Islam in Hungary
|Islam by country|
Islam in Hungary has a long history that dates back to at least the 10th century, predating the Ottoman Empire. The influence of Sunni Muslims was especially pronounced in the 16th century during the time of Ottoman Hungary.
The first Islamic author to speak of this Muslim community was Yaqut al-Hamawi (575-626 AH/1179-1229 CE), he writes about a famous Hungarian student who studied in Aleppo, according to the student there were 30 Muslim villages in Hungary. Yaqut writes in his famous geographical dictionary, "Mu'ajam al-Buldan", about his meeting with a Hungarian Muslim youth in Syria who was studying Islam there and brought some details of the history and life of their people in Hungary. The Spaniard Muslim traveler Abu Hamid al Garnati wrote of two types of Muslims in Hungary, the first being the Böszörmény of the Carpathian Basin and Volga Bulgars (Khwarezmians).
In the 11th century, St. Ladislaus and later Coloman passed laws against the non-Christians (Synod of Szabolcs). These laws subdued Islam by coercing Muslims to eat pork, go to Church and intermarry and to forbid them from celebrating Friday. Some of Coloman's laws include:
- § 46 If someone catches Ismaelites in fasting or eating or on keeping away from pork or in ritual washing or in other false practices these Ismaelites have to be sent to the king and whoever sued them shall receive a share from their properties.
- § 47 We command all Ismaelite villages to build a church and finance it. After the church is built the half village should move and settle elsewhere in order to became similar to us in living together and also in Christ and in Church (i.e. become similar in faith).
- § 48 Ismaelites should not marry their daughters to their nation but only to our nation
- $ 49 If an Ismaelite has guest, or he invites someone to his house to eat, he and his guests should all eat only pork.
László (Saint Ladislaus) passed the following law
- § 9 on the merchants called Ismaelites, if becomes evident from them then after their baptism they return their old laws based on circumcision they should leave their homes but if they prove innocent they should stay
These laws imposed by the Catholic Church severely discriminated the small minority and eventually led to the disappearance of the community and its professions altogether.
Turkish rule of central Hungary
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In the 16th century, during the time of the Ottoman rule of Hungary, numerous Muslim personalities were born in Hungary. Among them, the most important were the Ottoman Grand Vizier, Kanijeli Siyavuş Pasha (from Nagykanizsa) who held the function three times between 1582 and 1593, and the famous Mevlevian dervish Pecsevi Árifi Ahmed Dede, a Turk native of Pécs. Most Islamic studies in Hungary were taught at the Hanafi madhhab or school of Sunni Islam.
In the 19th century, after the collapse of the revolution of 1848-9, more than 6,000 emigrated Poles and Hungarians followed General Josef Bem into Turkish exile. Among them were such Hungarian officers such as Richard Guyon (Kurshid Pasha), György Kmety (Ismail Pasha) and Maximilian Stein (Ferhad Pasha). These personalities were afterwards raised to the post of General.
- Guyon is described in the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography as "the first Christian to obtain the rank of pasha and a Turkish military command without being obliged to change his religion", a sign of modernizing meritocracy under the 19th-century Ottomans.
In 2013 Hungarian Islam Society requested for Grand Mufti of Bosnia and Herzegovina Husein Kavazović to also become Grand Mufti of Hungary.
Hungary's new "Law on the Right to Freedom of Conscience and Religion, and on Churches, Religions and Religious Communities" was enacted 12 July 2011 and it recognizes only 14 religious groups. Islam is not included in this list and Muslims have to apply to get official recognition under the new law. Under the law, only 14 of 358 registered churches and religious associations will be granted legal recognition, while others will have to reapply for legal registration after two-thirds approval in parliament.
According to the 2011 Hungarian census, there were 5,579 Muslims in Hungary, made up 0.056% of the total population. Of these, 4,097 (73.4%) declared themselves as Hungarian, while 2,369 (42.5%) as Arab by ethnicity. In Hungary people can declare more than one ethnicity (sum is greater than the whole), so some people declared Hungarian and Arab together.
According to the Magyarországi Muszlimok Egyháza ("Hungarian Muslim's Church") there are c. 32,000 Muslims (0.3%) in Hungary.
- Hajduboszormeny | HajduPorta
- (cf. "The Islamic Review", London, February 1950, 38th vol., No.2).
- (comp. 625/1228, vide also Wustenfeld's edition, Leipzig, 1866, 1st vol., p. 469)
- Coloman's Laws very free translation from Hungarian (original Latin).
- Ladislaus I law
- "Churches Divided On Hungary's New Religion Law". Huffington Post. 19 July 2011.
- "In Hungary, amended religion law recognize Hungarian Islamic Council". Adventist.org. 28 February 2012.
- Hungarian census 2011 / Országos adatok (National data) / 2.1.7 A népesség vallás, felekezet és fontosabb demográfiai ismérvek szerint (Population by religion, denomination combined by main demographical data) (Hungarian)
- Hungarian census 2011 - final data and methodology
- Péter Szentpétery: Látogatás a Magyarországi Muszlimok Egyházánál (Visit the Hungarian Muslim's Church), Magyarországi Egyházak Ökumenikus Tanácsa (Ecumenical Council of Hungarian Churches) (Hungarian)