a new wave of forced conversions. It was either convert or die. "Thousands of Jews in Morocco had been forced to convert at the height of the Almohade persecutions."
The Assassins (1124)
The Assassins - 1124 The fedayeen were the ardent followers of Hasan-i Sabbah (d. 1124), a leader of Ismail Shia in Iran, Iraq, and in Syria. Known to the west as theAssassins. The Assassins are regarded as "the first group to make systematic use of murder as a political weapon." Established in Iran and Syria in the eleventh and twelfth centuries, they used assassination and terrorism with the aim of overthrowing Sunni Islam's order and establishing their own.
The most open and clear religious fedayeen in the modern period were the Fedaiyan-i Islam. Through assassinations of secular officials they aimed at changing the regime in Iran towards Islamization and introduce Sharia law.
In the 1890s the Shiite leadership in Iran became very involved in violence, terrorism via Fedayeen-i Islam. The "self-sacrifice" or devoutees of Islam under Shi'ite theologian, they have targeted British and Russian officials for assassination.
Ayatollah Khomeini, leader of the Shiites in Iran was from the same area as the earlier "assassins". The Hur Brotherhood was another group of Assassins that emerged from a combination of religion and politics in the 1890s, modern fedayeen, like the Assassins, find strength in the promise of a reward in "paradise."
The Ayatollah was very involved with the Fedayeen Islam who had a "network of holy killers engaged in repeated attempts at political assassinations." In 1944 he published: Kashf al-Asrar ("the Revealing of Secrets"), served as a guidance for the violent Fedayeen. Indeed, the militant group covered for the Ayatollah Khomeini until he became in power.
Forced conversions of Jews in Yemen
On both dates 1165 and 1678, forced conversions of Jews were carried out in Yemen, Jews were given the choice, convert or die.
When al-Hadi offered the Jews the choice between the sword and conversion to Islam: "Many Jews chose death and the survival of the community."
The Godfather of Islamic Fundamentalism - 1263 - 1328
Ibn Taymiyya, dubbed 'the spiritual father of the Islamic revolution' preached that "Jihad should be waged against those who do not follow the teaching of Islam." He issued a Jihadi fatwa against the Mongols that they are not Muslim enough though they observed the Ramadan, that they are "takfir" (ex-communicated), adding that the Quran and Sunna state that those who forsake the law of Islam should be fought (without specifying what part of Sharia they violated).
According to B. Lewis, the Mongol so-called converts were not considered "true Muslims," by the Islamists "since they continued to practice and impose the laws of Jenghis Khan. "Those who follow such laws are infidels, said the Islamist jurist and that they "should be combated until they comply with the laws of Allah." He explaines that "Such a combat was therefore a jihad, with all that entailed."
Bahmani sultans (1347-1480)
The Bahmani sultans and the genocide on Indians - 1347-1480.
The Bahmani Sultans declared Jihad against the infidels.
Every new invader of India made (often literally) his hills of Hindu skulls. The Bahmani sultans (1347–1480) in central India made it a rule to kill 100,000 Hindus (kafir - non-believers) every year. In 1399, Teimur killed 100,000 captives in a single day. Historian asserts that "These wars were fought in the true spirit of Jihad — the total annihilation or conversion of the non-Muslims."
The Mongol conqueror Timur the Lame, sometimes called Tamerlane, known for his ruthlessness, and his 'Islamic bigotry', carried out "blitzkrieg campaigns at the end of the fourteenth century." He earned a reputation of torturing the population which resisted his conquering wars (like using thousands alive as "bricks" in walls, outrageous torture of inhabitants like crushing in presses, scorching in flames and revive the victims when near death, in order to repeat it). Timur declared a Jihad on New Delhi in 1398.
As a "holy war" which he declared, he massacred many Hindus, not in context with battles.
Fes Massacre (1465)
Fes Massacre - 1465 Morocco.
In 1465, Arab mobs in Fes slaughtered thousands of Jews, leaving only 11 alive, for 'Islamic honor', after a Jewish deputy vizier treated a Muslim woman in "an offensive manner". (Jews were not even supposed to surpass a Dhimmitude status, behold, if "the dhimma had been violated", much less holding office,) The killings touched off a wave of similar massacres throughout Morocco. some six thousand Jews were murdered in 1033." and massacres look place again in 1276 and 1465.
Safavid kings (1501)
The advent of the Safavid kings Iran 1501.
The Shiite Safavids made Shiite Islam the official religion of Iran. They created a "a rigid religious hierarchy with unlimited power and influence in every sphere of life." Minorities: Christians, Zoroastrians and Jews suffered harsh measures including strict segregation, the era brought persecutions, massacres and forced conversions to Islam. "Jews were forced to wear both a yellow badge and a headgear."
Massacre after the battle of Chitod (1568)
Islamists' Massacre of 30,000 Indians - after battle for Chitod on 24 February 1568.
It was part of Mogul Empire's atrocities on Indians, by the order of Islamic Akbar. Akbar -like all Mughal rulers- had the holy Muslim title of "Ghazi" (slayer of Kaffir - infidel). Described as a 'holy war.'
Barbary pirates - July 1625 and the 1700s.
Main Article - Barbary Pirates or Corsairs
The height of North African Arab Muslim pirates' violence against Christians, mainly British, Barbary pirates called Britain's 200-year jihad. There are tales of unspeakable barbarism including the Sultan, Moulay Ismail, who tortured and butchered the captives at whim. It involved also forced conversion of the British Christians into Islam. The "Sally Rovers" were called 'al-ghuzat'-- the term once used for the soldiers who fought with Muhammad—and were hailed as religious warriors engaged in a holy war against the infidel Christians who were pressurised to convert to Islam under threat of hideous punishment, writes historian Giles Milton.
In negotiating a peace treaty and protect the United States from the threat of Barbary piracy, the future United States presidents Thomas Jefferson, John Adams questioned the Tripolitan ambassador to Britain Sidi Haji Abdul Rahman Adja as to "why his government was so hostile to the new American republic even though America had done nothing to provoke any such animosity." Ambassador Adja answered them, as they reported to the Continental Congress,
"that it was founded on the Laws of their Prophet, that it was written in their Koran, that all nations who should not have acknowledged their authority were sinners, that it was their right and duty to make war upon them wherever they could be found, and to make slaves of all they could take as Prisoners, and that every Musselman who should be slain in Battle was sure to go to Paradise."
Expulsion of Jews from Yemen (1679-1680)
In that year, the country returned to the Shi'ite rule of the Zaydi imams, and the legitimacy of Jewish presence in Yemen came under an attack which culminated in 1680 with the expulsion of the Jews from San'a and central Yemen.
Massacre of Jews in Safed (1660)
The 1660 massacre of Jews in Safed, Israel-Palestine.
At that oppressive era, to buy off the Muslim attackers, Jews had to borrow money from rich Muslims at compound interest, under threats of further attacks if they failed to repay." (see the Islamic concept of: Dhimmitude) When the Jewish community of its holy city of Safed was "massacred in 1660," and the town "destroyed by Arabs," only one Jew managed to escape.
Rise of Wahhabism (1744)
Rise of Wahabbism - 1744.
From a description of this radical Islamic movement:
Wahhabism is an extremist, puritanical, and violent movement that emerged, with the pretension of "reforming" Islam, in the central area of Arabia in the 18th century. It was founded by Ibn Abd al-Wahhab, who formed an alliance with the house of Saud, in which religious authority is maintained by the descendants of al-Wahhab and political power is held by the descendants of al-Saud: This is the Wahhabi-Saudi axis, which continues to rule today.
From the more notable first wars of Wahabbi Islam, "in 1802 Wahhabi armies slaughtered thousands of Shiites in their holy city of Kerbala, situated in Ottoman Iraq." The second wave came with modern Saudi Arabia re-established the royal family ties with the Wahabbists pushing to create the fanatical Wahhabi army: the Ikhwan.
The Ikhwan waged a jihad against other Muslims in Arabia, including Sharif Hussein of Mecca, who established the Hashemite dynasty that ruled first in Arabia and then in Syria, Iraq and Transjordan. As many as 400,000 Arabs were killed or wounded in these campaigns.
el Djezzar (1783-1801)
"The Butcher" — el Djezzar - 1783-1801.
Historian J. Peters:
The year 1783 brought the rise of an Albanian-born Mamluk "Arab," nicknamed "The Butcher" — el Djezzar — whose sadistic, wanton exploits became legend... The Christians in their holy town of Nazareth were also forced through maltreatment into fleeing. Even as late as 1801 Djezzar sent troops to destroy the standing crops in the environs of Nazareth. "Ramleh, however, bore the brunt of the Muslim wrath."
The term "butcher" (in Arabic el Djezzar) was given to him by Arabs, as a result of the "ferocity with which he proceeded to subdue the Bedouins of the Delta."
Religious cleansing: In their days of ascendancy the Muslims in the Nablus of 1783 prohibited Christians from settling. "In 1801 those Christiansnot driven out of Ramallah and Nazareth were murdered."
Tetouan Pogrom (1790)
Tetouan Pogrom, Morocco 1790.
"Diaspora Research Institute" described the event:
As the new ruler (Mawlay Yazid) entered the city of Tetouan, he commanded that all the Jews should be gathered and imprisoned in a house, meanwhile permitting the Moors to rob all their homes and cellars, which they obeyed with their own particular ferocity. Thus, they stripped all the Jews and their wives of all the clothes which they had on their body with the greatest violence, so that these unfortunates not only had to watch all their belongings being stolen, but also had to bear the greatest injury to their honor... But on top of this, their bestiality showed itself to such an extent that they stripped the Jewesses of their clothes, forthwith satisfied their desires with them, and then threw them naked into the streets.
This [Sultan Mawla] Yazid "had rabbis hung by their feet until they died, another burned alive for refusing to convert to Islam... had Jews crucified by nailing them to the doors of their houses... Jews were converted by force."
Jihad in Africa (1810-1818)
Jihad in Africa (Mali) - 1810-18.
Jihad was a religious war fought from 1810 to 1818 in what is now the Mopti Region of Mali. In either 1810 or 1818 (the exact date is uncertain), an Islamic fighter led a jihad against the Muslim chiefs in Masina, later the jihad expanded to include the Bambara. Seku Ahmadu established an austere Muslim empire ruled from the newly built city. He led the "second major jihad of the 19th century" beginning in 1818. "His jihad brought about an Islam theocracy as a successor to the non-Islamic empire of Segou that had been established by the Bambara."
Java War (1825-1830)
The Java War - 1825-1830.
Suleika affair (1834)
The Suleika affair - 1834.
A writer has put it:
Suleika, a 17-year-old girl with her entire life in front of her, offered everything under the sun if she would convert to Islam but who was beheaded on another sunny day in Morocco because she couldn't change what she was...
The martyrdom of the beautiful Suleika, who, despite torture, refused to convert to Islam left a strong impression. A song was written in her memory, it was "sung by Jewish girls in Morocco to a sad, touching melody."
Safed and Hebron violence (1834-1835)
- 1834-5 Safed and Hebron violence
The pogrom - massacre, "plunder," by Arab-Muslims on Jews in Safed. It went on for 33 days. It was incited by a highly religious cleric, a self-proclaimed Islamic "prophet" Muhammad Damoor, who envisioned the massacre to which he agitated the "believers" to.
The attacks in Hebron, Jerusalem, that year: In 1834, Egyptian soldiers massacred Jews in Hebron on the way of putting down a Muslim rebellion, local Muslims go on rampage, pillaging, rape, killing, looting in Jerusalem at that same era.
According to professor M. Ma'oz, considered of great authority on that period, "a noticeable number of Christians and Jews, particularly children, were forced to adopt Islam....even the converts were persecuted as Jews."
Forced conversions of Jews in Iran (1838-1839)
Forced conversions of Jews in Meshed Iran and massacre - 1838/9.
There was a Massacre of Meshed Jews and forced conversions (to Islam) of the survivors. A mob was incited to attack Jews, and slaughtered almost 40 of them. The rest were forced to convert.
Damascus Blood Libel (1840)
Damascus Blood Libel - 1840. The Damascus affair It brought with it riots and violence against Jews. It was the beginning of a spiral of blood libels in many cities in Syria followed by outbreaks in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and (other) Arab countries of the Middle East.
In his book Blood libel: the Damascus affair of 1840 author R. Florence describes the chain of blood libels that followed all over the Islamic world, including in western Iranian city of Hamadan where Jews were killed, burned alive, "many escaped the violence only by converting to Islam."
Massacres of the Assyrians (1840-1860)
In 1842, Muslims engaged in the following massacre:
Badr Khan Bey, A Hakkari Kurdish Amir, combined with other Kurdish forces led by Nurallah, attacked the Assyrians, intending to burn, kill, destroy, and, if possible, "exterminate the Assyrians race from the mountains." At the massacre, the "women were brought before the Amir and murdered in cold blood." one incident has been depicted to illustrates the revolting barbarity:
the aged mother of Mar Shimun, the Patriarch of the Church of the East, was seized by them, and after having practiced on her the most abominable atrocities, they cut her body into two parts and threw it into the river Zab, exclaiming, "go and carry to your accursed son the intelligence that the same fate awaits him."
An estimate of nearly ten thousand Assyrian men were massacred, and as many women and children were taken captive, most of the women were sold as slaves, many were presented as presents to influential Muslims.
In 1847, Muslim forces massacred 30,000 members of the Assyrian Christian community. It was an example of (Ottoman) State complicity by the Khilafah in massacres of Christians. The massacre was succeeded by another in 1896.
Jihad in Africa (1861)
Jihad in Africa - 1861, in the region that is today an area in Mali, Toucouleur conqueror El Hadj Umar Tall took Ségou from its Bambara rulers and launched a fresh [second] jihad down river against the Massina.
The Islamic jihad of El Had L'mar, which defeated the Bambara Kingdom in 1861 was an attempt to establish (again) a theocratic Islamic state.
Rafin Jaki battle (1873)
The Rafin Jaki battle - 1873.
Jihadists waged war on Africa in the region of present day Nigeria. The combined ethnic communities from present day Jos area, which is: the Afizere, Anaguta, Birom, defeated the Jihadists at the battle of Rafin Jaki.
April Uprising (1876-1912)
The April Uprising - 1876-1912.
In 1876 the Bulgarians staged a rebellion (April Uprising) against the Ottoman Empire, Ottoman forces responded with a brutal massacre in what quickly became known as "the Bulgarian horrors." By 1912, as new Balkan alliances were formed in opposition to Ottoman rule, the Turks again responded with massacre. The Islamic Turks massacre 25,000 Bulgarian Christians, some claim, 100,000. Sixty to seventy villages were burned.
Bulgaria, Serbia-Montenegro and some other European lands which had been under Ottoman rule declared their independence from Turkish rule, and tried to align themselves with Austria-Hungary. The Turks were outraged, and sent extra troops to the Balkans. Between 1909 and 1912, Turks massacred (at least) 25,000 Bulgarian, Kosovar and Serbian citizens, in addition to the number of casualties inflicted during the actual fighting of the war.
Historian states that "During that span of about five hundred years, the Christians of the Balkans, the majority of whom wereSlavs, lived under Ottoman Muslim rule, and were accorded the traditional Ottoman treatment of those of infidel status. The Balkan Christians, were subjected to heavy taxation (see: Dhimmitude), arbitrary violence, political disenfranchisement, and cultural oppression; some of whom converted to Islam."
Opposing view: The Ottoman reprisals to the so-called Bulgarian horrors, received great publicity in Europe where only the Bulgarian side of the story was known. Estimates of the actual number of Bulgarians killed in the suppression of this revolt vary: the Ottoman figure is 3,100; the British, 12,000: the American, 15,000: and the Bulgarian, from 30,000 to 100,000.
Jihad in Sudan and Egypt (1880)
A Jihad in Sudan and in Egypt - 1880.
What is called the (major) "First Jihad", in 1880, Muslim fighter raised the banner of holy war, and thousands of warriors flocked. "The Mahdi's army crushed forces dispatched from British (controlled) Egypt." History of Mahdist Sudan
Hamidian massacres (1894-1896)
The Hamidian Massacres in 1894-1896 were the first near-genocidal series of atrocities committed against the Armenian population of the Ottoman Empire. Estimates of those killed range widely, anywhere between 100,000 and 30,000, with thousands more maimed or rendered homeless.
Scholars cite an exemplary event in 1896 as part of Turks' overall jihad on Christians in that era: "The leader of the mob cried: 'Believe in Muhammad and deny your religion.' No one answered… The leader gave the order to massacre..." Concluding that "This 1894-1896 Jihad against Christians in Eastern Turkey claimed 250,000 lives. Many Armenian women were forced into harems, and many women and children were sold as slaves. Rape, considered one of the rights of "booty" in Muslim Jihad."
Settat and Taza pogrom 1903/1907
Settat and Taza pogrom, Morocco - 1903/1907.
Prior to the 1830 French occupation of Morocco, thousands of inoffensive Jews were brutually attacked in different parts of Morocco by hostile tribesmen and uncontrolled soldiery. As Jews sought refuge by the French Christians it caused even more massacres: in Settat and Taza 1903 and in 1907.
The following text was written around that time: "We live among savages who have already tried to satisfy their ferocious hatred by making a carnage of all the Jews..."
It is listed among dates in a timeline of "The End of Judaism in Islam's land."
Greek Genocide (1914-1923)
Greek Genocide - 1922.
During the years 1914-1923, in the 1st World War and in the arena of a crumbling empire, the Greek minority of the Ottoman Empire, the Republic of Turkey's predecessor, were removed from Western Anatolia. This was done by force. An estimated 350,000 Greeks were killed between 1913-1922. Many also fled the violence back to Greece. The Turks contend that both sides were killed in warfare, atrocities were committed by both sides, and so reject the label of 'genocide' to describe these events.
Arab riots 1920-1921
Arab riots, Massacres, Pogroms on Jews in Israel / Palestine-1920-1921.
On February 1920, the pogroms by Arabs on Jews in Jerusalem were orchestrated by two young Arab Muslim supremacists (prominent in Arab Palestine), Haj Amin al-Husseini [who later on became the Mufti] at that time served in the British army's intelligence and Aref al-Aref. A Hebron Muslim Sheik shouted: "Whoever has a stick, a gun' a knife or stone, shall go and exterminate the Jews, And in ecstasy screamed: "Adbachu Al Yahud" ['Kill the Jews!']. Amin el-Husseini was using his considerable wealth and growing power to incite the masses. Due to Haj Amin's overt role in instigating the pogrom, the British arrested him.
Arab pogroms were launched against Jews in 1920, 1921, 1929 and 1936-1939. According to the Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs, from 1920 to 1966, Arab terrorists murdered 1513 Jewish residents of British Mandatory Palestine.
Islamists turned mosques into hubs instigating violence, "shrine into a center of unholy activity," explaines historian, where "political intrigue and violence were hatched, as were the bloody anti-Jewish riots of 1920, 1929 and 1936. Inside the Temple Mount enclosure, fanatical preachers incited the masses who then went on the rampage with shouts of Allahu akbar (Allah is great) mingled with Idbah al Yahud (Slaughter the Jews)."
The Moplah rebellion - 1921, (also known as the Mopla riots) was a British-Muslim and Hindu-Muslim "conflict" in (Malabar) Kerala that occurred in 1921. It involved forced conversion to Islam.
There were clashes that provoked arsonists who took to the street, burning and destroying government property. At first, the focus was on the British, but then it turned into a jihad against Hindus. A wave of large number of killings, massive forced conversions to Islam swept the region. Some described it as: "Muslim violence is sheer religious bigotry, an unreasoning jihad."
From Encyclopædia Britannica:
In Aug. 1921 the most serious of many unpardonable deeds of violence broke out. The Malabar country in Madras is occupied by 2,000,000 Hindus and about 1,000,000 Moplahs, an ignorant Mahommedan peasantry of mixed Arab and Indian decsent with an evil reputation for outbreaks of fanaticism. Among the latter the Khilafat excitement spread like wildfire... and attempted wholesale the forcible conversion of the Hindus to Islam.
"Primarily, however, it is understood the trouble arose from religious fanaticism and from the intense hatred of the Moplahs, or Mohammedans of Arab descent, for Europeans and Hindus," writes the New York Times.
The second declaration of jihad was made by the Khilafat Committee and several Muslim groups in 1920s when the Ottoman Caliphate was abolished, consequent upon the defeat of Turkey. It resulted from the agitation carried out by two Muslim organizations, the Khuddam-i-Kaaba (servants of the Mecca Shrine) and the Central Khilafat Committee. The Moplahs of Malabar were suddenly carried off their feet by this proclamation of jihad by the Khilafat Committee. They resorted to large-scale violence which was supposed to be a rebellion against the British Government. As a rebellion against the British Government the jihad could be understandable but what shocked most people was the horrid treatment meted out by the Moplahs to the Hindus of Malabar, in this Jihad.
Pundits account that the "Moplah massacre was one of the most gruesome acts of murder by the Muslims rivaled only by the Razakars in Hyderabad in 47, and the ethnic cleansing in Pakistan and Bangladesh after partition."
Forced conversion of Jewish orphans in Yemen
Revival of the old custom of forced conversion of Jewish orphans in Yemen - 1922-1929.
The 'stealing of orphans' was under the Imam Yahya, under his drastic measures the re-introduction in 1922 of the old custom of the forced conversion of Jewish orphans - was implemented in Yemen. The edict was re-promulgated in December 1928.
The Muslim Brotherhood - founded - 1928. In 1928, Hassan al-Banna founded the Muslim Brotherhood, a rigidly conservative and highly secretive Egyptian-based organization dedicated to resurrecting a Muslim empire (Caliphate). According to al-Banna, "It is the nature of Islam to dominate, not to be dominated, to impose its law on all nations and to extend its power to the entire planet." The Muslim Brotherhood, also called Muslim Brethren (jamiat al-Ikhwan al-muslimun, literally Society of Muslim Brothers), it opposes secular tendencies of Islamic nations and wants return to the precepts of the Quran, and rejection of Western influences. Al Bana was Born out of the extreme Muslim right wing's desire to counter the ideology of modernization, the Brotherhood's platform included a strict interpretation of the Koran (Quran) that glorified suicidal violence. Along with Al Banna, the grand Mufti of Jerusalem Haj-al Amin Al-Husseini was also an enormously influential Muslim leader of the time. Together, the two created a powerful and popular Islamist party by classically appealing to fundamentalist Islamic principals while blaming the world's problems on the Jews. Al-Banna also gave the group the motto it still uses today: "Allah is our purpose, the Prophet our leader, the Quran our constitution, jihad our way and dying for God our supreme objective."
An important aspect of the Muslim Brotherhood ideology is the sanctioning of Jihad such as the 2004 fatwa issued by Sheikh Yousef Al-Qaradhawi making it a religious obligation of Muslims to abduct and kill U.S. citizens in Iraq.
It advocated a war of Arabism and Islamic Jihad against the British and the Jews.
The BBC explains how the roots of Jihad and the origins of Bin Laden's concept of jihad can be traced back to two early 20th century figures, who started powerful Islamic revivalist movements in response to colonialism and its aftermath. al-Banna blamed the western idea of separation between religion and politics for Muslims' decline. In the 1950s Sayed Qutb, Muslim Brotherhood's prominent member, took the arguments of al-Banna even further. For Qutb, "all non-Muslims were infidels - even the so-called people of the book, the Christians and Jews," he also predicted an eventual clash of civilisations between Islam and the west. "Qutb inspired a whole generation of Islamists, including Ayatollah Khomeini." The Muslim world widely accepted his ideology post Arabs' defeat in the 1967 war.
The Muslim Brotherhood has been involved in violent attacks. From its Islamic theme in its symbolism: on its flag there's a brown square frames a green circle with a white perimeter. Two swords cross inside the circle beneath a red Koran. The cover of the Koran says: "Truly, it is the Generous Koran." The Arabic beneath the sword handles translates as "Be prepared." A reference to a Koranic verse that talks of preparing to fight the enemies of God. It is among 17 groups categorized as "terrorist organizations" by the Russian government, as well as in Egypt, where they started to perform terrorist attacks, now banned by that government.
Contemporary Islamism holds that Islam is now under attack, and therefore -experts explain-
Jihad is now a war of defense, and as such has become not only a collective duty but an individual duty without restrictions or limitations. That is, to the Islamists, Jihad is a total, all-encompassing duty to be carried out by all Muslims – men and women, young and old. All infidels, without exception, are to be fought and annihilated, and no weapons or types of warfare are barred. Furthermore, according to them, current Muslim rulers allied with the West are considered apostates and infidels. One major ideological influence in Islamist thought was Sayyid Qutb. Qutb, an Egyptian, was the leader of the Muslim Brotherhood movement. He was convicted of treason for plotting to assassinate Egyptian president Gamal Abd Al-Nasser and was executed in 1966. He wrote extensively on a wide range of Islamic issues. According to Qutb, "There are two parties in all the world: the Party of Allah and the Party of Satan – the Party of Allah which stands under the banner of Allah and bears his insignia, and the Party of Satan, which includes every community, group, race, and individual that does not stand under the banner of Allah."
In the "Holy land foundation" case of the Palestinian Arab al-Arian's involvement in funding terror organization, the Muslim Brotherhood's papers detailed plan to seize U.S. The Group's takeover plot emerged when revealed a handful of classified evidence detailing Islamist extremists' ambitious plans for a U.S. takeover. Terrorism researchers said "the memos and audiotapes, many translated from Arabic and containing detailed strategies by the international Islamist group the Muslim Brotherhood, are proof that extremists have long sought to replace the Constitution with Shariah, or Islamic law", paving its way via a plot to form "a complex network of seemingly benign Muslim organizations whose real job, according to the (US) government, was to spread militant propaganda and raise money." The Muslim Brotherhood created some American Muslim groups and sought influence in others, many of which are listed as unindicted co-conspirators in the Holy Land case, such as CAIR.
On a website devoted to Ramadhan, the Muslim Brotherhood posted a series of articles by Dr. Ahmad 'Abd Al-Khaleq about Al-Walaa Wa'l-Baraa, an Islamic doctrine which, in its fundamentalist interpretation, stipulates absolute allegiance to the community of Muslims and total rejection of non-Muslims and of Muslims who have strayed from the path of Islam. In his articles, the writer argues that according to this principle, a Muslim can come closer to Allah by hating all non-Muslims-Christians, Jews, atheists, or polytheists - and by waging jihad against them in every possible manner.
Indeed, the Muslim Brotherhood has a long-standing war on the West. From 1948 until the 1970s it engaged in assassinations and terrorism in Egypt, and has indoctrinated many who went on to commit acts of terror. Muslim Brotherhood's supreme guide issued the statement that Al Qaeda's "Bin Laden is a Jihad Fighter."
The Hebron Massacre - August 1929
1929 Hebron massacre' pogrom the 'ethnic cleansing' attack upon [mostly non- Zionist, religious] pious Jews by Arab Muslims in Israel / Palestine. Agitated by the Mufti, Haj Amin al-Husseini's intentional inflammatory speeches who called the believers to rise up in defense of Islam's holy places. The brutality -which included beheading of babies by sword, castrating old Rabbis, body mutilation, castrating rabbis with their students before they were slain, breasts and fingers sliced off, eyes plucked from their sockets- was accompanied with cries of 'Itbach al Yahud' (kill the Jews). and “Allah akbar.”
The massacres in Hebron and elsewhere of 1929, began in the wake of the Mufti's provocative speeches. The mosques were used in numerous outbreak of violence in Palestine, such as the massacre of the Jews of Hebron in August 1929 which started with leaflets handed to the Muslims while leaving the mosques. It was on August 23 (1929) when the riots erupted, as masses of Arabs, "leaving their mosques after Friday prayers, attacked Jewish neighborhoods in Jerusalem and the vicinity." The violence spread to other parts of the country, reaching a peak in Hebron on August 24, when 66 Jews were murdered, and in Safed, on August 29, where the death tall was 45. The riots lasted a full week, leaving 133 Jews dead and 339 wounded."
It started off with 2,000 Arabs bursting out of the Mosque of Omar on the Haram al-Sharif. The grand mufti Haj Amin al-Husseini admitted later on that "the speaker in the mosque that day had incited Arab worshippers to violence."
Hebron's Jewish population was not part of the Zionist movement and some link it to the unfortunate fact of its highest tall of victims. The Forward describes the scene:
The carnage in Hebron was particularly ugly, the mobs having sliced a variety of body parts off of their victims. Just over a half-dozen of the victims were American kids from New York and Chicago who had come to study at the famed yeshiva.
The Forward recalls:
New York’s Jews were horrified by the pogroms, and the story stayed on the front pages of the Forward for nearly a month. The paper’s Palestine correspondents delved deep into the issue of Arab-Jewish antipathies, discussing issues such as how Arabs were incited to violence during Friday afternoon worship in their mosques, as well as explaining to readers the concept of jihad and the 72 virgins a Muslim allegedly receives if he dies as a martyr.
The massacre and ethnic cleansing by the Iraqi government, by Arab and Kurdish Muslim masses on Christian Assyrians, indigenous people. An estimated 3,000 Assyrians were systematically targeted by the Iraqi government to cleanse the Assyrian race."
From the British document of the time:
"Simel Massacre.. The culmination of the indiscriminate action against Assyrian men, regardless of party or guilt... Between the 8th and 10 August, widespread looting, raiding and burning of Assyrian villages in the Simel, Dohuk and Al Qosh areas had been in progress... Both Kurds and Arabs of the Shammar and Jabur tribes were implicated."
For years the scars in the region remained unhealed. The surviving Assyrians were described as, "spiritless, cowed, and apprehensive" while the Kurds and Arabs were hideously inflamed.
The Jaffa Massacre - 19 April 1936.
In September 1937, Armed Arab terrorism, under the direction of the Arab Higher Committee, was used for both; to attack the Jews and to suppress Arab opponents. This campaign of violence continued through 1938 and then tapered off, ending in early 1939. Researchers conclude about the terrible toll: "Eighty Jews were murdered by terrorist acts during the labor strike, and a total of 415 Jewish deaths were recorded during the whole 1936-1939 Arab Revolt period."
The attacks occurred as Islamic preachers incited the masses inside Mosques and the mobs attacked with the 'Islamic' shouts of "Allah Akbar!"
Rashid Ali coup
On February 28, 1941, Rashid Ali as well as the following Muslim personalities: Salah ed-Din es-Sabbagh, Fahmi Said and Mahmud Salman of the Golden Square, Rashid Ali el-Kilani, Yunis es-Sebawi, Shawkat and Hajj Amin, all swore on the Koran to be faithful to the [pro-Nazi] program.
The Farhud pogrom on Jews in Iraq June 1941
It was followed agitation by the Mufti Haj Amin al-Husseini, perpetrated by a pro-Nazi Arab mob, led by Al-Muthanna club's al-Futuwwa Arab-Islamic Fascist paramilitary group. Iraqi soldiers were among the first attackers. Jews were killed randomly, hundreds were injured, "women and children were raped in front of their relatives, babies crushed, children mutilated."
The Farhud, the Mufti (who declared a jihad) inspired Krystallnacht in Iraq, 1941, took place Sunday and Monday, 1 June and 2 1941. The two days of murder, looting, rape and mutilation, shattered this ancient community’s self-confidence, and swiftly led to the exodus of over 90 percent of Iraqi Jewry.
Prior to the meeting, in June 1940 the Mufti offered his services to the Nazi Reich government. In 1941, he went to Berlin via Tehran, where he explained to the German ambassador, Erwin Ettel, his plan to bring all Arabs under the banner of Pan-Arabism over to the side of the Axis (25 June 1942). Here he came out unconditionally for the "final solution" of the Jewish question, calling on the Germans to wipe out all Jews, "not even sparing the children."
His meeting with Hitler evolved around Jews being "his foremost enemy". The Nazi dictator rebuffed the Mufti's requests for his empowerment. Though Adolf Hitler hated Arabs, considered them to be racially inferior just as Jews, Hitler refused to touch, shake the Mufti's hand, nevertheless, the Nazi Führer and the supreme religious authority of Islamic world were able to bridge in a common hatred of the Jews. Prof. W. Phares explaines in a paragraph:Jihadists and World War II that "While Nazi infidels were ultimately anathema to jihadists, the alliance answered all their practical needs at the moment."
From a description in the article "The Mufti of Berlin" (24 September 2009) in the Wall Street Journal how his legacy had an impact of future radical Islamists:
...the Palestinian wartime leader "was one of the worst and fanatical fascists and anti-Semites," .... He intervened with the Nazis to prevent the escape to Palestine of thousands of European Jews, who were sent instead to the death camps. He also conspired with the Nazis to bring the Holocaust to Palestine. The mufti "invented a new form of Jew-hatred by recasting it in an Islamic mold," according to German scholar Matthias Küntzel. The mufti's fusion of European anti-Semitism—particularly thegenocidal variety—with Koranic views of Jewish wickedness has become the hallmark of Islamists world-wide, from al Qaeda to Hamas and Hezbollah. During his time in Berlin, the mufti ran the Nazis' Arab-language propaganda radio program, which incited Muslims in the Mideast to "kill the Jews wherever you find them. This pleases God, history and religion." Among the many listeners was also the man later known as Ayatollah Khomeini, who used to tune into Radio Berlin every evening, according to Amir Taheri's biography of the Iranian leader. Khomeini's disciple Mahmoud Ahmadinejad still spews the same venom pioneered by the mufti as do Islamic hate preachers around the world. Muslim Judeophobia is not — as is commonly claimed — a reaction to the Mideast conflict but one of its main "root causes." It has been fueling Arab rejection of a Jewish state long before Israel's creation.
The exiled al-Husseini fled in 1941 to Berlin, serving the Nazi regime for four years in broadcasting jihadist as well as anti-British propaganda to the entire Middle East and by recruiting Bosnian Muslims for the Wehrmacht, the SS.
- Grand Mufti Haj Amin al-Husseini of 'Palestine' recruites Moslem Holy Warriors who fought as the Waffen SS, and the "Free Arabia." - 1943
In speaking to potential recruits, al-Husseini stressed the connections they had to the "Muslim nation" fighting the British throughout the world. That it is about "defending Muslims."
There were three divisions of Muslim soldiers: The Waffen SS 13th Handschar ("Knife"), the 23rd Kama ("Dagger") and the 21st Skenderbeg. The Skenderbeg was an Albanian unit of around 4,000 men, and the Kama was composed of Muslims from Bosnia, containing 3,793 men at its peak. The Handschar was the largest unit, around 20,000 Bosnian Muslim volunteers. The Encyclopedia of the Holocaust states "These Muslim volunteer units, called Handschar, were put in Waffen SS units, fought Yugoslav partisans in Bosnia and carried out police and security duties in Hungary. They participated in the massacre of civilians in Bosnia and volunteered to join in the hunt for Jews in Croatia." Part of the division also escorted Hungarian Jews from the forced labor in mine in Bor on their way back to Hungary. "The division was also employed against Serbs, who as Orthodox Christians were seen by the Bosnian Muslims as enemies." All in the all, there were at least 70,000 Bosnian Muslims captured by the British. Some of these Muslim ex-soldiers participated in aiding Arabs in the anti Israel war of 1948.
- A Jihad for Love
- Aslim Taslam
- Honor killing
- Islam and violence
- Islamic Jihad
- Islamic military jurisprudence
- Islamic terrorism
- Itmam al-hujjah
- Jihad in Hadith
- Jihad Watch
- Love Jihad
- Mujahidin, cognate
- Opinion of Islamic scholars on Jihad
- Quran and violence
- Sex Jihad
Political and military aspects
||Constructs such as ibid., loc. cit. and idem are discouraged by Wikipedia's style guide for footnotes, as they are easily broken. Please improve this article by replacing them with named references (quick guide), or an abbreviated title. (May 2010)|
- Rudolph Peters, Jihād (The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World);  . Retrieved February 17, 2008.
- Jonathon P. Berkey, The Formation of Islam; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 2003
- William M. Watt: Muhammad at Medina, p.4; q.v. the Tafsir regarding these verses
- Adel Th. Khoury: Was sagt der Koran zum Heiligen Krieg?, p.91
- "The Book of Jihad and Expedition (Kitab Al-Jihad wa'l-Siyar)". Translation of Sahih Muslim, Book 19. University of Southern California, Center for Muslim-Jewish Engagement. Retrieved 14 June 2011.
- David Cook, Understanding Jihad; University of California Press: CA, 2005
- The Oxford Dictionary of Islam, Badr, Battle of;Oxfordislamicstudies.com . Retrieved February 17, 2008.
- John L. Esposito, Islam, the Straight Path; Oxford University Press: New York,2005
- Richard P. Bonney, Jihad: From Qu'ran to Bin Laden; Palgrave Macmillan: Hampshire, 2004
- Ransoming Captives in Crusader Spain: The Order of Merced on the Christian-Islamic Frontier
- The Almohads
- Frank and Leaman, 2003, p. 137-138.
- Forgotten Refugees
- Kraemer, 2005, pp. 16-17.
- Sarkar, Jadunath. How the Muslims forcibly converted the Hindus of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh to Islam.
- Akbar, Mobashar (2002). The Shade of Swords: Jihad and the conflict between Islam and Christianity. Routledge. p. 100. ISBN 978-0-415-28470-7.
- The Shade of Swords: Jihad and the Conflict between Islam and Christianity M. J. Akbar
- K. S. Lal: Growth of Muslim Population in Medieval India, 1973
- Usman dan Fodio (Fulani leader)
- Welcome to Encyclopædia Britannica's Guide to Black History
- Sufism in the Caucasus[dead link]
- Imam Shamil of Dagestan
- Tough lessons in defiant Dagestan
- Civil War in the Sudan: Resources or Religion?
- Slave trade in the Sudan in the nineteenth century and its suppression in the years 1877-80.
- Holt, P.M.,The Mahdist State in Sudan, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1958, p.51
- US Library of Congress, A Country Study: Sudan
- Saudi Arabia —The Saud Family and Wahhabi Islam
- Nibras Kazimi,A Paladin Gears Up for War, The New York Sun, November 1, 2007
- John R Bradley, Saudi's Shi'ites walk tightrope, Asia Times, March 17, 2005
- Amir Taheri, Death is big business in Najaf, but Iraq's future depends on who controls it, The Times, August 28, 2004
- Life Span of Suleiman The Magnificent, 1494-1566
- Kinross, 187.
- Supply of Slaves
- The living legacy of jihad slavery
- The Middle East during World War One
- T. E. Lawrence, The Seven Pillars of Wisdom, Jonathan Cape, London (1926) 1954 p. 49.
- for a detailed account of the battle fought see Chapter VI of The Fall of the Moghul Empire of Hindustan by H.G. Keene. Available online at Emotional-literacy-education.com
- Afghan Constitution: 1923
- Afghan History: kite flying, kite running and kite banning By Mir Hekmatullah Sadat
- First Afghan War - Battle of Kabul and Retreat to Gandamak
- Reason to hope Canadians don't repeat history in Afghanistan, Alan G. Jamieson, The Edmonton Journal, July 31, 2006
- "Leaflet War Rages in Afghan Countryside". Associated Press. 2003-02-14. Retrieved 2007-02-28.
- Tohid, Owias (2003-06-27). "Taliban regroups - on the road". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 2007-02-28.
- Out Guerrillas and Terrorists to Wage a Holy War, New York Times, March 18, 2002
- Rashid, Taliban (2000)
- Abd al Qadir, Library of Congress
- Centrifugal Tendencies In The Algerian Civil War, Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ)
- John King Fairbank, Kwang-ching Liu, Denis Crispin Twitchett (1980). Late Ch'ing, 1800-1911. Cambridge University Press. p. 223. ISBN 0-521-22029-7. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- John King Fairbank, Kwang-ching Liu, Denis Crispin Twitchett (1980). Late Ch'ing. Cambridge University Press. p. 224. ISBN 0-521-22029-7. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- Lucien X. Polastron, Jon Graham (2007). Books on fire: the destruction of libraries throughout history. Lucien X. POLASTRON. p. 102. ISBN 1-59477-167-7. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- Stéphane A. Dudoignon, Hisao Komatsu, Yasushi Kosugi (2006). Intellectuals in the modern Islamic world: transmission, transformation, communication. Taylor & Francis. pp. 135, 336. ISBN 978-0-415-36835-3. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- "Pakistan Today: Front Page". 11-8-2002. Retrieved 1010-09-28.
- Phillips, Rodney J. (2009). The Muslim Empire and the Land of Gold. AEG Publishing Group. p. 191. ISBN 978-1-60693-289-6.
- Husain, Zakir Husain Presentation Volume Committee. Dr. Zakir Husain presentation volume: presented on his seventy first birthday. Dr. Zakir Husain Presentation Volume Committee; [available at Maktaba Jamia, 1968. p. 464–493.
- Ankerberg, John; Emir Caner (2009). The Truth about Islam and Jihad. Harvest House Publishers. p. . ISBN 0-7369-2501-5.
- Life of the Prophet Muhammad: Al-Sira Al-Nabawiyya, by Ibn Kathir (2000), 10
- Bloomberg, Jon Irving (2000). The Jewish world in the Middle Ages. KTAV Publishing House, Inc.,. p. 35. ISBN 0-88125-684-6.
- "The Treatment of Jews in Arab/Islamic Countries". JVL. Retrieved 2010-09-28.
- University of Calcutta. The Calcutta review 23. University of Calcutta, 1854. p. 67.
- Rodgers, Russ; Adam Lowther (2008). Fundamentals of Islamic asymetric warfare: a documentary analysis of the principles of Muhammad. Edwin Mellen Press. p. 203. ISBN 0-7734-4988-4.
- Shujaat, Mohammad (2004). Islam and war. Anmol Publications PVT. LTD. p. 360. ISBN 81-261-2008-8, 9788126120086 Check
- Phillips, Rodney J. (2009). The Muslim Empire and the Land of Gold. AEG Publishing Group. p. . ISBN 1-60693-289-6.
- The Jews of Old-Time Medina Forward.com, Mar 21, 2003
- Ember, Melvin; Carol R. Ember, Ian Skoggard (2005). Encyclopedia of diasporas: immigrant and refugee cultures around the world. Diaspora communities, Volume 2. Springer, 2005. p. http://books.google.com/books?id=7QEjPVyd9YMC&pg=PA183. ISBN 0-306-48321-1.
- "Roots of terror: suicide, martyrdom, self-redemption and Islam". openDemocracy. Retrieved 2010-09-28.
- Suicide, M. Reiss, 2006
- Feared Basij militia has deep history in Iranian conflict CNN, June 22, 2009
- "Ahmadinejad's Demons, A Child of the Revolution Takes Over," Matthias Küntzel The New Republic, April 24, 2006
- Iran's Basij Force -- The Mainstay Of Domestic Security Referl, December 07, 2008
- "The Iranian Revolution," Brendan January, Twenty-First Century Books, 2008, ISBN 0-8225-7521-3, ISBN 978-0-8225-7521-4. p. 103
- How Schoolchildren Are Brainwashed In Iran, by Hossein Aryan Rferl, May 27, 2010
- "Children at war," Peter Warren Singer, University of California Press, 2006, ISBN 0-520-24876-7, p. 22 AFT-A Union of Professionals - Child Soldiers(Ian Brown, Khomeini's Forgotten Sons: The Story of Iran's Boy Soldiers, London: Grey Seal, 1990, p. 2. Quoted in Karen Armstrong, The Battle for God, New York: Knopf, 2000, pp. 327–328)
- O'Neill, John J. (2009). Holy Warriors. Felibri. p. 127.
- "Why the Cairo speech was so sad" Real Clear Politics, June 9, 2009
- Gross, Abraham (2005). Spirituality and law: courting martyrdom in Christianity and Judaism. University Press of America. p. 19. ISBN 0-7618-2997-0.
- Olsen, Kirstin (1994). Chronology of women's history. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 35. ISBN 0-313-28803-8.
- Morris, Jan (1959). The Hashemite kings. Pantheon. p. 85.
- morris, Benny (1999). Righteous victims: a history of the Zionist-Arab conflict, 1881-2001. Random House, Inc. p. . ISBN 978-0-679-42120-7.
- Beker, Avi (1998). Jewish communities of the world JEWISH COMMUNITIES IN THE WORLD. Lerner Publications. p. 203. ISBN 0-8225-1934-8.
- Islam at war: a history, p. 230, George F. Nafziger, Mark W. Walton (2003)
- Codex Judaica: chronological index of Jewish history, covering ... - Page 185 Máttis Kantor -2005 - 393 pages
- Lewis, Bernard (1984). The Jews of Islam. Princeton University Press. pp. 44–45.
- Laqueur, Walter (2006). The changing face of antisemitism: from ancient times to the present day. p. .
- Rûbîn, Ûrî; David J. Wasserstein (1997). Dhimmis and others: Jews and Christians and the world of classical Islam. EISENBRAUNS. p. 89.
- Anderson, James Maxwell (1991). Spain, 1001 sights: an archaeological and historical guide. University of Calgary Press. p. 45. ISBN 0-919813-93-3.
- Aranov, Saul I. (1979). A descriptive catalogue of the Bension collection of Sephardic manuscripts and texts Canadian electronic library: Books collection. University of Alberta. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-88864-016-1.
- De Lange, Nicholas Robert; Michael De Lange; Jane S. Gerber (1997). The illustrated history of the Jewish people. Harcourt Brace. ISBN 0-15-100302-5. Unknown parameter
- campo, Juan Eduardo (2009). Encyclopedia of Islam. Infobase Publishing. p. 238. ISBN 0-8160-5454-1.
- Lewis, Bernard (2002). The Assassins: a radical sect in Islam. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-00498-9.
- Schlagheck, Donna M. (1988). International terrorism: an introduction to concepts and actors. Lexington Books. p. 58. ISBN 0-669-15454-7.
- Combs, Cindy C. (2002). Terrorism in the twenty-first century. Prentice Hall. p. 19. ISBN 0-13-020887-6.
- Gold, Dore (2009). The Rise of Nuclear Iran: How Tehran Defies the West. Regnery Publishing. p. . ISBN 1-59698-571-2.
- p. 61
- Parfitt, Tudor (1996). The road to redemption: the Jews of the Yemen, 1900-1950 Volume 17 of Brill's series in Jewish studies. BRILL. p. 19. ISBN 90-04-10544-1.
- "Who is the Godfather of Islamic Fundamentalism?". FSM. 2007-07-30. Retrieved 2010-09-28.
- Valentine, Simon Ross (2008). Title Islam and the Ahmadiyya jamaʻat: history, belief, practice. Columbia University Press. p. 193. ISBN 0-231-70094-6.
- Lewis, Bernard (1991). The Political Language of Islam, Exxon Lecture Series. University of Chicago Press. p. 188. ISBN 0-226-47693-6.
- Milton-Edwards, Beverley (2005). Islamic fundamentalism since 1945 The making of the contemporary world. Psychology Press. p. 20.
- Jayapalan, N. (2001). History of India N. Atlantic Publishers & Distri. p. 83. ISBN 81-7156-928-5.
- Elst, Koenraad (1992). Negationism in India: concealing the record of Islam. Voice of India. p. 27.
- "India, Hindus, Hinduism". The Peace FAQ. Retrieved 2010-09-28.
- p. 456
- Lal, Kishori Saran (1999). Theory and practice of Muslim state in India. Aditya Prakashan. p. 62. ISBN 81-86471-72-3.
- Early Islam, Desmond Stewart, Time-Life Books, 1967 p. 165
- Currents of Asian History, Vernon L. B. Mendis, Lake House Investments, 1981 p 445
- Turn around and run like hell: amazing stories of unconventional military strategies that worked, Joseph Cummins, 2007, ISBN 1-921208-64-3, p. 35]
- "Empire of the Mongols, Michael Burgan, Publisher Infobase Publishing (2009), ISBN 1-60413-163-2 p. 71
- Exploring the Middle Ages: Volume 6, Page 424, by Marshall Cavendish Corporation, 2006
- Holocaust, The Jews of Iran, Project Aladin
- The losing battle with Islam David Selbourne - 2005
- The Great Moghuls, By B. Gascoigne, Harper Row Publishers, New York, 1972, p.15, p. 85, pp. 68-75, pp. 88-93
- The Cambridge History of India, Vol. IV, Mughal India, ed. Lt. Col. Sir W. Haig, Sir R.Burn, S,Chand & Co., Delhi, 1963, pp. 71-73, pp. 97-99
- The Builders of The Mogul Empire, by M. Prawdin, Barnes & Noble Inc, New York, 1965, pp. 127-28, pp. 137-38
- An Advanced History of India, by R. C. Majumdar, H. C. Raychoudhury, K. Datta, MacMillen & Co., London, 2nd Ed, 1965, pp. 448-450
- Encyclopædia Britannica, 15 th Ed, Vol.21, 1967, p.65
- The Real Akbar, The (not) So Great, Hindunet
- rediff.com: Francois Gautier on the genocide beyond the Hindu Kush
- "America's Earliest Terrorists, lessons from America's first war against Islamic terror" December 16, 2005, Joshua E. London, National Review
- Barnazi, Élie; Miriam Eliav-Feldon; Denis Charbit (2002). A historical atlas of the Jewish people: from the time of the patriarchs to the present. Schocken Books. p. 256.
- Merry, S. (2009). Those Origins, Those Claims. p. 49.
- Peters, Joan (1985). From time immemorial: the origins of the Arab-Jewish conflict over Palestine. JKAP Publications. p. 178.
- Dolan, David P. (1991). Holy war for the promised land: Israel's struggle to survive. T. Nelson. p. 60.
- Q&A with Stephen Schwartz on Wahhabism on National Review Online
- "Reining in Riyadh" by D. Gold, Apr 6, 2003, NYpost (JCPA)
- Brice, William Charles (1981). An Historical atlas of Islam. BRILL. pp. 268–9. ISBN 90-04-06116-9.
- Dolan, David P. (1991). Holy war for the promised land: Israel's struggle to survive. p. 60.
- Eastern problems at the close of the eighteenth century by Alfred Lewis Pinneo Dennis, published by The University press, 1901,p. 192, original from Harvard University
- Full text of "Eastern problems at the close of the eighteenth century"
- p. 308
- Michael: on the history of the Jews in the Diaspora Daniel Carpi, Yehuda Nini, Shlomo Simonsohn - Diaspora Research Institute, 1978 - History, p. 138 
- Hughes, Stephen O. (2006). Morocco Under King Hassan. Garnet & Ithaca Press. p. . ISBN 978-0-86372-312-4.
- Mali, Bradt Travel Guide, Bradt Guides, Author Ross Velton, Edition 3, illustrated, Publisher Bradt Travel Guides, 2009, ISBN 1-84162-218-4, ISBN 978-1-84162-218-7
- The Encyclopedia of world history: ancient, medieval, and modern, ... p. 589, Peter N. Stearns, William Leonard Langer-2001 
- Africas Legacy of Urbanization p. 123, Stefan Goodwin, 2008
- The influence of Islam upon Africa, John Spencer Trimingham - 1980
- A history of Africa since 1800 - Raphael Olu Afolalu - 1972 - p. 80
- "Jewish Girl Chooses Decapitation Over Converting to Islam". INN. Sep 5, 2008.
- The Jews of the Middle East and North Africa in modern times by Reeva S. Simon, Michael M. Laskier, Sara Reguer, 2003, p. 481 
- The Jewish quarterly: Volumes 46-47, Jewish Literary Trust, London, England, 1999, p. 64
- Shiloah, Amnon (1995). Jewish Musical Traditions Jewish folklore and anthropology series. Wayne State University Press. p. 186. ISBN 0-8143-2235-2.
- Today in Jewish History (Part 3)
- Abraham Yaari, Israel Schen, Isaac Halevy-Levin, 1958, p. 37
- One a day: an anthology of Jewish ... - Google Books
- Eothenby Alexander William Kinglake, 1864, p. 291
- Matthias, B. Lehmann (2005). Ladino rabbinic literature and Ottoman Sephardic culture. Indiana University Press. p. . ISBN 0-253-34630-4.
- Vital, David (1980). The Origins of Zionism. Clarendon. p. http://books.google.com/books?id=4XV9tgWpPt8C&pg=PA17. ISBN 0-19-827439-4.
- The Jewish Nakba: Expulsions, Massacres and Forced Conversions, Ben-Dror Yemini, Maariv, Hebrew, 15 May 2009 
- Alon, Alon (2004). Holocaust and Redemption. Trafford Publishing. p. 20. ISBN 1-4120-0358-X.
- Gilbert, Martin (2006). The Routledge atlas of Jewish history, Routledge Historical Atlases. Routledge page=. ISBN 0-415-39966-1.
- Beauty in Holiness - Hebraic Collections: An Illustrated Guide (Library of Congress African & Middle Eastern Reading Room )
- Abdol Hossein Sardari (1895-1981) United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Apr 1, 2010
- History of Jewish life in Persia. Sefarad.org
- "Americans React to Damascus Blood Libel". JVL. Retrieved 2010-09-28.]
- - DAMASCUS AFFAIR
- p. 140
- Florence, Ronald. Blood libel: the Damascus affair of 1840. Univ of Wisconsin Press. p. 212. ISBN 0-299-20280-1. Unknown parameter
- The death of a nation: or, The ever persecuted Nestorians or Assyrian Christians by Abraham Yohannan, pp. 111-112. Publisher G. P. Putnam's sons, 1916 (Original from Princeton University)
- The Massacres of the Khilafah
- Deadly attacks against the Assyrian Christians of Iraq
- Iraqi Assyrian Christians in London: the construction of ethnicity Madawi Al-Rasheed, 1998, p. 35
- The Massacre in Syria.; LETTER FROM THE AMERICAN CONSUL AT BEIRUT. Published: August 10, 1860 New York Times
- Coulibaly, Karen Brock, N'Golo (University of Sussex. Institute of Development Studies) (1999). Sustainable rural livelihoods in Mali (Volume 35 of IDS research reports), Institute of Development Studies. Institute of Development Studies. p. 89. ISBN 1-85864-269-8, 9781858642697 Check
- Historical Society of Nigeria (2005). Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria, Volume 16. Published for the Historical Society of Nigeria by Impact. p. 137.
- Danfulani, Umar Habila Dadem Danfulani (2003). Understanding Nyam: studies in the history and culture of the Ngas, Mupun and Mwaghavul in Nigeria. 26 of Westafrikanische Studien. Köppe. p. 58. ISBN 3-89645-462-5.
- The Burning Tigris: The Armenian Genocide and America's Response pp. 160–162, Peter Balakian, 2004 
- Cook, Bernard A. (2006). Women and war: a historical encyclopedia from antiquity to the present. p. 91.
- Bennet, Gaymon; Martinez J. Hewlett; Robert John Russell (2008). The evolution of evil. p. 323.
- Jelavich, Charles; Barbara Jelavich (1986). The establishment of the Balkan national states, 1804-1920. University of Washington Press. p. 139.
- Butler, Daniel Allen (2007). The first Jihad: the battle for Khartoum and the dawn of militant Islam, Volume 2006. Casemate. ISBN 9781932033540.
- Islam's Idea of Holy War - TIME
- Hamidian (Armenian) Massacres ArmenianGenocide.org
- Dadrian, Vahakn N. Edition 6 (2004). The history of the Armenian genocide: ethnic conflict from the Balkans to Anatolia to the Caucasus. Berghahn Books. p. 380. ISBN 1-57181-666-6.
- Totten, Samuel; Paul Robert Bartrop; Steven L. Jacobs (2008). Dictionary of Genocide: A-L Volume 1 of Dictionary of Genocide. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 23. ISBN 0-313-34642-9, 9780313346422 Check
- The Era of the Abdul Hamit Massacres Dadrian, Vahakn N. (2004). The history of the Armenian genocide: ethnic conflict from the Balkans to Anatolia to the Caucasus. Berghahn Books. p. 151. ISBN 978-1-57181-666-5.
- Islam’s Holy War Against Christianity - Turkey, 1894-1923 - Part 13 of a Series - Mike Scruggs - For The Tribune Papeers 
- The Wiener Library bulletin, the University of Michigan 1974, History, p. 66 
- Wistrich, Robert S. (1994). Antisemitism: the longest hatred. p. 205.
- Old New AntiSemitism, S. Baum
- The Wiener Library bulletin 1974, p. 11
- La fin du judaïsme en terres d'islam, Shmuel Trigano - Denoël, 2009, p. 459 
- The Greek Genocide 1914-23. Greek-Genocide.org
- Jewish Zionist Education
- Korot April 1920, Palestine
- "The Grand Mufti of Jerusalem and the Nazification of the Arab world"http://www.shalomjerusalem.com/mohammedism/mohammedism21.html
- "Arab Riots of the 1920s.". JVL. Retrieved 2010-09-28.
- Britian [sic], Haj Husseini and the Arab Riots of 1920
- Myths & Facts The Six-Day War
- Encyclopædia Britannica p. 432, James Louis Garvin -Reference - 1926 
- The Legacy of Jihad Mideastbooks
- For the Tsar and the Raj p. 175, Thomas E. Berry, 2009
- Ethnic conflict and civic life: Hindus and Muslims in India Ashutosh Varshney, 2003, p. 142]
- India from 1900 to 1947- Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence
- FISI News
- New York Times, WALES'S INDIA TRIP UNAFFECTED BY RIOT - Moplah Fanatics Massacre Europeans and Hindus and Loot Buildings as They March. TROOPS SHOOT DOWN 700 Outbreak Ascribed Chiefly to Religion
- Long march of Islam: the future imperfect R. K. Ohri, 2004, pp. 72-73
- Call For An Intellectual Kshatriya. South Asia Analysis
- Israel and Ishmael: studies in Muslim-Jewish relations, by Tudor Parfitt - 2000, Page 222, The Yemenite Jewish poet Shalom Shabazi mentions the 'stealing of orphans' in the seventeenth century and the practice seems to have been taken up again at the beginning of the nineteenth century.
- THE DEVELOPMENT OF MPAC'S ISLAMIST IDEOLOGY: A PRIMER Investigative Project
- "The Muslim Brotherhood". JVL. Retrieved 2010-09-28.
- Jewish Tribune - German scholar alerts all to threat of Islamofascism
- BBC NEWS | Middle East | Analysis: The roots of jihad
- Muslim Brotherhood - ADL Terrorist Symbol Database
- BBC NEWS | Europe | Russia names 'terrorist' groups
- Muslim Brotherhood - Egypt
- The Muslim Brotherhood's Conquest of Europe :: Middle East Quarterly
- Contemporary Islamist Ideology Authorizing Genocidal Murder, 27 January 2004, MEMRI
- Muslim Brotherhood's papers detail plan to seize U.S. Dallas Morning News September 17, 2007
- Muslim Brotherhood Website: Jihad Against Non-Muslims Is Obligatory
- Terrorism FSM
- "Muslim Brotherhood Supreme Guide: Bin Laden is a Jihad Fighter", Special Dispatch Series - No. 2001 - 25 July 2008, MEMRI
- The Biography Channel - Notorious Crime Profiles Khalid Sheikh Mohammed - Serial Killers & Other Criminals - Notorious Crime Files The Biography Channel
- Khalid Sheikh Mohammed: make me a martyr for 9/11 Scotsman.com News
- "Megillat Chevron" Letter from a Survivor of the Hebron Massacre of August 1929
- The Hebron Massacre Aish
- Hebron - The Pogrom of 1929 ... NATIV - Sept. 1999
- Pakistan Today: Front Page 192004
- Wistrich, Robert S. (2010). A Lethal Obsession: Anti-Semitism from Antiquity to the Global Jihad. Random House, Inc. p. 902. ISBN 1-58836-899-8.
- Kohn-Sherbok, Dan (2006). The paradox of anti-semitism. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. . ISBN 0-8264-8896-X.
- Jerold S. Auerbach: Remembering the Hebron Massacre WSJ.com, Aug 27, 2009
- Massacred for sitting while praying at Kotel by Edwin Black Washington JewishWeek 10/13/2010]
- What Happened in Hebron? - by Seth Lipsky-Tablet Magazine - A New Read on Jewish Life
- Hass, Amira (2000). Drinking the sea at Gaza: days and nights in a land under siege. p. .
- Lavsky, Hagit (1996). Before catastrophe: the distinctive path of German Zionism. p. 185.
- Remembering the Hebron Riots, 1929 Forward.com, August 20, 2004
- Iraqi Assyrians Seek Self Administered Region, Aina
- The New Assyrian Martyrs Day
- Foreign Office, ed. (1985). British documents on foreign affairs--reports and papers from the Foreign Office confidential print: From the First to the Second World War Series. B, Turkey, Iran, and the Middle East, 1918-1939, Volume 9, Great Britain. University Publications of America. p. 325.
- p. 70
- Mattar, Philip Edition revised (1992). The Mufti of Jerusalem: Al-Hajj Amin al-Husayni and the Palestinian National Movement Studies of the Middle East Institute. Columbia University Press. p. 48. ISBN 0-231-06463-2.
- "My father's paradise: a son's search for his Jewish past in Kurdish Iraq," Ariel Sabar, Algonquin Books, (2008), ISBN 1-56512-490-1, p. 64
- "The broken crescent: the "threat" of militant Islamic fundamentalism," Fereydoun Hoveyda, National Committee on American Foreign Policy (2002),p. 12
- "The Third Reich and the Arab East," Lukasz Hirszowicz, Routledge & K. Paul(1966),pp. 135, 265
- "Iraq". JVL. Retrieved 2010-09-28.
- Davis, Eric (2005). Memories of state: politics, history, and collective identity in modern Iraq. University of California Press. p. 70. ISBN 0-520-23546-0, 9780520235465 Check
- "BBC Amends Faulty Article on Iraqi Jews, Acknowledges Farhud". Camera. August 17, 2007.
- The 1941 pogrom in the literature of Jews from Iraq, Harif
- "The Mufti and the Fuhrer". JVL. Retrieved 2010-09-28.
- Hajj Amin al-Husayni: The Mufti of Jerusalem United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Apr 1, 2010
- The Faisal-Weizmann Agreement, the Mufti and Hitler, Nazism and Islamic Terror
- Blamires, Cyprian; Paul Jackson (2006). World fascism: a historical encyclopedia 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 497. ISBN 978-1-57607-940-9.
- Phares, Walid (2006). Future Jihad: Terrorist Strategies Against the West. Macmillan. p. 80. ISBN 1-4039-7511-6, 9781403975119 Check
- Daniel Schwammenthal (24 September 2009). "Arab-Nazi Collaboration Is a Taboo Topic in the West.". WSJ. Retrieved 2010-09-28.
- Morris, Benny (2008). 1948: a history of the first Arab-Israeli war. Yale University Press. p. 21. ISBN 0-300-12696-4.
- Carlson, John Roy (2008). Cairo to Damascus. READ BOOKS. p. . ISBN 1-4437-2878-0,9781443728782 Check
- San Francisco Sentinel » FASCIST MUSLIM GROUP EXPECTED TO LOOT TEL AVIV IN 1948
- Djihad in: The Encyclopaedia of Islam.
- Alfred Morabia, Le Ğihâd dans l’Islâm médiéval. “Le combat sacré” des origines au XIIe siècle, Albin Michel, Paris 1993
- Rudolph Peters: Jihad in Classical and Modern Islam
- Nicola Melis, “A Hanafi treatise on rebellion and ğihād in the Ottoman age (XVII c.)”, in Eurasian Studies, Istituto per l’Oriente/Newham College, Roma-Napoli-Cambridge, Volume II; Number 2 (December 2003), pp. 215–226.
- Rudolph Peters, Islam and Colonialism: The Doctrine of Jihad in Modern History, “Religion and Society”, Mouton, The Hague 1979.
- Muhammad Hamidullah: Muslim Conduct of State
- Muhammad Hamidullah: Battlefields of the Prophet Muhammad
- John Kelsay: Just War and Jihad
- Reuven Firestone: Jihad. The Origin of Holy War in Islam
- Hadia Dajani-Shakeel and Ronald Messier: The Jihad and Its Times
- Majid Khadduri: War And Peace in the Law of Islam
- Hizb ut Tahrir: The Obligation of Jihad in Islam
- Hassan al-Banna: Jihad
- Sayyid Qutb: Milestones
- Bernard Lewis: The Political Language of Islam
- Suhas Majumdar: Jihad: The Islamic Doctrine of Permanent War; New Delhi, July 1994]
- Javed Ahmad Ghamidi: Mizan
- Biancamaria Scarcia Amoretti, Tolleranza e guerra santa nell’Islam, “Scuola aperta”, Sansoni, Firenze 1974
- J. Turner Johnson, The Holy War Idea in Western and Islamic Traditions, Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park, Pa. 1997
- Malik, S. K. (1986). The Quranic Concept of War. Himalayan Books. ISBN 81-7002-020-4.
- Swarup, Ram (1982). Understanding Islam through Hadis. Voice of Dharma. ISBN 0-682-49948-X.
- Trifkovic, Serge (2006). Defeating Jihad. Regina Orthodox Press, USA. ISBN 1-928653-26-X.
- Phillips, Melanie (2006). Londonistan: How Britain is Creating a Terror State Within. Encounter books. ISBN 1-59403-144-4.