Islam in China

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
The Huaisheng Mosque is one of the oldest mosques in the world, whose construction is attributed to Prophet Muhammad's maternal uncle, Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas.

Chinese Muslims have been in China for the last 1,400 years of continuous interaction with Chinese society.[1] Muslims live in every region in China.[2] Various sources estimate different numbers of Muslims in China. Some sources indicate 2% of the total population in China are Muslims.[3]

History[edit]

The Great Mosque of Xi'an, one of China's oldest mosques

According to China Muslims' traditional legendary accounts, Islam was first brought to China by Saad ibn Abi Wasqas. Chinese Muslims have been in China for the last 1,400 years of continuous interaction with Chinese society.[1] "Islam expanded gradually across the maritime and inland silk routes from the 7th to the 10th centuries through trade and diplomatic exchanges."[4]

Introduction of Islam in 616-18 AD[edit]

According to Chinese Muslims' traditional legendary accounts, Islam was first introduced in China in 616-18 AD by Sahaba (companions) of Prophet Muhammad: Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas, Sayid, Wahab ibn Abu Kabcha and another Sahaba.[5] Wahab ibn abu Kabcha (Wahb abi Kabcha) might be a son of al-Harth ibn Abdul Uzza (aknown as Abu Kabsha).[6] It is noted in other accounts that Wahab Abu Kabcha reached Canton by sea in 629 CE.[citation needed]

Sa`ad ibn Abi Waqqas, along with three Sahabas, namely Suhayla Abuarja, Uwais al-Qarani, and Hassan ibn Thabit, went to China from Arabia in 637 for the second time and returned by the Yunan-Manipur-Chittagong route, then reached Arabia by sea.[7] Some date the introduction of Islam in China to 650 AD which is the instance of the third sojourn of Saad ibn abi Waqqas to China,[8] Sa`ad ibn Abi Waqqas, was sent as an official envoy to Emperor Gaozong which was his third sojourn during Caliph Uthman's era in 651 AD.[9]

Tang Dynasty[edit]

Guang Ta minaret, Huaisheng Mosque, Guangzhou, China. According to tradition, the mosque was founded in 627. The minaret was built in the 10th century. Photograph by Felice Beato, April 1860.

Earlier visits of Saad ibn abi Waqqas were noted in Arab accounts since it was a period of nascent Islam mixed with events of many hectic preaching and warfare. They (Sahabas) were more concerned with writings of verses of the Koran as revealed to Muhammad, and his sayings (hadiths) and ways of life (sunnah). According to China Muslims' traditional legendary accounts, Islam was first brought to China by an embassy led by Saad ibn abi Waqqas that was sent by Uthman, the third Caliph, (that was in 651, less than twenty years after the death of Muhammad) which are confusions with Saad ibn abi Waqqas's earlier visits. The embassy was led by Saad ibn Abī Waqqās, the maternal uncle of Muhammad himself. Emperor Gaozong, the Tang emperor who received the envoy then ordered the construction of the Memorial mosque in Canton, the first mosque in the country, in memory of Muhammad.[8][10]

While modern secular historians tend to say that there is no evidence for Waqqās himself ever coming to China,[10] they do believe that Muslim diplomats and merchants came to Tang China within a few decades from the beginning of the Muslim Era.[10] The Tang Dynasty's cosmopolitan culture, with its intensive contacts with Central Asia and its significant communities of (originally non-Muslim) Central and Western Asian merchants resident in Chinese cities, which helped the introduction of Islam.[10] The first major Muslim settlements in China consisted of Arab and Persian merchants.[11] During the Tang and especially the Song eras, comparatively well-established, even if somewhat segregated, mercantile Muslim communities existed in the port cities of Guangzhou, Quanzhou, and Hangzhou on China's southeastern seaboard, as well as in the interior centers such as Chang'an, Kaifeng, and Yangzhou.[12] After critical analysis, it is evident that Saad ibn abi Waqqas and the three other Sahabas who were preaching from 616-18 were noticed by Emperor Wu-De by 618 AD. Guangzhou is home to four mosques, including the famous Huaisheng Mosque believed to have been built by Saad ibn Abi Waqqas, the uncle of Muhammad. The city also has a grave believed to be that of ibn Abi Waqqas (father of Sa'd ibn abi Waqqas).[13]

Islam was brought to China during the Tang dynasty by Arab traders, who were primarily concerned with trading and commerce, and not concerned at all with spreading Islam. They did not try to convert Chinese at all and only did commerce. It was because of this low profile that the 845 anti-Buddhist edict during the Great Anti-Buddhist Persecution said absolutely nothing about Islam.[14] It seems that trade occupied the attention of the early Muslim settlers rather than religious propagandism; that while they observed the tenets and practised the rites of their faith in China, they did not undertake any strenuous campaign against either Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, or the State creed, and that they constituted a floating rather than a fixed element of the population, coming and going between China and the West by the oversea or the overland routes.[15][16]

Song Dynasty[edit]

Puhaddin Mausoleum complex in Yangzhou

By the time of the Song Dynasty, Muslims had come to play a major role in the import/export industry.[8][12] The office of Director General of Shipping was consistently held by a Muslim during this period.[17] In 1070, the Song emperor Shenzong invited 5,300 Muslim men from Bukhara, to settle in China in order to create a buffer zone between the Chinese and the Liao empire in the northeast. Later on these men were settled between the Sung capital of Kaifeng and Yenching (modern day Beijing).[18] They were led by Prince Amir Sayyid "So-fei-er" (his Chinese name) who was reputed of being called the "father" of the Muslim community in China. Prior to him Islam was named by the Tang and Song Chinese as Dashi fa ("law of the Arabs").[19] He renamed it to Huihui Jiao ("the Religion of the Huihui").[20]

Tombs of Imam Asim and Mazaar of Zafar Sadiq[edit]

The tombs of Sa-Ke-Zu and Wu-Ko-Shun at Mount Lingshan, Quanzhou

"On the foothills of Mount Lingshan are the tombs of two of the four companions that Prophet Muhammad sent eastwards to preach Islam. Known as the "Holy Tombs," they house the companions Sa-Ke-Zu and Wu-Ko-Shun—their Chinese names, of course. The other two companions went to Guangzhou and Yangzhou."[21] "The Imam (Islamic Holy Man) Asim is said to have been one of the first Islamic missionaries in the region. His name is also spelled Imam Hashim (man of c.1000 CE in Hotan). The shrine site includes the reputed tomb of the Imam, a mosque, and several related tombs."[22] There is also a mazaar of Imam Zafar Sadiq.[23]

Yuan Dynasty[edit]

During the Mongol-founded Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368), large numbers of Muslims settled in China. The Mongols, a minority in China, gave foreign immigrants, such as Muslims, Christians, and Jews from west Asia an elevated status over the native Han Chinese as part of their governing strategy, thus giving Muslims a heavy influence. Hundreds of thousands of Muslims immigrants were recruited and forcibly relocated from Western and Central Asia by the Mongols to help them administer their rapidly expanding empire.[2] The Mongols used Persian, Arab and Buddhist Uyghur administrators, generically known as semu [色目]("various eye color")[24] to act as officers of taxation and finance. Muslims headed many corporations in China in the early Yuan period.[25][page needed] Muslim scholars were brought to work on calendar making and astronomy. The architect Yeheidie'erding (Amir al-Din) learned from Han architecture and helped to design the construction of the capital of the Yuan Dynasty, Dadu, otherwise known as Khanbaliq or Khanbaligh, the predecessor of present-day Beijing.[26] The term Hui originated from the Mandarin "Huihui," a term first used in the Yuan Dynasty to describe Central Asian, Persian and Arab residents in China.[10]

At the same time the Mongols imported Central Asian Muslims to serve as administrators in China, the Mongols also sent Han Chinese and Khitans from China to serve as administrators over the Muslim population in Bukhara in Central Asia, using foreigners to curtail the power of the local peoples of both lands.[27]

Genghis Khan, and the following Yuan Emperors forbade Islamic practicies like Halal butchering, forcing Mongol methods of butchering animals on Muslims, and other restrictive degrees continued. Muslims had to slaughter sheep in secret.[28] Genghis Khan directly called Muslims and Jews "slaves", and demanded that they follow the Mongol method of eating rather than the halal method. Circumcision was also forbidden. Jews were also affected, and forbidden by the Mongols to eat Kosher.[29] Toward the end, corruption and the persecution became so severe that Muslim Generals joined Han Chinese in rebelling against the Mongols. The Ming founder Zhu Yuanzhang had Muslim Generals like Lan Yu who rebelled against the Mongols and defeated them in combat. Some Muslim communities had the name in Chinese which meant "baracks" and also mean "thanks", many Hui Muslims claim it is because that they played an important role in overthrowing the Mongols and it was named in thanks by the Han Chinese for assisting them.[30]

Among all the [subject] alien peoples only the Hui-hui say “we do not eat Mongol food”. [Cinggis Qa’an replied:] “By the aid of heaven we have pacified you; you are our slaves. Yet you do not eat our food or drink. How can this be right?” He thereupon made them eat. “If you slaughter sheep, you will be considered guilty of a crime.” He issued a regulation to that effect ... [In 1279/1280 under Qubilai] all the Muslims say: “if someone else slaughters [the animal] we do not eat”. Because the poor people are upset by this, from now on, Musuluman [Muslim] Huihui and Zhuhu [Jewish] Huihui, no matter who kills [the animal] will eat [it] and must cease slaughtering sheep themselves, and cease the rite of circumcision.

[31]

The Muslims in the semu class also revolted against the Yuan dynasty in the Ispah Rebellion but the rebellion was crushed and the Muslims were massacred by the Yuan loyalist commander Chen Youding.

Ming Dynasty[edit]

Statue of the famous Chinese Muslim Explorer and Admiral, Zheng He.
Hu Dahai was a Chinese Muslim general of the Hongwu Emperor.
Chang Yuchun is said to be the father of the famous "Kaiping spear method".[32][33]

During the following Ming Dynasty, Muslims continued to be influential around government circles. Six of Ming Dynasty founder Zhu Yuanzhang's most trusted generals were Muslim, including Lan Yu who, in 1388, led a strong imperial Ming army out of the Great Wall and won a decisive victory over the Mongols in Mongolia, effectively ending the Mongol dream to re-conquer China. Zhu Yuanzhang also wrote a praise of Islam, the The Hundred-word Eulogy. It was recorded that "His Majesty ordered to have mosques built in Xijing and Nanjing [the capital cities], and in southern Yunnan, Fujian and Guangdong. His Majesty also personally wrote baizizan [a eulogy] in praise of the Prophet's virtues."[34] Additionally, the Yongle Emperor hired Zheng He, perhaps the most famous Chinese Muslim and China's foremost explorer, to lead seven expeditions to the Indian Ocean, from 1405 and 1433. However, during the Ming Dynasty, new immigration to China from Muslim countries was restricted in an increasingly isolationist nation. The Muslims in China who were descended from earlier immigration began to assimilate by speaking Chinese dialects and by adopting Chinese names and culture. Mosque architecture began to follow traditional Chinese architecture. This era, sometimes considered the Golden Age of Islam in China,[35] also saw Nanjing become an important center of Islamic study.[36]

Muslims in Ming dynasty Beijing were given relative freedom by the Chinese, with no restrictions placed on their religious practices or freedom of worship, and being normal citizens in Beijing. In contrast to the freedom granted to Muslims, followers of Tibetan Buddhism and Catholicism suffered from restrictions and censure in Beijing.[37]

The Ming policy towards the Islamic religion was tolerant, while their racial policy towards ethnic minorities was of integration through forced marriage. Muslims were allowed to practice Islam, but if they were members of other ethnic groups they were required by law to intermarry, so Hui had to marry Han since they were different ethnic groups, with the Han often converting to Islam.

Integration was mandated through intermarriage by Ming law, ethnic minorities had to marry people of other ethnic groups. The Chinese during the Ming dynasty also tried to force foreigners like the Hui into marrying Chinese women.[38] Marriage between upper class Han Chinese and Hui Muslims was low, since upper class Han Chinese men would both refuse to marry Muslim women, and forbid their daughters from marrying Muslim men, since they did not want to convert due to their upper class status. Only low and mean status Han Chinese men would convert if they wanted to marry a Hui woman. Ming law allowed Han Chinese men and women to not have to marry Hui, and only marry each other, while Hui men and women were required to marry a spouse not of their race.[39][40][41]

The Ming Emperor Hongwu decreed the building of multiple mosques throughout China in many locations. A Nanjing mosque was built by the Xuanzong Emperor.[42]

When the Qing dynasty invaded the Ming dynasty in 1644, Muslim Ming loyalists led by Muslim leaders Milayin, Ding Guodong, and Ma Shouying led a revolt in 1646 against the Qing during the Milayin rebellion in order to drive the Qing out and restore the Ming Prince of Yanchang Zhu Shichuan to the throne as the emperor. The Muslim Ming loyalists were crushed by the Qing with 100,000 of them, including Milayin and Ding Guodong killed.

In Guangzhou, the national monuments known as "The Muslim's Loyal Trio" are the tombs of Ming loyalist Muslims who were martyred while fighting in battle against the Qing in the Manchu conquest of China in Guangzhou.[43]

Qing Dynasty[edit]

The Qing Dynasty (1644–1911) witnessed multiple revolts. The Qing rulers belonged to the Manchu, a minority in China. The Muslim revolt in the northwest occurred due to violent and bloody infighting between Muslim groups, the Gedimu, Khafiya, and Jahriyya. The rebellion in Yunnan occurred because of repression by Qing officials, resulting in five bloody Hui rebellions, most notably the Panthay Rebellion, which occurred in Yunnan province from 1855 to 1873, and the Dungan revolt, which occurred mostly in Xinjiang, Shensi and Gansu, from 1862 to 1877. The Manchu government ordered the execution of all rebels, killing a million people in the Panthay rebellion,[44][page needed] several million in the Dungan revolt[44]

The Hui Muslim population of Beijing was unaffected by the Muslim rebels during the Dungan revolt.[45]

Elisabeth Allès wrote that the relationship between Hui Muslim and Han peoples continued normally in the Henan area, with no ramifications or consequences from the Muslim rebellions of other areas. Allès wrote "The major Muslim revolts in the middle of the nineteenth century which involved the Hui in Shaanxi, Gansu and Yunnan, as well as the Uyghurs in Xinjiang, do not seem to have had any direct effect on this region of the central plain."[46]

However, many Muslims like Ma Zhan'ao, Ma Anliang, Dong Fuxiang, Ma Qianling, and Ma Julung defected to the Qing dynasty side, and helped the Qing general Zuo Zongtang exterminate the Muslim rebels. These Muslim generals belonged to the Khafiya sect, and they helped Qing massacre Jahariyya rebels. General Zuo moved the Han around Hezhou out of the area and relocated them as a reward for the Muslims there helping Qing kill other Muslim rebels.

In 1895, another Dungan Revolt (1895) broke out, and loyalist Muslims like Dong Fuxiang, Ma Anliang, Ma Guoliang, Ma Fulu, and Ma Fuxiang suppressed and massacred the rebel Muslims led by Ma Dahan, Ma Yonglin, and Ma Wanfu. A Muslim army called the Kansu Braves led by General Dong Fuxiang fought for the Qing dynasty against the foreigners during the Boxer Rebellion. They included well known generals like Ma Anliang, Ma Fulu, and Ma Fuxiang.

In Yunnan, the Qing armies exterminated only the Muslims who had rebelled and spared Muslims who took no part in the uprising.[47]

Republic of China[edit]

An ethnic Hui family celebrating Eid ul-Fitr in Ningxia

After the fall of the Qing Dynasty, Sun Yat-sen, who established the Republic of China, immediately proclaimed that the country belonged equally to the Han, Man (Manchu), Meng (Mongol), Hui (Muslim),[n 1] Tsang (Tibetan), and Miao peoples.

During the rule of the Kuomintang party, the Kuomintang appointed the Muslim warlords of the family known as the Ma clique as the Military Governors of the provinces of Qinghai, Gansu and Ningxia. Bai Chongxi was a Muslim General and Defence Minister of China during this time.

During the Second Sino-Japanese war, the Japanese persecuted, killed, and raped Hui Muslims. Mosques were destroyed and in many provinces Hui were slaughtered by Japanese troops or bombed. During the Rape of Nanking the Mosques in Nanjing were flowing with dead bodies after the Japanese slaughters. Japanese smeared Hui Mosques with pork fat, forcing Hui girls to serve as sex slaves and destroyed the cemeteries of the Hui.[48] Many Hui fought in the war against Japan.

People's Republic of China[edit]

A Muslim kindergarten in Yangzhou

During the Cultural Revolution, mosques along with other religious buildings were often defaced, destroyed or closed and copies of the Quran were destroyed along with temples, churches, Buddhist and Daoist monasteries, and cemeteries by the Red Guards.[49][page needed] During that time, the government also constantly accused Muslims and other religious groups of holding "superstitious beliefs" and promoting "anti-socialist trends".[50] The government began to relax its policies towards Muslims in 1978. Today, Islam is experiencing a modest revival and there are now[51] many mosques in China. There has been an upsurge in Islamic expression and many nation-wide Islamic associations have been organized to co-ordinate inter-ethnic activities among Muslims.[52]

People[edit]

Ethnic groups[edit]

Muslims live in every region in China.[2] The highest concentrations are found in the northwest provinces of Xinjiang, Gansu, and Ningxia, with significant populations also found throughout Yunnan province in southwest China and Henan province in central China.[2] Of China's 55 officially recognized minority peoples, ten groups are predominantly Muslim. The largest groups in descending order are Hui (9.8 million in year 2000 census, or 48% of the officially tabulated number of Muslims), Uyghur (8.4 million, 41%), Kazakh (1.25 million, 6.1%), Dongxiang (514,000, 2.5%), Kyrgyz (144,000), Uzbeks (125,000), Salar (105,000), Tajik (41,000), Bonan (17,000), and Tatar (5,000).[2] However, individual members of traditionally Muslim ethnic groups may profess other religions or none at all. Additionally, Tibetan Muslims are officially classified along with the Tibetan people. Muslims live predominantly in the areas that border Central Asia, Tibet and Mongolia, i.e. Xinjiang, Ningxia, Gansu and Qinghai, which is known as the "Quran Belt".[53]

A mosque in Hotan

Number of Muslims in China[edit]

Worshippers leaving a mosque in Linxia City

China is home to a large population of adherents of Islam. According to the CIA World Factbook, about 1–2% of the total population in China are Muslims.[54] The 2000 census counts imply that there may be up to 20 million Muslims in China.[55] A 2009 study done by the Pew Research Center, based on China's census, concluded there are 21,667,000 Muslims in China, accounting for 1.6% of the total population.[8][56] According to the State Administration for Religious Affairs (SARA), there are more than 21 million Muslims in the country. According to SARA there are approximately 36,000 Islamic places of worship, more than 45,000 imams, and 10 Islamic schools in the country.[57] Within the next two decades from 2011, Pew projects a slowing down of Muslim population growth in China than in previous years, with Muslim women in China having a 1.7 fertility rate.[58] Many Hui Muslims voluntarily limit themselves to one child in China since their Imams preach to them about the benefits of population control, the amount of children Hui in different areas are allowed to have varies between one and three children.[59] Chinese family planning policy allows minorities including Muslims to have up to two children in urban areas, and three to four children in rural areas.

An early historical estimate of the Muslim population of the then Qing Empire belongs to the Christian missionary Marshall Broomhall. In his book, published in 1910, he produced estimates for each province, based on the reports of missionaries working there, who had counted mosques, talked to mullahs, etc. Broomhall admits the inadequacy of the data for Xinjiang, estimating the Muslim population of Xinjiang (i.e., virtually the entire population of the province at the time) in the range from 1,000,000 (based on the total population number of 1,200,000 in the contemporary Statesman's Yearbook) to 2,400,000 (2 million "Turki", 200,000 "Hasak", and 200,000 "Tungan", as per George Hunter). He uses the estimates of 2,000,000 to 3,500,000 for Gansu (which then also included today's Ningxia and parts of Qinghai), 500,000 to 1,000,000 for Zhili (i.e., Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei), 300,000 to 1,000,000 for Yunnan, and smaller numbers for other provinces, down to 1,000 in Fujian. For Mongolia (then, part of the Qing Empire) he takes an arbitrary range of 50,000 to 100,000.[60] Summing up, he arrives to the grand total of 4,727,000 to 9,821,000 Muslims throughout the Qing Empire of its last years, i.e. just over 1-2% of the entire country's estimated population of 426,045,305.[61][62][63]

Religious practices[edit]

Islamic education in China[edit]

Chinese Muslim students.

Over the last twenty years a wide range of Islamic educational opportunities have been developed to meet the needs of China's Muslim population. In addition to mosque schools, government Islamic colleges, and independent Islamic colleges, a growing number of students have gone overseas to continue their studies at international Islamic universities in Egypt, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Iran, and Malaysia.[2] Qīngzhēn (清真) is the Chinese term for certain Islamic institutions. Its literal meaning is "pure truth."

Muslim groups[edit]

Further information: Muslim groups in China

The vast majority of China's Muslims are Sunni Muslims. A notable feature of some Muslim communities in China is the presence of female imams.[64] Islamic scholar Ma Tong recorded that the 6,781,500 Hui in China predominately followed the Orthodox form of Islam (58.2% were Gedimu a non-Sufi mainstream tradition that opposed unorthodoxy and religious innovation) mainly adhering to the Hanafi Madh'hab. However a large minority of Hui are members of Sufi groups. According to Tong, 21% Yihewani, 10.9% Jahriyya, 7.2% Khuffiya, 1.4% Qadariyya, and 0.7% Kubrawiyya.[65] Shia Chinese Muslims are mostly Ismailis including Tajiks of the Tashkurgan and Sarikul areas of Xinjiang.

Chinese Muslims and the Hajj[edit]

It is known that Admiral Zheng He (1371–1435) and his Muslim crews had made the journey to Mecca and performed the Hajj during one of the former's voyages to the western ocean between 1401-1433.[66] Other Chinese Muslims may have made the Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca in the centuries followed; however, there is little information on this. The General Ma Lin (warlord), made a Hajj to Mecca.[67] General Ma Fuxiang along with Ma Linyi sponsored Imam Wang Jingzhai when he went on hajj to Mecca in 1921.[68]Yihewani Imam Hu Songshan went on Hajj in 1925.[69] Briefly during the Cultural Revolution, Chinese Muslims were not allowed to attend the Hajj, and only did so through Pakistan, but this policy was reversed in 1979. Chinese Muslims now attend the Hajj in large numbers, typically in organized groups, with a record 10,700 Chinese Muslim pilgrims from all over the country making the Hajj in 2007.[70]

Relations with non-Muslims[edit]

In their early history, Muslims residing in China had closer interactions with adherents of other various faiths. Muslims treated the works of Confucius with considerable respect, pointing out the harmony between the two doctrines[71] and ethical norms.[72] Muslims saw their numbers increase in the 17th century with a large number of Chinese Jews converting to Islam.[71] Muslim General Ma Bufang allowed polytheists to openly worship, and Christian missionaries to station themselves in Qinghai. General Ma and other high ranking Muslim generals even attended the Kokonuur Lake Ceremony where the God of the Lake was worshipped, and during the ritual, the Chinese national anthem was sung, all participants bowed to a portrait of Kuomintang party founder Dr. Sun Zhongshan (Sun Yat Sen), and the God of the Lake was also bowed to, and offerings were given to him by the participants, which included the Muslims.[73] Ma Bufang invited Kazakh Muslims to attend the ceremony honoring the God.[74] Ma Bufang received audiences of Christian missionaries, who sometimes gave him the Gospel.[75] His son Ma Jiyuan received a silver cup from Christian missionaries.[76]

Before the early 20th century, some observers did not note any difference among Muslims and non-Muslims in the prevalence of foot binding of women in China.[77][78] However, in southern China, James Legge encountered a mosque which had a placard denouncing footbinding, saying it constituted violating the creation of God.[79]

Representative bodies[edit]

Islamic Association of China[edit]

Islamic Association of China office in Beijing

The Islamic Association of China claims to represent Chinese Muslims nationwide. At its inaugural meeting on May 11, 1953, in Beijing, representatives from 10 nationalities of the People's Republic of China were in attendance.

China Islamic Association[edit]

In May 1953, the government set up the China Islamic Association, which was described as aiming to "help the spread of the Qur'an in China and oppose religious extremism". The association is to be run by 16 Islamic religious leaders who are charged with making "a correct and authoritative interpretation" of Islamic creed and canon.

It will compile and spread inspirational speeches and help imams improve themselves, and vet sermons made by clerics around the country. This latter function is probably the key job as far as the central government is concerned. It is worried that some clerics are using their sermons to spread sedition.

Some examples of the religious concessions granted to Muslims are:

  • Muslim communities are allowed separate cemeteries
  • Muslim couples may have their marriage consecrated by an Imam
  • Muslim workers are permitted holidays during major religious festivals
  • Chinese Muslims are also allowed to make the Hajj to Mecca, and more than 45,000 Chinese Muslims have done so in recent years.[80]

Culture and heritage[edit]

The Niujie Mosque in Beijing

Although contacts and previous conquests have occurred before, the Mongol conquest of the greater part of Eurasia in the 13th century permanently brought the extensive cultural traditions of China, central Asia and western Asia into a single empire, albeit one of separate khanates, for the first time in history. The intimate interaction that resulted is evident in the legacy of both traditions. In China, Islam influenced technology, sciences, philosophy and the arts. In terms of material culture, one finds decorative motifs from central Asian Islamic architecture and calligraphy and the marked halal impact on northern Chinese cuisine.

Taking the Mongol Eurasian empire as a point of departure, the ethnogenesis of the Hui, or Sinophone Muslims, can also be charted through the emergence of distinctly Chinese Muslim traditions in architecture, food, epigraphy and Islamic written culture. This multifaceted cultural heritage continues to the present day.[81]

Military[edit]

Muslims have often filled distinguished military positions, and many Muslims have joined the Chinese army.[82] Muslims served extensively in the Chinese military, as both officials and soldiers. It was said that the Muslim Dongxiang and Salar were given to "eating rations", a reference to military service.[83]

Islamic architecture in China[edit]

Main article: Chinese mosques

In Chinese, a mosque is called qīngzhēn sì (清真寺) or "pure truth temple." The Great Mosque of Xi'an (first established during the Tang era) and the Great Southern Mosque in Jinan, whose current buildings date from the Ming Dynasty, do not replicate many of the features often associated with traditional mosques. Instead, they follow traditional Chinese architecture. Mosques in western China incorporate more of the elements seen in mosques in other parts of the world. Western Chinese mosques were more likely to incorporate minarets and domes while eastern Chinese mosques were more likely to look like pagodas.[84]

An important feature in Chinese architecture is its emphasis on symmetry, which connotes a sense of grandeur; this applies to everything from palaces to mosques. One notable exception is in the design of gardens, which tends to be as asymmetrical as possible. Like Chinese scroll paintings, the principle underlying the garden's composition is to create enduring flow; to let the patron wander and enjoy the garden without prescription, as in nature herself.

On the foothills of Mount Lingshan are the tombs of two of the four companions that Muhammad sent eastwards to preach Islam. Known as the "Holy Tombs," they house the companions Sa-Ke-Zu and Wu-Ko-Shun—their Chinese names, of course. The other two companions went to Guangzhou and Yangzhou.[85]

Chinese buildings may be built with bricks, but wooden structures are the most common; these are more capable of withstanding earthquakes, but are vulnerable to fire. The roof of a typical Chinese building is curved; there are strict classifications of gable types, comparable with the classical orders of European columns.

As in all regions the Chinese Islamic architecture reflects the local architecture in its style. China is renowned for its beautiful mosques, which resemble temples. However, in western China the mosques resemble those of the middle east, with tall, slender minarets, curvy arches and dome shaped roofs. In northwest China where the Chinese Hui have built their mosques, there is a combination of east and west. The mosques have flared Chinese-style roofs set in walled courtyards entered through archways with miniature domes and minarets.[84] The first mosque was the Great Mosque of Xian, or the Xian Mosque, which was created in the Tang Dynasty in the 7th century.[86]

Halal food in China[edit]

A typical Muslim restaurant in Linxia City.
A halal meat store sign in Hankou, ca. 1934-1935.

Halal food has a long history in China. The arrival of Arabian and Persian merchants during the Tang and Song dynasties seen the introduction of the Muslim diet. Chinese Muslim cuisine adheres strictly to the Islamic dietary rules with mutton and lamb being the predominant ingredient. The advantage of Muslim cuisine in China is that it has inherited the diverse cooking methods of Chinese cuisine for example, braising, roasting, steaming, stewing and many more. Due to China's multicultural background Muslim cuisine retains its own style and characteristics according to regions.[87]

Due to the large Muslim population in western China, many Chinese restaurants cater to Muslims or cater to the general public but are run by Muslims. In most major cities in China, there are small Islamic restaurants or food stalls typically run by migrants from Western China (e.g., Uyghurs), which offer inexpensive noodle soup. Lamb and mutton dishes are more commonly available than in other Chinese restaurants, due to the greater prevalence of these meats in the cuisine of western Chinese regions. Commercially prepared food can be certified Halal by approved agencies. [88] In Chinese, halal is called qīngzhēn cài (清真菜) or "pure truth food." Beef and lamb slaughtered according to Islamic rituals is also commonly available in public markets, especially in North China. Such meat is sold by Muslim butchers, who operate independent stalls next to non-Muslim butchers.

Islamic finance in China[edit]

China and Chinese Muslim economists have a long tradition with Islamic finance. The latest official attempt is Bank of Ningxia; while Hong Kong as financial center is discussing intensively its role.[89]

Calligraphy[edit]

Sini[edit]

Main article: Sini (script)

Sini is a Chinese Islamic calligraphic form for the Arabic script. It can refer to any type of Chinese Islamic calligraphy, but is commonly used to refer to one with thick and tapered effects, much like Chinese calligraphy. It is used extensively in mosques in eastern China, and to a lesser extent in Gansu, Ningxia, and Shaanxi. A famous Sini calligrapher is Hajji Noor Deen Mi Guangjiang.

A Chinese-Arabic-Xiaoerjing dictionary from the early days of the People's Republic of China.

Xiao'erjing[edit]

Main article: Xiao'erjing

Xiao'erjing (also Xiao'erjin or Xiaojing) is the practice of writing Sinitic languages such as Mandarin (especially the Lanyin, Zhongyuan, and Northeastern dialects) or the Dungan language in the Arabic script. It is used on occasion by many ethnic minorities who adhere to the Islamic faith in China (mostly the Hui, but also the Dongxiang, and the Salar), and formerly by their Dungan descendants in Central Asia.

Martial arts[edit]

There is a long history of Muslim development and participation at the highest level of Chinese wushu. Many of its roots lie in the Qing Dynasty persecution of Muslims. The Hui started and adapted many of the styles of wushu such as bajiquan, piguazhang, and liuhequan. There were specific areas that were known to be centers of Muslim wushu, such as Cang County in Hebei Province. These traditional Hui martial arts were very distinct from the Turkic styles practiced in Xinjiang.[90]

Literature[edit]

The Han Kitab was a collection of Chinese Islamic texts written by Chinese Muslim which synthesized Islam and Confucianism. It was written in the early 18th century during the Qing dynasty. Han is Chinese for Chinese, and kitab (ketabu in Chinese) is Arabic for book.[91] Liu Zhi wrote his Han Kitab in Nanjing in the early 18th century. The works of Wu Sunqie, Zhang Zhong, and Wang Daiyu were also included in the Han Kitab.[92]

The Han Kitab was widely read and approved of by later Chinese Muslims such as Ma Qixi, Ma Fuxiang, and Hu Songshan. They believed that Islam could be understood through Confucianism.

Education[edit]

A lot of Chinese students including male and females join International Islamic University, Islamabad to gain Islamic knowledge. For some Muslim groups in China, such as Hui and Salars minorities, coeducation is frowned upon; for some groups such as Uyghurs, it is not.[93]

Famous Muslims in China[edit]

Explorers[edit]

Military[edit]

Bai Chongxi, general in the Republic of China army

Religious[edit]

Scholars and writers[edit]

Martial arts[edit]

Arts[edit]

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Currently, "Hui" in Chinese refers to both Islamic and ethnic Hui Chinese. Previously, however, "Hui" referred to Islam and all Chinese Muslims, particularly ethnic Hui and Uyghurs.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Dru C. Gladney writes http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=164869
  2. ^ a b c d e f Armijo 2006
  3. ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ch.html
  4. ^ Dru C. Gladney wrote books.google.co.in/books?isbn=1850653240
  5. ^ Dru C. Gladney, Muslim Tombs & Ethnic Folklore-Hui Identity, in The Journal of Asialso n Studies, California, vol.16, No.3, Aug. 1987, p. 498, p. 498 nt.8.
  6. ^ Safi-ur Rahman Al-Mubarakpuri, 2009, Ar-Raheeq al-Makhtum: The Sealed Nectar: Biography of the Noble Prophet, Madinah: Islamic University of Al-Madinah al-Munawwarah, page 72: The Prophet was entrusted to Halimah...Her husband was Al-Harith bin Abdul Uzza called Abi Kabshah, from the same tribe
  7. ^ Maazars in China-www.aulia-e-hind.com/dargah/Intl/Chin
  8. ^ a b c d BBC 2002, Origins
  9. ^ Abul-Fazl Ezzati, 1994, The Spread of Islam, Tehran: Ahlul Bayt World Assembly Publications, pp. 300,303, 333.
  10. ^ a b c d e Lipman 1997, p. 25
  11. ^ Israeli 2002, p. 291
  12. ^ a b Lipman 1997, pp. 26–27
  13. ^ http://www.halaljournal.com/article/2829/traders-revive-islam-in-china
  14. ^ Herbert Allen Giles (1926). Confucianism and its rivals. Forgotten Books. p. 139. ISBN 1-60680-248-8. Retrieved 2011-12-14. 
  15. ^ Frank Brinkley (1902). China: its history, arts and literature, Volume 2. Volumes 9-12 of Trübner's oriental series. BOSTON AND TOKYO: J.B.Millet company. pp. 149, 150, 151, 152. Retrieved 2011-12-14. Original from the University of California
  16. ^ Frank Brinkley (1904). Japan [and China]: China; its history, arts and literature. Volume 10 of Japan [and China]: Its History, Arts and Literature. LONDON 34 HENRIETTA STREET, W. C. AND EDINBURGH: Jack. pp. 149, 150, 151, 152. Retrieved 2011-12-14. Original from Princeton University
  17. ^ Ting 1958, p. 346
  18. ^ Israeli 2002, pp. 283–4
  19. ^ Israeli 2002, p. 283; Tashi or Dashi is the Chinese rendering of Tazi—the name the Persians used for the Arabs
  20. ^ Israeli 2002, p. 284
  21. ^ http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?c=Article_C&cid=1158658465259&pagename=Zone-English-ArtCulture%2FACELayout
  22. ^ http://wikimapia.org/9992600/Imam-Asim-Shrine-and-Ancient-Tomb
  23. ^ http://www.centralasiatraveler.com/cn/xj/nm/niya-minfeng.html%22%3ENiya
  24. ^ Lipman 1997, p. 33
  25. ^ Bulliet et al. 2005
  26. ^ The Hui ethnic minority, People's Daily, retrieved 2010-09-19 
  27. ^ BUELL, PAUL D. (1979). "SINO-KHITAN ADMINISTRATION IN MONGOL BUKHARA". Journal of Asian History. Vol. 13 (No. 2). Harrassowitz Verlag. pp. 137–8. JSTOR 41930343. 
  28. ^ Michael Dillon (1999). China's Muslim Hui community: migration, settlement and sects. Richmond: Curzon Press. p. 24. ISBN 0-7007-1026-4. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  29. ^ Johan Elverskog (2010). Buddhism and Islam on the Silk Road (illustrated ed.). University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 228. ISBN 0-8122-4237-8. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  30. ^ Dru C. Gladney (1991). Muslim Chinese: ethnic nationalism in the People's Republic (2, illustrated, reprint ed.). Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University. p. 234. ISBN 0-674-59495-9. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  31. ^ Donald Daniel Leslie (1998). "The Integration of Religious Minorities in China: The Case of Chinese Muslims". The Fifty-ninth George Ernest Morrison Lecture in Ethnology. p. 12. Retrieved 30 November 2010. .
  32. ^ 1001 Years of Missing Martial Arts
  33. ^ Cheng Ho and Islam in Southeast Asia by Tan Ta Sen, Dasheng Chen, p. 170
  34. ^ Maria Jaschok, Jingjun Shui (2000). The history of women's mosques in Chinese Islam: a mosque of their own (illustrated ed.). Psychology Press. p. 77. ISBN 0-7007-1302-6. Retrieved December 20, 2011. "For instance, in the early years of Emperor Hongwu's reign in the Ming Dynasty ' His Majesty ordered to have mosques built in Xijing and Nanjing [the capital cities], and in southern Yunnan, Fujian and Guangdong. His Majesty also personally wrote baizizan [a eulogy] in praise of the Prophet's virtues'. The Ming Emperor Xuanzong once issued imperial orders to build a mosque in Nanjing in response to Zheng He's request (Liu Zhi, 1984 reprint: 358-374). Mosques built by imperial decree raised the social position of Islam, and assistance from upper-class Muslims helped to sustain religious sites in certain areas." 
  35. ^ Ting 1958, p. 350
  36. ^ Dillon 1999, p. 37
  37. ^ Susan Naquin (2000). Peking: temples and city life, 1400-1900. University of California Press. p. 214. ISBN 0-520-21991-0. Retrieved 2010-11-28. 
  38. ^ Daniel Leslie, Donald (1998). "The Integration of Religious Minorities in China: The Case of Chinese Muslims". The Fifty-ninth George Ernest Morrison Lecture in Ethnology. p. 15. Retrieved 2011-12-15. 
  39. ^ Maria Jaschok, Jingjun Shui (2000). The history of women's mosques in Chinese Islam: a mosque of their own (illustrated ed.). Psychology Press. p. 77. ISBN 0-7007-1302-6. Retrieved December 20, 2011. "Psychology Press" 
  40. ^ Jiang Yonglin (2011). The Mandate of Heaven and the Great Ming Code. Volume 21 of Asian law series. University of Washington Press. p. 241. ISBN 0-295-99065-1. Retrieved December 20, 2011. "loose-rein (jimi) policy, 104, 124 Lord of Resplendent Heaven, 106 Lord on High, 3, 25, 82, 93, 94 loyalty, ... Donald, 36, 39, 54 Muslims, Qincha Hui, 124, 128, 131 "mutual production and mutual destruction," 79 Nanjing, 22--23," 
  41. ^ Gek Nai Cheng (1997). Osman Bakar, ed. Islam and Confucianism: a civilizational dialogue. Published and distributed for the Centre for Civilizational Dialogue of University of Malaya by University of Malaya Press. p. 77. ISBN 983-100-038-2. Retrieved December 20, 2011. 
  42. ^ Maria Jaschok, Jingjun Shui (2000). The history of women's mosques in Chinese Islam: a mosque of their own (illustrated ed.). Psychology Press. p. 77. ISBN 0-7007-1302-6. Retrieved December 20, 2011. 
  43. ^ Ring & Salkin & La Boda 1996, p. 306.
  44. ^ a b Gernet 1996
  45. ^ Hugh D. R. Baker (1990). Hong Kong images: people and animals. Hong Kong University Press. p. 55. ISBN 962-209-255-1. 
  46. ^ Allès, Elizabeth (september-october 2003, Online since 17 january 2007). "Notes on some joking relationships between Hui and Han villages in Henan". French Centre for Research on Contemporary China. p. 6. Retrieved 2011-07-20. 
  47. ^ Dillon 1999, p. 77
  48. ^ LEI, Wan ((2010/2)). "The Chinese Islamic “Goodwill Mission to the Middle East” During the Anti-Japanese War". DÎVÂN DİSİPLİNLERARASI ÇALIŞMALAR DERGİSİ. cilt 15 (sayı 29): 139–141. Retrieved 19 June 2014. 
  49. ^ Goldman 1986
  50. ^ Israeli (2002), pg. 253
  51. ^ Mosques (Masjid) in China
  52. ^ BBC 2002, China today
  53. ^ Barnett 1963, p. 183
  54. ^ CIA - The World Factbook - China
  55. ^ Counting up the number of people of traditionally Muslim nationalities who were enumerated in the 1990 census gives a total of 17.6 million, 96% of whom belong to just three nationalities: Hui 8.6 million, Uyghurs 7.2 million, and Kazakhs 1.1 million. Other nationalities that are traditionally Muslim include Kyrghyz, Tajiks, Uzbeks, Tatars, Salar, Bonan, and Dongxiang. See Dru C. Gladney, "Islam in China: Accommodation or Separatism?", Paper presented at Symposium on Islam in Southeast Asia and China, Hong Kong, 2002. Available at http://www.islamsymposium.cityu.edu.hk. The 2000 census reported a total of 20.3 million members of Muslim nationalities, of which again 96% belonged to just three groups: Hui 9.8 million, Uyghurs 8.4 million, and Kazakhs 1.25 million.
  56. ^ "Mapping the Global Muslim Population." Pew Research Center. October 2009. See pages 13 and 45.
  57. ^ "International Religious Freedom Report for 2011". state.gov. Retrieved 20 April 2013. 
  58. ^ http://www.pewforum.org/2011/01/27/future-of-the-global-muslim-population-regional-asia/#china
  59. ^ http://ilookchina.net/2010/11/05/exemptions-in-chinas-one-child-policy/
  60. ^ Broomhall 1910, p. 214 Quote: "No definite information has been received concerning Mongolia".
  61. ^ Broomhall 1910, pp. 196–215
  62. ^ Broomhall 1910, pp. 216–217
  63. ^ Ferm 1976, p. 145
  64. ^ "Chinese Muslims forge isolated path", BBC News, 2004-09-15, retrieved 2008-08-05 
  65. ^ Esposito 1999, p. 458
  66. ^ Mohammed Rasooldeen; Ali Al-Zahrani (2006-07-06), Legacy of Chinese Muslim Mariner Relived, retrieved 2010-09-19 
  67. ^ Ethnicity and Politics in Republican China: The Ma Family Warlords of Gansu
  68. ^ Dudoignon, Komatsu & Kosugi 2006, p. 315
  69. ^ Lipman 1997, p. 209
  70. ^ A record 10,700 Chinese Muslims to perform Hajj, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Ministry of Hajj, 2007-11-15, retrieved 2010-09-19 
  71. ^ a b The preaching of Islam: a history of the propagation of the Muslim faith By Sir Thomas Walker Arnold, pg.249-253
  72. ^ Cetinkaya, Kenan (2011). "Ren and Imán: A Comparative Approach to Confucian and Islamic Virtues". International Journal of Business, Humanities and Technology 1 (1): 135. Retrieved 24 June 2013. 
  73. ^ Bulag 2002, p. 51
  74. ^ Bulag 2002, p. 52
  75. ^ American Water Works Association (1947). Journal of the American Water Works Association, Volume 39, Part 1. The Association. p. 24. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  76. ^ HORLEMANN, BIANCA. "The Divine Word Missionaries in Gansu, Qinghai and Xinjiang, 1922–1953: A Bibliographic Note". Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  77. ^ James Hastings, John Alexander Selbie, Louis Herbert Gray (1916). Encyclopædia of religion and ethics, Volume 8. EDINBURGH: T. & T. Clark. p. 893. Retrieved January 1, 2011. (Original from Harvard University)
  78. ^ Touraj Atabaki, Sanjyot Mehendale; Sanjyot Mehendale (2005). Central Asia and the Caucasus: transnationalism and diaspora. Psychology Press. p. 31. ISBN 978-0-415-33260-6. Retrieved January 1, 2011. 
  79. ^ James Legge (1880). The religions of China: Confucianism and Tâoism described and compared with Christianity. LONDON: Hodder and Stoughton. p. 111. Retrieved June 28, 2010. (Original from Harvard University)
  80. ^ BBC 2002, China Islamic Association
  81. ^ CHINA HERITAGE NEWSLETTER China Heritage Project, The Australian National University ISBN 1833-8461 No. 5, March 2006
  82. ^ James Hastings, John Alexander Selbie, Louis Herbert Gray (1916). Encyclopædia of religion and ethics, Volume 8. T. & T. Clark. p. 893. Retrieved 2010-11-28. 
  83. ^ Christian Literature Society for India, Hartford Seminary Foundation (1920). Samuel Marinus Zwemer, ed. The Moslem World, Volume 10. Hartford Seminary Foundation. p. 379. Retrieved 2011-06-06. 
  84. ^ a b Cowen, Jill S. (July–August 1985), "Muslims in China: The Mosque", Saudi Aramco World: 30–35, retrieved 2006-04-08 
  85. ^ The Muslim History of China
  86. ^ China By Shelley Jiang,pg. 274
  87. ^ Halal Food in China from Muslim2China
  88. ^ Halal Food
  89. ^ Islamic Finance in China
  90. ^ NTU Bajiquan Kungfu Club http://club.ntu.edu.tw/~ntubachi/Bajiquan/en_about.htm
  91. ^ Dillon 1999, p. 104
  92. ^ Jonathan Neaman Lipman (2004). Familiar strangers: a history of Muslims in Northwest China. Seattle: University of Washington Press. p. 79. ISBN 0-295-97644-6. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  93. ^ Ruth Hayhoe (1996). China's universities, 1895-1995: a century of cultural conflict. Taylor & Francis. p. 202. ISBN 0-8153-1859-6. Retrieved 2010-06-29. 
  94. ^ A memorial to him was built.[where?] Aliya Ma Lynn (2007). Muslims in China. University Press. p. 44. ISBN 0-88093-861-7. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  95. ^ Called "Master of the Four Religions" due to his knowledge of Islam, Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism. British and Muslim?

References[edit]

  • Broomhall, Marshall (1910), Islam in China: a neglected problem, China Inland Mission, OCLC 347514 . A 1966 reprint by Paragon Book Reprint is available; written with a strong Christian missionary point of view, but contains valuable first-hand evidence and photographs.
  • Keim, Jean (1954), "Les Musulmans Chinois", France-Asie 10, OCLC 457005588 
  • Ting, Dawood C. M. (1958), "Chapter 9: Islamic Culture in China", in Morgan, Kenneth W., Islam—The Straight Path: Islam Interpreted by Muslims, New York: The Ronald Press Company, pp. 344–374, OCLC 378570 
  • Reischauer, Edwin O.; Fairbank, John K. (1960), East Asia: The Great Tradition, Houghton Mifflin, OCLC 994133 
  • Barnett, A. Doak (1963), China on the Eve of Communist Takeover, Praeger publications in Russian history and world communism 130, New York: Praeger, OCLC 412125 
  • Ferm, Vergilius, ed. (1976), An Encyclopedia of Religion (reprinted ed.), Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, ISBN 978-0-8371-8638-2 ; first published as Ferm, ed. (1945), New York: Philosophical Library, OCLC 263969  Missing or empty |title= (help). 1976 reprint is unrevised.
  • American Water Works Association (1947), Journal of the American Water Works Association, Volume 39, Part 1, The Association 
  • Fairbank, John King; Liu, Kwang-ching; Twitchett, Denis Crispin (1980), Late Ch'ing, 1800-1911, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-22029-7 
  • Forbes, Andrew, Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986; republished Bangkok: White Lotus, 2010)
  • Forbes, Andrew ; Henley, David (1997, 2011). Traders of the Golden Triangle. Bangkok: Teak House, 1997; republished Chiang Mai: Cognoscenti Books, 2011. ASIN: B006GMID5K
  • Goldman, Merle (1986), "Religion in Post-Mao China", Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 483 (1): 146–156, doi:10.1177/0002716286483001013 
  • Gernet, Jacques (1996), A History of Chinese Civilization (2nd ed.), New York: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-49712-4 
  • Lipman, Jonathan Newman (1997), Familiar Strangers, a history of Muslims in Northwest China, Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press, ISBN 0-295-97644-6 
  • Esposito, John L. (1999), The Oxford history of Islam, United States of America: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-510799-3 
  • Dillon, Michael (1999), China's Muslim Hui Community, Curzon, ISBN 0-7007-1026-4 
  • Gillette, Maris Boyd (2000), Between Mecca and Beijing: modernization and consumption among urban Chinese Muslims, Stanford University Press, ISBN 0-8047-3694-4 
  • Uradyn Erden Bulag (2002), Dilemmas The Mongols at China's edge: history and the politics of national unity, Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 0-7425-1144-8 
  • Rubin, Barry (2000), Guide to Islamist Movements, M.E. Sharpe, ISBN 0-7656-1747-1 
  • Israeli, Raphael (2002), Islam in China, United States of America: Lexington Books, ISBN 0-7391-0375-X 
  • Islam in China (650-present), Religion and Ethics, BBC, 2002, retrieved 2010-03-15 
  • Bulliet, Richard; Crossley, Pamela; Headrick, Daniel; Hirsch, Steven; Johnson, Lyman; Northrup, David (2005), The Earth and Its Peoples, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, ISBN 0-618-42770-8 
  • Levene, Mark (2005), Genocide in the Age of the Nation-State, I. B.Tauris, ISBN 1-84511-057-9 
  • Stéphane A. Dudoignon, Hisao Komatsu, Yasushi Kosugi (2006), Intellectuals in the modern Islamic world: transmission, transformation, communication, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 0-415-36835-9 
  • Armijo, Jackie (2006), "Islamic Education in China", Harvard Asia Quarterly 10 (1), archived from the original on 2007-09-28 
  • Giersch, Charles Patterson (2006), Asian Borderlands: The Transformation of Qing China's Yunnan Frontier, Harvard University Press, ISBN 1-84511-057-9 
  • Ring, Trudy; Salkin, Robert M.; La Boda, Sharon, eds. (1996). International Dictionary of Historic Places: Asia and Oceania. Volume 5 of International Dictionary of Historic Places (illustrated, annotated ed.). Taylor & Francis. ISBN 1884964044. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  • Islam in China, Hui and Uyghurs: between modernization and sinicization, the study of the Hui and Uyghurs of China, Jean A. Berlie, White Lotus Press editor, Bangkok, Thailand, published in 2004. ISBN 974-480-062-3, ISBN 978-974-480-062-6.
  • Cetinkaya, Kenan (2011), "Ren and Imán: A Comparative Approach to Confucian and Islamic Virtues", International Journal of Business, Humanities and Technology 1 (1): 135–143, retrieved 28 June 2013 

  •  This article incorporates text from The Moslem World, Volume 10, by Christian Literature Society for India, Hartford Seminary Foundation, a publication from 1920 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from Encyclopædia of religion and ethics, Volume 8, by James Hastings, John Alexander Selbie, Louis Herbert Gray, a publication from 1916 now in the public domain in the United States.

External links[edit]