Islam was first introduced into West Africa south of the Sahara, across the salt and gold trade routes. Islamicized Berber and Tuareg merchants traveled the trans-Saharan trade routes. As time passed, Muslim clerics and scholars — teaching their beliefs and setting up places of worship along the routes — accompanied traders on their journeys. The Hausa and the Fulani, a traditionally nomadic group, traveled all over West Africa, taking their Muslim beliefs to places such as present-day Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia.
Estimates on the number of Muslims in Togo vary depending on the source. The CIA World Factbook puts the figure is 20%. A survey by the Pew Research Center gives an estimate of 12.2% of the population or 809,000 individuals as of 2009.