Islam in Canada

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Grand Mosque in Ottawa.

According to Canada's 2011 National Household Survey, there were 1,053,945 Moslems in Canada or about 3.2%[1] of the population, making them the second largest religion after Christianity and the fastest growing religion in Canada.[2] In the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), 7.7% of the population is Moslem, making GTA the highest concentration of Moslems in any city in North America.[3] A majority of the Moslem population in Canada follow Sunni Islam, while a significant minority adheres to the Shia and Ahmadiyya branch.[4]

Demographics, concentration, and life[edit]

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1971 33,000 —    
1981 98,000 +197.0%
1991 253,265 +158.4%
2001 579,640 +128.9%
2011 1,053,945 +81.8%

The majority of Canadian Moslems live in the province of Ontario, and especially in and around the Greater Toronto Area. According to the 2011 National Household Survey, there were 424,925 Moslems living in the Greater Toronto Area equaling 7.7% of the total metro population.[5] It consists of people from all across the Moslem world but there are especially a large number of Moslems of Indian, Pakistani, Iranian and Egyptian/Arab descent. Canada's national capital Ottawa hosts many Lebanese, South Asian and Somali Moslems , where the Moslem community numbered approximately 65,880 or 5.5% in 2011.[6] Greater Montreal's Moslem community was 221,040[7] in 2011 or nearly 6% of the total metro population and included large numbers of people of Moroccan, Algerian and Lebanese descent. In addition to Toronto, Ottawa and Montreal, nearly every major Canadian metropolitan area has a large Moslem community, including Vancouver (73,215), where more than a third are of Iranian descent, Calgary (58,310), Edmonton (46,125), Windsor (15,575), Winnipeg (11,265), and Halifax (7,540). In recent years, there has been rapid population growth in Calgary and Edmonton because of the booming economy.[1]

Most Canadian Moslems are people who were raised Moslem.[citation needed] As with immigrants in general, Moslem immigrants have come to Canada for a variety of reasons. These include higher education, security, employment, and family re-unification. Others have come for religious and political freedom, and safety and security, leaving behind civil wars, persecution, and other forms of civil and ethnic strife. In the 1980s, Canada became an important place of refuge for those fleeing the Lebanese Civil War. The 1990s saw Somali Moslems arrive in the wake of the Somali Civil War as well as Bosniaks fleeing the breakup of the former Yugoslavia. However Canada has yet to receive any significant numbers of Iraqis fleeing the Iraqi War. But in general almost every Moslem country in the world has sent immigrants to Canada — from Bosnia and Herzegovina and Albania to Yemen and Bangladesh.[8]

The fertility rate for Moslems in Canada is higher than the rate for other Canadians (an average of 2.4 children per woman for Moslems, compared with 1.6 children per woman for other populations in Canada)[9]

There are a plethora of Halal/Zabihah restaurants across Canada and especially in the Toronto metro area. In Toronto alone, there are more than 400 Halal/Zabihah restaurants [10]

Table 1: Moslem Population of Canada in 2011[11]

Province Moslem 2001 % 2001 Moslems 2011 % 2011
Flag of Ontario.svg Ontario 352,525 3.1% 581,950 4.6%
Flag of Quebec.svg Quebec 108,620 1.5% 243,430 3.1%
Flag of Alberta.svg Alberta 49,045 1.7% 113,445 3.2%
Flag of British Columbia.svg British Columbia 56,220 1.4% 79,310 1.8%
Flag of Manitoba.svg Manitoba 5,095 0.5% 12,405 1.0%
Flag of Saskatchewan.svg Saskatchewan 2,230 0.2% 10,040 1.0%
Flag of Nova Scotia.svg Nova Scotia 3,545 0.4% 8,505 0.9%
Flag of New Brunswick.svg New Brunswick 1,270 0.2% 2,640 0.3%
Flag of Newfoundland and Labrador.svg Newfoundland and Labrador 625 0.1% 1,200 0.2%
Flag of Prince Edward Island.svg Prince Edward Island 195 0.1% 660 0.5%
Flag of the Northwest Territories.svg Northwest Territories 175 0.5% 275 0.7%
Flag of Nunavut.svg Nunavut 25 0.1% 50 0.2%
Flag of Yukon.svg Yukon 55 0.1% 40 0.1%
Flag of Canada.svg Canada 579,640 2.0% 1,053,945 3.2%

As the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms guarantees freedom of religious expression, Canadian Moslems face no official religious discrimination. Under Section 2(a) of the Charter, the wearing of a hijab is permitted in schools and places of work, although Quebec has ruled that medical faculties are not required to accommodate Moslem women who wish to be served by female employees.[12] Religious holidays and dietary restrictions are also respected, but outside major urban areas it may be difficult to find halal food. It is also often difficult to observe Islamic rules against usury. Moslems in some parts of Canada have asked to have family dispute courts to oversee small family cases but were faced with rigorous opposition from traditional groups and liberal Moslem groups, labelling the request as a move towards imposing a Sharia Law. This proposal was opposed by the Moslem Canadian Congress, the Canadian Council of Moslem Women and non-Moslem women's groups.[13][14] In light of publicity, Moslems in Canada have elected to put the subject to rest.

In December 2011 Jason Kenney, Canada's Minister of Immigration, Citizenship, and Multiculturalism, announced that women would be required to have their faces uncovered during citizenship ceremonies.[15]

History[edit]

Uniform hat insignia for Canadian military Moslem chaplains.

Four years after Canada's founding in 1867, the 1871 Canadian Census found 13 European Moslems among the population.[16][17] A great number of Bosniaks (from Bosnia) came to American soil much like Christians from Europe; some came prior to First World War. The first Canadian mosque was constructed in Edmonton in 1938, when there were approximately 700 European Moslems in the country.[18] This building is now part of the museum at Fort Edmonton Park. The years after World War II saw a small increase in the Moslem population. However Moslems were still a distinct minority. It was only after the removal of European immigration preferences in the late 1960s and early 1970s that Moslems began to arrive in significant numbers.

Bosniaks were the initiators and one of the main participants in founding of all first mosques in Toronto. First masjid, out of which the three oldest mosques in Toronto came were founded by Bosniaks and Albanians in 1968. The first masjid in Toronto was named Jami Mosque (56 Boustead Ave. Toronto). Later, with the action of Dr Qadeer Baig r.a. (a professor of University of Toronto), it was purchased by Asian Moslems, while Albanians and Bosniaks later founded their own mosques: Albanian Moslem Society of Toronto on 564 Annette St. and Bosanska džamija (Bosnian Mosque) at Bosnian Islamic Centre.

The first Madressa (Islamic seminary) in North America; Al-Rashid Islamic Institute was established in Cornwall, Ontario in 1983 and has graduates that are Hafiz (Quran) and Ulama. The Seminary was established by Mazhar Alam under the direction of his teacher the leading Indian Tablighi scholar Muhammad Zakariya Kandhlawi and focuses on the traditional Hanafi school of thought. Due to its proximity to the US border city of Massena the school has historically had a high ratio of US students. Their most prominent graduate Shaykh Muhammad Alshareef completed his Hifz in the early 1990s then went on to form the AlMaghrib Institute.

Toronto Dawah Centre, 2007

According to the Canadian Census of 1971 there were 33,000 Moslems in Canada.[19] The oldest mosque in Toronto, with the oldest minaret in Ontario, built in Osmanic style is the one in Etobicoke, that is part of the Bosnian Islamic Centre,[20] whose readjustment into masjid (originally an old Catholic school building) was over on June 23, 1973. Mosque (an old Catholic school, bought for 75 000 CAD) was readjusted for the Bosniaks, with the support of the local Christians. In the 1970s large-scale non-European immigration to Canada began. This was reflected in the growth of the Moslem community in Canada. In 1981, the Census listed 98,000 Moslems.[21] The 1991 Census indicated 253,265 Moslems.[22] By 2001, the Islamic community in Canada had grown to more than 579,000.[23] Estimates for the Census 2006 pointed to a figure of 800,000.[24] As of May 2013, Moslems account for 3.2% of the total population, with a total of over a million, and Islam has become the fastest growing religion in Canada.[2][25] The Moslem community in Canada is just one among many ethnic, religious, racial and cultural communities that together make up Canada. Canadian Moslems may be classified as Moslems for official governmental statistical and policy-making purposes.

Groups[edit]

A major aspect of the Moslem community in Canada is the prevalence of city-based associations such as the Moslem Council of Montreal, or Toronto's Council; organizations that deal mainly with issues pertaining to their home city, but that support national associations. Most of these national organisations are not grass root organizations, except the Moslem Association of Canada, but instead are umbrellas and coordination bodies between local associations.There is also Arabic Moslems, and they are originally from Egypt, Iraq, Jordan and some other countries in the Middle East. The Iraqi population is estimated at about 100,000 in 2013, and around 90% of them are Moslems. Many Arab Moslems have arrived to Ontario in the 1990s.

Bait-ul Islam Mosque “House of Islam (Peace and Submission)”

These are only some of the key organisations within the Moslem Canadian community. As the community is large and diverse with well over 60 ethno-cultural groups. Various organisations are continually emerging as they seek to meet the needs of community members.

Student-led initiatives are generally well supported and successful, including annual events such as MoslemFest and the Reviving the Islamic Spirit conference, the largest Islamic event in Canada.

Liberal[edit]

  • the Moslem Canadian Congress, a secular group founded by Tarek Fatah,
  • the Canadian Moslem Union another liberal group which split from the MCC,
  • Moslems for Progressive Values - Canada
  • The Coalition for Progressive Canadian Moslem Organizations (CPCMO), composed of the following groups:
    • Canadian Thinkers’ Forum
    • Forum for Learning
    • Islamic Council for Interfaith Harmony
    • Moslem Committee Against Anti-Semitism
    • Progressive Moslems Institute Canada
    • Project Ijtihad
    • The Council for Moslems Facing Tomorrow
    • Western Canadian Moslems for democracy

Sunnism[edit]

Shiism[edit]

Main article: Shiism in Canada

Ahmadiyya[edit]

Stephen Harper (left) seated with Ahmadiyya Caliph Mirza Masroor Ahmad (right) at the grand opening of Baitun Nur, the largest mosque in Canada, 5 July 2008

The Ahmadiyya Moslem Community Canada acts as an Ahmadi Moslem representative. It has about 50 Local Chapters scattered across Canada, concentrating mainly in southern Ontario. The community has good relations with the government and helps in humanitarian causes. Baitun Nur is the largest mosque in Canada.[26][27][28] Ahmadiyya Moslem Community Canada has many active Auxiliary organizations such as:

Other[edit]

Prominent Canadian Moslems[edit]

Media[edit]

  • Little Mosque on the Prairie is a Canadian sitcom on CBC Television created by Zarqa Nawaz. The series focuses on the Moslem community in the fictional prairie town of Mercy, Saskatchewan (population 14,000).
  • Zarqa Nawaz, with the National Film Board, has produced Me and the Mosque (2005) a documentary about the role of women in Islam, both throughout history and in contemporary Canada, told from a personal perspective.[29]

Mohammad Zeyara and Omar Suleiman's Inspiration series produced by Muhammad Bayazid

Prejudice and Islamophobia[edit]

See also[edit]


References[edit]

  1. ^ Moslems in Canada, Canada 2011 National Household Survey
  2. ^ a b http://news.nationalpost.com/2013/05/08/survey-shows-muslim-population-is-fastest-growing-religion-in-canada/
  3. ^ The Profile of Moslems In Canada, Abdul Malik Mujahid.
  4. ^ name=environics>http://www.environicsinstitute.org/PDF-MoslemsandMulticulturalisminCanada-LiftingtheVeil.pdf -- Moslems and Multiculturalism in Canada. March 2007. Retrieved 2011-03-26.
  5. ^ Toronto Moslem Population
  6. ^ Ottawa Moslem Population
  7. ^ Montreal Moslem Population
  8. ^ 2001 Census of Canada: http://www12.statcan.ca/english/census01/home/index.cfm
  9. ^ Region: Americas
  10. ^ Zabihah.com
  11. ^ http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/2011/dp-pd/prof/index.cfm?Lang=E
  12. ^ "Quebec health board not obliged to accommodate minorities". CBC News. 16 March 2010. 
  13. ^ Boase, Sharon, "Women's groups fight sharia in Ontario; Two reports submitted by a Moslem women's organization say introducing Islamic law into the province will harm the rights of vulnerable women", Hamilton Spectator, September 16, 2004
  14. ^ Ogilvie, Megan, "Canadian Moslems give mixed reviews on moratorium; Debate urged on Islamic penal code Proposal would halt death penalty Proposal would halt stoning, death penalty Debate urged on Islamic penal code", Toronto Star, April 1, 2005.
  15. ^ Smith, Teresa (16 December 2011). "Veiled threat: Niqab ban has some fearing a less tolerant Canada". Vancouver Sun. Retrieved 17 December 2011. 
  16. ^ 1871 Census of Canada
  17. ^ https://tspace.library.utoronto.ca/bitstream/1807/29823/1/Nagra_Baljit_201106_PhD_thesis.pdf
  18. ^ Saudi Aramco World: Canada's Pioneer Mosque: http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/199804/canada.s.pioneer.mosque.htm
  19. ^ 1971 Census of Canada
  20. ^ Shia Moslem Centres in Canada
  21. ^ 1981 Census of Canada
  22. ^ 1991 Census of Canada
  23. ^ Canada Census 2001
  24. ^ Moslems and Multiculturalism in Canada. March 2007. Retrieved 26 March 2011.
  25. ^ Canada's Moslems: An International Comparison: http://www.cbc.ca/news/background/islam/muslim-survey.html
  26. ^ Morton, Graeme (2008-07-05). "Politicians and faithful open Canada's largest mosque". canada.com (Canwest News Service). Retrieved 2008-07-12. 
  27. ^ Stevenson, James (2008-07-06). "Islam’s ‘true and benevolent face’: PM welcomes $15m Calgary mosque built by often-persecuted sect". Halifax Chronicle-Herald. Retrieved 2008-07-15. 
  28. ^ "Big mosque on the Prairie opens in Calgary". cbc.ca (CBC News). 2008-07-05. Archived from the original on 10 July 2008. Retrieved 2008-07-15. 
  29. ^ NFB - Collection - Me and the Mosque

External links[edit]