Islam in the United Kingdom

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Islam in United Kingdom is the second largest religion with results from the United Kingdom Census 2011 giving the UK Muslim population in 2011 as 2,786,635, 4.4% of the total population. The vast majority of Muslims in the United Kingdom live in England: 2,660,116 (5.02% of the population). 76,737 Muslims live in Scotland (1.45%), 45,950 in Wales (1.50%), and 3,832 in Northern Ireland (0.21%).[1][2][3]

In 2011 it was reported that the United Kingdom had around 100,000 converts to Islam, 40,000 more than in 2001;[4] 66% of them were women. There were an estimated 5,200 conversions to Islam in 2011.[5] Islam is the second fastest growing religious confession in the UK after Irreligion and its adherents have the lowest average age out of all the major religious groups.[6] Between 2001 and 2009 the Muslim population increased almost 10 times faster than the non-Muslim population.[7] Majority of Muslims in United Kingdom belong to Sunni denomination.[8] The largest ethnic group of British Muslims is British Pakistani at 38%.[9][10] The Caliph of the Ahmadiyya Islamic sect resides in the United Kingdom.

History[edit]

Three Lascars on the British 'Viceroy of India'

The first group of Muslims to arrive, in the 18th century, were lascars (sailors) recruited from the Indian subcontinent (largely from the Bengal region) to work for the British East India Company, most of whom settled down and took local wives.[11] Due to the majority being lascars, the earliest Muslim communities were found in port towns. Naval cooks also came, many of them from the Sylhet Division of what is now Bangladesh. One of the most famous early Bengali Muslim immigrants to England was Sake Dean Mahomet, a captain of the British East India Company who in 1810 founded London's first Indian restaurant, the Hindoostane Coffee House. He is also reputed for introducing shampoo and therapeutic massage to the United Kingdom.[12]

The Shah Jahan Mosque in Woking was the first purpose built mosque, built in 1889. In the same year Abdullah Quilliam installed a mosque in a terrace in Liverpool, which became the Liverpool Muslim Institute.[13][14] The first mosque in London was the Fazl Mosque established in 1924, commonly called the London mosque. The growing number of Muslims resulted in the establishment of more than 1,500 mosques by 2007.[15]

The publication of Salman Rushdie's novel The Satanic Verses in 1988 caused major controversy. Many Muslims condemned the book for blasphemy. On 2 December 1988 the book was publicly burned at a demonstration in Bolton attended by 7,000 Muslims, followed by a similar demonstration and book-burning in Bradford on 14 January 1989.[16] In 1989 Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini of Iran issued a fatwā ordering Muslims to kill Rushdie.[17]

In February 2008, Rowan Williams the Archbishop of Canterbury (the head of the Church of England) lectured at the Royal Courts of Justice on Islam and English Law.[18] In this lecture he spoke of a "dominant human rights philosophy" that would see sharia courts instituted in the UK before long.[18] Several months later, the Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales supported the idea that sharia could be reasonably employed as a basis for "mediation or other forms of alternative dispute resolution", and explained that "It is not very radical to advocate embracing sharia law in the context of family disputes, for example, and our system already goes a long way towards accommodating the archbishop's suggestion."[19]

In March 2014, The Law Society in the UK issued instructions on how to draft sharia-compliant wills for the network of sharia courts which has grown up in Islamic communities to deal with disputes between Muslim families.[20]

Demography and ethnic background[edit]

The Muslim population of England and Wales has grown consistently since the 1950s. Sophie Gilliat-Ray attributes the recent growth to[21]

recent immigration, the growing birth rate, some conversion to Islam, and perhaps also an increased willingness to self-identify as "Muslim" on account of the "war on terror"

Census Year Number of Muslims (thousands) Population of England and Wales (thousands) Muslim (% of population) Registered Mosques Muslims per mosque
1961 50 46,196 0.11[22] 7 7,143
1971 226 49,152 0.46[22] 30 7,533
1981 553 49,634 1.11[22] 149 3,711
1991 950 51,099 1.86[22] 443 2,144
2001 1,600 52,042 3.07[22] 614 2,606
2011 2,706 56,076 4.83[23] 1,500 1,912
British Muslim population by Ethnic group[24]
  Number of Muslims Muslims as % of ethnic group Ethnic group as % of Muslims
White 210,260 0.4 7.8
  White British 77,272 0.2 2.9
  White Irish 1,914 0.4 <0.1
  Other White 131,434 5.2 4.9
Mixed 102,582 8.4 3.8
  White & Black Caribbean 5,384 1.3 0.2
  White & Black African 15,681 9.5 0.6
  White & Asian 49,689 14.5 1.8
  Other Mixed 31,828 11.0 1.2
British Asian 1,830,560 43.4 67.6
  Indian 197,161 14.0 7.3
  Pakistani 1,028,459 91.5 38.0
  Bangladeshi 402,428 90.0 14.9
  Chinese 8,027 2.0 0.3
  Other Asian 194,485 23.3 7.2
Black or Black British 272,015 14.6 10.1
  Black Caribbean 7,345 1.2 0.3
  Black African 207,201 20.9 7.7
  Other Black 57,469 20.5 2.1
Arab 178,195 77.3 6.6
Other Ethnic Group 112,094 33.7 4.1
Total 2,706,066 4.8 100

The settlements with large number of Muslims are Bradford, Luton, Blackburn, Birmingham, London and Dewsbury. There are also high numbers in High Wycombe, Slough, Leicester, Derby, Manchester, Liverpool and the mill towns of Northern England. There are also relatively large concentrations in the Scottish cities of Glasgow and Edinburgh.

Muslim population in English local authority areas.
  0.0%-0.9%
  1%-1.9%
  2%-4.9%
  5%-9.9%
  10%-19.9%
  20% and more

The top 20 local authorities in England and Wales with the highest percent of Muslims in 2011[25] were:

Several large cities have one area that is a majority Muslim even if the rest of the city has a fairly small Muslim population; see, for example, Harehills in Leeds. In addition, it is possible to find small areas that are almost entirely Muslim: for example, Savile Town in Dewsbury.[26]

In September 2009, the Office for National Statistics published information showing that Mohammed (or variations of it) was the third most popular boy's name in England and Wales.[27]

Some 38% of England's Muslims live in London, where 1,012,823 identified as Muslim in 2011 (12.4% of London's population).[1]

Arab[edit]

Main article: British Arabs

Aside from North African Arabs, often referred to as Maghrebis (mentioned below), people of Arab origin in Britain are the descendants of Arab immigrants to Britain from a variety of Arab states, including Yemen, Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, Jordan and Palestine. Most British Arabs are Sunni Muslim, although some - such as those of southern Iraqi and southern Lebanese origin - are Shi'ite. A smaller number belong to one of the Eastern Christian denominations, such as Coptic Orthodox Egyptians and Maronite or Syrian Orthodox Arabs from the Levant. The main Arab Muslim communities in the UK live in the Greater London area, with smaller numbers living in Manchester, Liverpool, and Birmingham. There are also sizable and very long-established communities of Muslim Yemenis in the United Kingdom in among other places Cardiff and the South Shields area near Newcastle.

Bangladeshi[edit]

Main article: British Bangladeshi
Major bangladeshi religious groups.png

People of Bangladeshi descent are one of the largest Muslim communities (after Pakistanis), 16.8% of Muslims in England and Wales are of Bangladeshi descent, one of the ethnic groups in the UK with the largest proportion of people following a single religion, being 92% Muslim.[28] The majority of these Muslims come from the Sylhet region of Bangladesh, mainly concentrated in London (Tower Hamlets and Newham), Luton, Birmingham and Oldham. The Bangladeshi Muslim community in London forms 24% of the Muslim population, larger than any other ethnic group.[29]

Bangladeshi Muslim women in East London
The East London Mosque is the first mosque which was allowed to broadcast the adhan in Europe.

Initial limited mosque availability meant that prayers were conducted in small rooms of council flats until the 1980s when more and larger facilities became available. Some synagogues and community buildings were turned into mosques and existing mosques began to expand their buildings. This process has continued down to the present day with the East London Mosque recently expanding into a large former car park where the London Muslim Centre is now used for prayers, recreational facilities and housing.[30][31] Most people regard themselves as part of the ummah, and their identity is based on their religion rather than their ethnic group.[32] Cultural aspects of a 'Bengali Islam' are seen as superstition and as un-Islamic.[32] The identity is far stronger in comparison to the native land. Younger Bangladeshis are more involved in Islamist activities and movement groups, whereas the older generation practise with Islamic rituals mixed with the Bengali culture.[citation needed] Many Bangladeshi women wear the burqa and many young women or girls also wear the headscarf.[citation needed]

There are groups which are active throughout Bangladeshi communities such as The Young Muslim Organization. It is connected to the Islamic Forum Europe, associated with the East London Mosque and the London Muslim Centre – all of which have connections with the Bangladesh Islamic party, the Jamaat-e-Islami (linked with some community mosques, which also linked with the Dawat-e-Islami).[citation needed] Other groups also attract a few people, the Hizb ut-Tahrir – which calls for the Khilafah (caliphate) and influences by publishing annual magazines, and lectures through mainly political concepts,[33] and the other which is a movement within Sunni Islam is the Salafi – who view the teachings of the first generations as the correct one,[34] and appeals to younger Muslims as a way to differentiate themselves towards their elders.[30][35] Other large groups include another Sunni movement, the Barelwi – mainly of a Fultoli movement (led by Abdul Latif Chowdhury in Bangladesh), and the Tablighi Jamaat – which is a missionary and revival movement,[36] and avoids political attention. All these groups work to stimulate Islamic identity among local Bengalis or Muslims and particularly focus on the younger members of the communities.[31][37][38]

European[edit]

The 2001 census stated that there were 179,733 Muslims who described themselves as 'white' in the 2001 census.[citation needed] 65% of white Muslims described themselves as "other white", and would likely have originated from locations such as Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Adygea, Chechnya, Albania, Turkey, Bulgaria, the region of East Macedonia and Thrace in Northern Greece, and the Republic of Macedonia. The remainder of white Muslims are converts and mostly identified themselves as White British and White Irish.

Indian[edit]

See also: British Indian

Islam is the third-largest religious group of British Indian people, after Hinduism and Sikhism.[citation needed] 8% of UK Muslims are of Indian descent,[citation needed] principally those whose origins are in Gujarat, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala. Gujarati Muslims from the Surat and Bharuch districts started to arrive from the 1930s when India was under British colonial rule, settling in the towns of Dewsbury and Batley in Yorkshire and in parts of Lancashire.

There are large numbers of Gujarati Muslims in Dewsbury, Blackburn (including Darwen), Bolton, Preston, Nuneaton, Gloucester and London (Newham, Waltham Forest and Hackney).

Maghrebi[edit]

North African Arabs from the Maghreb (English: western) part of the Arab world. Although data is scarce, Maghrebis make up a substantial community in Europe and the United Kingdom. Britain has far fewer of Maghrebis than France, The Netherlands or Spain, where the majority of Muslims are Maghrebi.[39]

Nigerian[edit]

A 2009 government paper estimated the Nigerian Muslim community as 12,000 to 14,000.[40] The community is concentrated in London.

Nigerian Muslims in the UK are represented by several community organizations including the Nigeria Muslim Forum.[41]

Pakistani[edit]

Main article: British Pakistanis

The single largest group of Muslims in the United Kingdom are of Pakistani descent. Pakistanis from Mirpur District were one of the first South Asian Muslim communities to permanently settle in the United Kingdom, arriving in Birmingham and Bradford in the late 1930s. Immigration from Mirpur grew from the late 1950s, accompanied by immigration from other parts of Pakistan especially from Punjab which included cities like Sialkot, Jhelum, Gujar Khan and Gujrat and also from the north-west Punjab including the chhachhi pathans from Attock District, and some from villages of Ghazi, Nowshera and Peshwar. There is also a fairly large Pakistani community from Kenya and Uganda found in London. People of Pakistani extraction are particularly notable in West Midlands (Birmingham), West Yorkshire (Bradford), London (Waltham Forest, Newham), Lancashire/Greater Manchester, and several industrial towns like Luton, Slough, High Wycombe and Oxford.

Somali[edit]

Somali women at a Somali community gathering event in London

The United Kingdom, with 43,532 Somalia-born residents in 2001,[42] and an estimated 101,000 in 2008,[43] is home to the largest Somali community in Europe. A 2009 estimate by Somali community organisations puts the Somali population figure at 90,000 residents.[44] Although most Somalis in the UK are recent arrivals, the first Somali immigrants were seamen and traders who arrived and settled in port cities in the late 19th century.[44] Established Somali communities are found in Bristol, Cardiff, Liverpool and London, and newer ones have formed in Leicester, Manchester and Sheffield.[45][46] It has been estimated that between 7,000 to 9,000 Somalis live in Liverpool.[47][48]

Turkish[edit]

Turks first began to emigrate in large numbers from the island of Cyprus for work and then again when Turkish Cypriots were forced to leave their homes during the Cyprus conflict.[citation needed] Turks then began to come from Turkey for economic reasons. Recently, smaller groups of Turks have begun to immigrate to the United Kingdom from other European countries.[49] In 2011, there was a total of about 500,000 people of Turkish origin in the UK,[50] made up of approximately 150,000 Turkish nationals and about 300,000 Turkish Cypriots.[51] Furthermore, in recent years, there has been a growing number of ethnic Turks with German, or Dutch citizenship immigrating to Britain. Turkish-speaking Muslims have also come to Britain from parts of the Balkans where they make up a large, indigenous ethnic and religious minority dating to the period of Ottoman rule, particularly Bulgaria, the province of East Macedonia and Thrace in Northern Greece, the Republic of Macedonia, and Romania. Although some of these Balkan Turks, like the Pomaks of southern Bulgaria and Northern Greece, are actually the descendants of Ottoman-era converts to Islam, and are therefore sometimes defined as (e.g) Bulgarian Muslims and Greek Muslims, the vast majority are the descendants of Turkish settlers dating to the early Ottoman period. Even many of those of non-Turkish origin have adopted the Turkish language and identity, through a combination of educational links with Turkey, intermarriage with Turkish Muslims, and assimilation into mainstream Turkish culture. The majority of Turks live in the greater London area.[52]

Denominations[edit]

Sunni[edit]

The majority of British mosques are Sunni. In 2010 the affiliation of the mosques was: 44.6% Deobandi, 28.2% Barelvi and other Sufi, 5.8% Salafi, 2.8% Maudoodi-inspired; of the remainder many were part of other Sunni traditions or unaffiliated, while 4.2% were Shi'a (4%). The majority of mosque managers are of Pakistani and Bangladeshi origin, with many Gujarati, and fewer Arab, Turkish and Somali managed entities.[53]

Ahmadiyya[edit]

The headquarters of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community are currently in London. It established itself here in 1912. Ahmadis are especially common in Morden. Alton, Hampshire acts as Annual International Conventions of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community.[54] Other mosques include the Jamia Ahmadiyya and Baitul Ikram Mosque in Leicester. The Ahmadiyya however are not considered Muslim by either Shia or Sunni Muslims for their belief in the continuance of Prophethood. They are officially declared non-Muslim under the 1984 Ordinance in Pakistan.[55]

Shia[edit]

Shia mosques are usually Twelvers but also cater for Zaydis and Ismailis; they usually include facilities for women. There are 400,000 Shias in Britain from Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Turkey and elsewhere.[56] Various Shia mosques include the Husseini Islamic Centre in Stanmore, Harrow which acts as one of the main Shia Muslim mosques in Britain. Others include Al Masjid ul Husseini in Northolt, Ealing, and Imam Khoei Islamic Centre in Queens Park, Brent.

Associations[edit]

Position in society[edit]

Poverty[edit]

According to analysis based on the 2001 census, Muslims in the United Kingdom face poor standards of housing, poorer levels of education and are more vulnerable to long-term illness,[58] and that Muslims in the UK had the highest rate of unemployment, the poorest health, the most disability and fewest educational qualifications among religious groups.[59] The figures were, to some extent, explained by the fact that Muslims were the least well-established group, having the youngest age profile.[59]

Conversely, there are estimated to be around 10,000 British Muslim millionaires.[60] There is a growing substantial British Muslim business community, led by multi-millionaires such as Sir Anwar Pervez.[61]

Education[edit]

Approximately one-third of Muslims have no qualifications, the highest of any religious group, whilst approximately a quarter of Christians and Sikhs have no qualifications.[62] However, approximately 53% of British Muslim youth choose to attend university.[63] This is higher than the figure for Christians (45%) and the non-religious (32%), but lower than the figure of Hindus and Sikhs, who score 77% and 63% respectively.[63]

There are around 140 Muslim faith schools in the UK, twelve of them being state-funded.[64] These schools regularly outperform those of other faiths. For example, in 2008, 86.5% of pupils attending Muslim schools achieved five GCSEs, compared to a figure of 72.8% of Roman Catholic schools and 64.5% of Secular schools.[65]

Politics[edit]

Further information: Islamism in the United Kingdom
Baroness Sayeeda Warsi was the first Muslim female minister.[66]

Muslims are playing an increasingly prominent role in political life.[67] There are currently eight Muslim MPs[68] and twelve Muslim Peers (there have historically been about fourteen, starting with Lord Stanley, a peer that lived in the 19th century). The majority of British Muslims vote for the Labour Party,[69] however there are some high profile Conservative Muslims, including former Minister for Faith and Communities and former Co-Chairman of the Conservative Party Sayeeda Warsi and Economic Secretary to the Treasury Sajid Javid,[70] described by The Guardian as a 'rising star' in the Tory party.[71] The Guardian stated that "The treasury minister is highly regarded on the right and would be the Tories' first Muslim leader." Salma Yaqoob is the former leader of the left-wing Respect Party.[72] Sayeeda Warsi, who was the first Muslim to serve in a British cabinet, was appointed by David Cameron in 2010 as a minister without portfolio. She was made a senior minister of state in 2012. In August 2014 she resigned over the government's approach to the 2014 Israel-Gaza conflict[73]

Media[edit]

British Muslims are well represented in various media positions across different organisations. Notable examples include Mehdi Hasan, the political editor of the UK version of The Huffington Post[74] and the presenter of Al Jazeera English shows The Café and Head to Head,[75] Mishal Husain, a British news presenter for the BBC, currently appearing on BBC World News and BBC Weekend News, Rageh Omaar, special correspondent with ITV and formerly Senior Foreign Correspondent with the BBC and a reporter/presenter for Al Jazeera English,[76] and Faisal Islam, economics editor and correspondent for Channel 4 News'.'[77]

There are several Islamic television channels operating in the UK, including Muslim Television Ahmadiyya International (MTA International),[78][79] Ummah Channel,[80] and Ahlebait TV.

Identity[edit]

According to one survey from 2006, around 81% of Muslims think of themselves as Muslim first. Muslims living in Muslim-majority countries also tend to think of themselves as Muslim first rather than identifying with nation states (for example 87% of Pakistanis identify themselves as Muslim first rather than Pakistani).[81] However around 83% of Muslims are proud to be a British citizen, compared to 79% of the general public, 77% of Muslims strongly identify with Britain while only 50% of the wider population do, 86.4% of Muslims feel they belong in Britain, slightly more than the 85.9% of Christians, 82% of Muslims want to live in diverse and mixed neighbourhoods compared to 63% of non-Muslim Britons.[82] In polls taken across Europe 2006, British Muslims hold the most negative view of westerners out of all Muslims in Europe, whilst overall in Britain 63% of British hold the most favourable view of Muslims out of all the European countries (down from 67% the year before).[83]

On religious issues a poll reported that 36% of 16-24 year olds believe if a Muslim converts to another religion they should be punished by death, compared to 19% of 55+ year old Muslims. A poll reported that 59% of Muslims would prefer to live under British law, compared to 28% who would prefer to live under sharia law. 61% of respondents agreed with the statement that homosexuality is wrong and should be illegal.[84][85][86] This appeared to be borne out by a Gallup poll in 2009 of 500 British Muslims, none of whom believed that homosexuality was morally acceptable.[87] Such polls suggest that British Muslims have strongly conservative views on issues relating to extra-marital and/or homosexual sexual acts compared with their European Muslim counterparts - who are markedly more liberal.[87] However, a poll conducted by Demos in 2011 reported that a greater proportion of Muslims (47% - slightly higher than the 46.5% of Christians who agreed with the statement) than other religions agreed with the statement "I am proud of how Britain treats gay people", with less than 11% disagreeing.[88][89][90] On 18 May 2013, just as the bill to legalize same-sex marriages was being prepared to pass into law, over 400 leading Muslims including head teachers and senior representatives of mosques across the country, published an open letter opposing the bill on the grounds that "Muslim parents will be robbed of their right to raise their children according to their beliefs, as homosexual relationships are taught as something normal to their primary-aged children".[91]

British Muslims appear to be least tolerant than the rest of the UK population when it comes to accepting British Culture and integration into Britain.[92] Another poll revealed that 28% of British Muslims hoped that Britain would one day become an Islamic state.[93]

Discrimination[edit]

See also: Islamophobia

There have been cases of threats,[94] one alleged fatal attack,[95] and non-fatal attacks on Muslims and on Muslim targets, including attacks on Muslim graves[96] and mosques.[97] In January 2010, a report from the University of Exeter's European Muslim Research Centre noted that the number of anti-Muslim hate crimes has increased, ranging from "death threats and murder to persistent low-level assaults, such as spitting and name-calling," for which the media and politicians have been blamed with fueling anti-Muslim hatred.[98][99][100] However, Met Police figures showed an 8.5 per cent fall in anti-Muslim crimes between 2009 and 2012, with a spike in 2013 due to the murder of Lee Rigby.[101]

The British media has been criticised for propagating negative stereotypes of Muslims and fueling anti-Muslim prejudice.[102] In 2006, British cabinet ministers were criticised for helping to "unleash a public anti-Muslim backlash" by blaming the Muslim community over issues of integration despite a study commissioned by the Home Office on white and Asian-Muslim youths demonstrating otherwise: that Asian-Muslim youths "are in fact the most tolerant of all" and that white British youths "have far more intolerant attitudes," concluding that intolerance from the white British community was a greater "barrier to integration."[103][104] Another survey by Gallup in 2009 also found that the Muslim community feels more patriotic about Britain than the general British population,[105][106] while another survey found that Muslims assert that they support the role of Christianity in British life more so than Christians themselves.[107] In January 2010, the British Social Attitudes Survey found that the general British public "is far more likely to hold negative views of Muslims than of any other religious group," with "just one in four" feeling "positively about Islam," and a "majority of the country would be concerned if a mosque was built in their area, while only 15 per cent expressed similar qualms about the opening of a church."[108] The "scapegoating" of Muslims by the media and politicians in the 21st century has been compared in the media to the rise of antisemitism in the early 20th century.[109]

There has also been discrimination by orthodox Sunni Muslims against Ahmadiyya Muslims. In 2014, on the 125 anniversary of the establishment of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, the Community published an advertisement in the Luton on Sunday. Following a written complaint from Dr Fiaz Hussain, co-ordinator of the Preservation of Finality of Prophethood Forum (PFPF),[110] the paper received a delegation of 'Community Leaders' and shortly afterwards printed an apology disassociating itself from the Ahmadiyya advertisement.[111] Tell Mama responded by identifying attempts to intimidate or discriminate against Ahmadiyya Muslims "as anti-Muslim in nature".[112]

Organisations[edit]

The emergence of the English Defence League has resulted in demonstrations in British cities with large Muslim populations.[113][114][115][116][117] The EDL is a far-right, anti-Muslim[114][115][118][119][120] street protest movement which opposes what it considers to be a spread of Islamism, Sharia law and Islamic extremism in the United Kingdom.[121][122][123][124][125][126] The EDL has been described by The Jewish Chronicle as Islamophobic.[127] The group has faced confrontations with various groups, including supporters of Unite Against Fascism (UAF) and Anonymous.[128][129][130]

Alleged forced conversions[edit]

In 2007 a Sikh girl's family claimed that she had been forcibly converted to Islam, and they received a police guard after being attacked by an armed gang.[131] In response to these news stories, an open letter to Sir Ian Blair, signed by ten Hindu academics, argued that claims that Hindu and Sikh girls were being forcefully converted were "part of an arsenal of myths propagated by right-wing Hindu supremacist organisations in India".[132] The Muslim Council of Britain issued a press release pointing out there is a lack of evidence of any forced conversions and suggested it is an underhand attempt to smear the British Muslim population.[133] Sheikh Musa Admani, an imam, said Islamic extremist groups may be evading university bans on groups such as Hizb ut Tahrir and Al-Muhajiroun.[134]

In a 2008 article for the Leeds Centre for Ethnicity & Racism Studies Katy Sian conducted an investigation into the Sikh community in the UK where the idea of "trapped love" allegedly committed by University-going-Muslim males is widespread. The report was done to see whether the phenomenon and allegations of "forced" conversions and "trapped love" was true; Sian's report concluded most of the claimed evidence alleged by the Sikh community against young Muslims came from "a friend from a friend" within Sikh families who detailed many exaggerated stories about the "Muslim folk devil" on campus, at Universities. Sian also noted strong similarities to the spread of the notion of "trapped love"allegedly conducted by the Jewish community in the UK in the 1930s and 1940s, by Christians, where it has since been labelled as an antisemitic conspiracy theory. The report concluded by saying most of evidence simply does not exist and can be attributed to Islamophobia amongst Sikhs.[135]

Terrorism[edit]

2005 London Bombings[edit]

The 7 July 2005 London bombings were a series of coordinated bomb blasts that hit London's public transport system during the morning rush hour, killing 52 people and also the four bombers. The latter were British Muslims, three of Pakistani and one of Jamaican heritage. They were apparently motivated by Britain's involvement in the Iraq War and other conflicts.[136][137]

Two weeks later on 21 July four more bombs were placed in London's public transport system. Only the detonators of these bombs exploded, causing no serious injuries.[138]

0n 23 July Afifi al-Akiti, a Fellow at the Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies, wrote a fatwa, Defending the Transgressed, against the killing of civilians by suicide bombers in response to the London bombings.[139][140]

In March 2010, a Fatwa against terrorism was pronounced by a leading Sufi scholar[who?] in London.[citation needed]

Glasgow International Airport Attack[edit]

The 2007 Glasgow International Airport attack was a terrorist attack which occurred on Saturday 30 June 2007, at 15:11 BST, when a dark green Jeep Cherokee loaded with propane canisters was driven into the glass doors of the Glasgow International Airport terminal and set ablaze.[141] It was the first terrorist attack to take place in Scotland since the Lockerbie bombing in 1988.[142] The attack occurred three days after the appointment of Glasgow-born Scottish MP Gordon Brown as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, but Downing Street dismissed suggestions of a connection,[143] although a close link was quickly established to the foiled attack on London the previous day.

Police identified the two men as Bilal Abdullah, a British-born, Muslim engineer of Iraqi descent working at the Royal Alexandra Hospital,[144][145] and Kafeel Ahmed, also known as Khalid Ahmed, the driver, who was treated for severe burns at the same hospital.[146] The newspaper, The Australian, alleges that a suicide note indicated that the two had intended to die in the attack.[147] Ahmed did eventually die from his injuries, on 2 August.[148] Bilal Abdullah was later found guilty of conspiracy to commit murder and was sentenced to 32 years in prison.

Murder of Drummer Lee Rigby[edit]

Further information: Murder of Lee Rigby

On the afternoon of 22 May 2013, a British Army soldier, Drummer (Private) Lee Rigby of the Royal Regiment of Fusiliers, was attacked and murdered by two Muslim men near the Royal Artillery Barracks in Woolwich, southeast London,[149][150] in what has been described as an Islamic terrorist attack.[151][152][153]

Rigby was off duty and walking along Wellington Street when he was attacked.[154] Two men ran him down with a car, then used knives and a cleaver to stab and hack him to death.[155] The men dragged Rigby's body into the road. The men remained at the scene until police arrived. They told passers-by that they had killed a soldier to avenge the killing of Muslims by the British military.[15] Unarmed police arrived at the scene nine minutes after an emergency call was received and set up a cordon. Armed police officers arrived five minutes later. The assailants, armed with a gun and cleaver, charged at the police, who fired shots that wounded them both. They were apprehended and taken to separate hospitals.[15] Both are British of Nigerian descent who were raised as Christians and converted to Islam.[156]

The attack was condemned by political and Muslim leaders in the United Kingdom[157] and in the worldwide press.[158]

The Beatles[edit]

The Beatles, dubbed as such by their former and current hostages because of their British accents, are an active Islamic State (IS) terrorist group whose members were nicknamed John, Paul, George, and Ringo by the hostages. They are responsible for beheadings in Iraq and Syria, most notably as shown in the beheading videos of American journalists James Foley and Steven Sotloff, and British aid worker David Haines. The Beatles are reportedly a cell[159] of 4 (though some sources have only referred to 3 of the individuals) of an estimated 500 British Muslims fighting on behalf of the jihadist Islamic State to impose a caliphate in Syria and Iraq.[160][161][162][163][164][165] They have taken hostages, guarded more than a dozen Western hostages of the Islamic State in Western Raqqa, Syria, and beheaded the three hostages.[166][167][168][169]

Radicalism[edit]

Notable Mosques[edit]

London's Baitul Futuh Mosque of the Ahmadiyya Muslims - the largest Ahmadiyya Mosque in Western Europe.[170]
Jamea Masjid in Preston, known for its architectural design.
The London Central Mosque located in London, and built in 1977.

Activities[edit]

The East London Mosque organises an annual programme to attract people to its services which include ICT training, English classes, a Junior Muslim Circle, Saturday Halaqa (Islamic talks) and Madrasahs. According to the mosque, involvement in its activities has increased and it notes that: the five daily prayers have increased. Especially during Friday Jummah prayers, where it was difficult to accommodate the increasing number of people. During Ramadan, the prayer facilities attracted between 4,000 to 5,000 people every day. Much of these works by the people, show Islamic identity among the Muslims is increasingly rising due to many Islamic groups and facilities available throughout the communities in the UK.[171]

The Baitul Futuh Mosque organises several events to serve Muslims and the wider community. Other than holding regular prayers, its services to the wider community include annual Peace Conferences, School tours and community events such as hosting the BBC Radio 4 Any Questions?[172] and the 'Merton Youth Partnership Annual Conference.'[173] The Baitul Futuh Mosque has also been acting as the centre for the 'Loyalty, Freedom and Peace Campaign'[174] in order for the West to recognise Islam as a peaceful religion and to improve the integration of Muslims and non-Muslims.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "2011 Census: KS209EW Religion, local authorities in England and Wales (Excel sheet 270Kb)" (xls). Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 7 July 2014. 
  2. ^ "Scotland's Census 2011 - National Records of Scotland Table KS209SCa - Religion (UK harmonised)". National Records of Scotland. Retrieved 7 July 2014. 
  3. ^ "Religion - Full Detail: QS218NI" (xls). Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. Retrieved 7 July 2014. 
  4. ^ BBC: Converting to Islam - the white Britons becoming Muslims, 4 January 2011
  5. ^ UK Census Results: Religion'
  6. ^ 'UK Census: religion by age, ethnicity and country of birth' 16 May 2013, Ami Sedghi, The Guardian
  7. ^ Muslim population 'rising 10 times faster than rest of society' 30 January 2009, Richard Kerbaj, The Sunday Times
  8. ^ UK Masjid Statistics Muslims In Britain (2010-08-18).
  9. ^ Shaw, Alison (4 April 2011). "Review of Crime and Muslim Britain: Culture and the Politics of Criminology among British Pakistanis by Marta Bolognani". Journal of Islamic Studies (Oxford Journals) 22 (2): 288–291. doi:10.1093/jis/etr020. Retrieved 5 July 2014. 
  10. ^ Muslims in Britain: an Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.xvii + 318, ISBN 978-0-521-83006-5
  11. ^ Fisher, Michael Herbert (2006). Counterflows to Colonialism. Orient Blackswan. pp. 111–9, 129–30, 140, 154–6, 160–8, 181. ISBN 81-7824-154-4 
  12. ^ "Curry house founder is honoured". BBC. 29 September 2005. Retrieved 5 July 2014. 
  13. ^ a b Sardais, Louise (August 2003). "The 'little mosque'". BBC. Archived from the original on 2012-02-17. Retrieved 17 February 2012. 
  14. ^ "Liverpool Mosque and Muslim Institute". Open University. Retrieved 5 July 2014. 
  15. ^ a b c Dominic Casciani (29 November 2007) The battle over mosque reform BBC News (BBC). Retrieved 3 May 2009.
  16. ^ Lustig, Robin; Bailey, Martin; de Bruxelles, Simon; Mather, Ian (19 February 1989). "War of the Word". The Observer. Retrieved 7 July 2014. 
  17. ^ "1989: Ayatollah sentences author to death". BBC News. 14 February 1989. 
  18. ^ a b Civil and Religious Law in England: a Religious Perspective. 7 February 2008 http://www.archbishopofcanterbury.org/1575
  19. ^ "Sharia law 'could have UK role'". BBC News. 4 July 2008. Retrieved 4 June 2008. 
  20. ^ telegraph.co.uk: "Islamic law is adopted by British legal chiefs" 23 Mar 2014
  21. ^ Gilliat-Ray, Sophie (2010). Muslims in Britain. Cambridge University Press. p. 117. ISBN 9780521536882. , reported in Field, Clive. "How Many Muslims?". British Religion in Numbers. Retrieved 7 July 2014. 
  22. ^ a b c d e "Hindu, Muslim and Sikh populations". http://www.brin.ac.uk/figures. 
  23. ^ "How Many Muslims? British Religion in Numbers". Brin.ac.uk. 2010-09-21. Retrieved 16 November 2012. 
  24. ^ "Datablog: UK Census: religion by age, ethnicity and country of birth". The Guardian. 16 May 2013. Retrieved 5 July 2014. 
  25. ^ "2011 Census: Religion, local authorities in England and Wales" (xls). United Kingdom Census 2011. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 12 December 2012. 
  26. ^ ^ http://www.kirklees-pct.nhs.uk/fileadmin/documents/meetings/march_07/KPCT-07-42%20Report%20estate%20strategy.doc paragraph 4.3
  27. ^ Max Hastings (11 September 2009). "Mohammed is now the third most popular boy's name in England. So why this shabby effort to conceal it?". London: The Daily Mail. Retrieved 17 September 2010. 
  28. ^ http://www.statistics.gov.uk/statbase/Expodata/Spreadsheets/D6891.xls
  29. ^ "2001 Census Profiles: Bangladeshis in London" (PDF). Greater London Authority. Retrieved 1 August 2004. [dead link]
  30. ^ a b "Bangladeshi Diaspora in the UK: Some observations on socio-culturaldynamics, religious trends and transnational politics" (PDF). University of Surry. Retrieved 3 June 2008. 
  31. ^ a b "bdirectory: Islamist politics among Bangladeshis in the UK". David Garbin – Cronem, University of Surrey. Retrieved 27 July 2008. 
  32. ^ a b "Genetics, Religion and Identity: A Study of British Bangladeshis – 2004-2007" (PDF). School of Social Sciences – Cardiff University – funded by the Economic and Social Research Council. Retrieved 15 September 2008. 
  33. ^ "Draft Constitution by Hizb ut-Tahrir". The Media office of Hizb-ut-Tahrir. Retrieved 16 August 2008. [dead link]
  34. ^ "Compendium of Muslim texts – Volume 3, Book 48, Number 819". University of Southern California. Retrieved 16 August 2008. 
  35. ^ The Next Attack, By Daniel Benjamin Steven Simon, ISBN 0-8050-7941-6 – Page 55
  36. ^ M. Jawed Iqbal; Mufti Ebrahim Desai (9 June 2007). "Inviting to Islam". www.askimam.org. Retrieved 16 August 2008 
  37. ^ "East London Mosque and London Muslim Centre". East London Mosque. Retrieved 26 July 2008. 
  38. ^ "Bangladeshis in east London: from secular politics to Islam". Delwar Hussain – openDemocracy: free thinking for the world. Retrieved 27 July 2008. 
  39. ^ Efraim Inbar; Hillel Frisch (January 2008). "Radical Islam and International Security: Challenges and Responses". ISBN 9780415444606. Retrieved 15 February 2014. 
  40. ^ Change Institute (April 2009). "The Nigerian Muslim Community in England: Understanding Muslim Ethnic Communities". Communities and Local Government. pp. 23–24. Retrieved 7 July 2014. 
  41. ^ Nigeria Muslim Forum UK
  42. ^ "Country-of-birth database". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Retrieved 25 January 2009. 
  43. ^ "Table 1.3: Estimated population resident in the United Kingdom, by foreign country of birth, 60 most common countries of birth, January 2008 to December 2008". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 4 October 2009.  Figure given is the central estimate. See the source for 95 per cent confidence intervals.
  44. ^ a b Dissanayake, Samanthi (2008-12-04). "British Somalis play politics from afar". BBC News. Retrieved 25 January 2009. 
  45. ^ Casciani, Dominic (2006-05-30). "Somalis' struggle in the UK". BBC News. Retrieved 25 January 2009. 
  46. ^ "Born abroad: Somalia". BBC News. 2005-09-07. Retrieved 25 January 2009. 
  47. ^ http://www.liverpoolpct.nhs.uk/Library/Impact/IA0073.doc
  48. ^ "Integration of the Somali Community into Europe". Federation of Adult Education Associations. Retrieved 3 February 2010. 
  49. ^ Lytra & Baraç 2009, 60
  50. ^ Travis, Alan (1 August 2011). "UK immigration analysis needed on Turkish legal migration, say MPs". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on 2011-08-01. Retrieved 1 August 2011. 
  51. ^ Home Affairs Committee 2011, Ev 34
  52. ^ Hugh Poulton, 'The Balkans: Minorities and States in Conflict', Minority Rights Group Publications, London 2011
  53. ^ UK Masjid Statistics Muslims In Britain (2010-08-18). Mehmood Naqshbandi. Retrieved 12 September 2010.
  54. ^ Ahmadiyya Muslim Mosques Around the World, pg. 253
  55. ^ Ordinance XX
  56. ^ Addley, Esther (28 June 2003). "A glad day for mourning". The Guardian (London). 
  57. ^ a b Rosser-Owen, David (2010-04-30). "History". Association of British Muslims. Archived from the original on 2012-02-17. Retrieved 17 February 2012. 
  58. ^ "Muslim hardship under spotlight". BBC News. 14 May 2006. Retrieved 17 June 2010. 
  59. ^ a b John Carvel (12 October 2004). "Census shows Muslims' plight". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 17 June 2010. 
  60. ^ "Two million Muslims now live in Britain and 10,000 are millionaires, reveals Home Secretary Jacqui Smith during visit to Pakistan". Daily Mail (London). 8 April 2008. 
  61. ^ http://www.islamictimes.co.uk/content/view/180/7
  62. ^ http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/ethnicity/focus-on-religion/2004-edition/focus-on-religion-summary-report.pdf
  63. ^ a b Collins, Nick (14 May 2006). "Christian and atheist children least likely to go to university". London: Telegraph. Retrieved 22 Jul 2011. 
  64. ^ http://www.theguardian.com/education/2011/nov/28/muslim-schools-growth?CMP=twt_gu
  65. ^ http://www.parliament.uk/briefing-papers/SN04405.pdf
  66. ^ "Who's who: Cameron's government". BBC News. 17 October 2011. 
  67. ^ http://www.ed.ac.uk/schools-departments/literatures-languages-cultures/alwaleed/muslims-in-britain/conference
  68. ^ http://www.newstatesman.com/blogs/mehdi-hasan/2010/05/muslim-majority-labour-england
  69. ^ http://www.thenational.ae/news/world/europe/most-uk-muslims-will-vote-labour
  70. ^ Montgomerie, Tim (4 September 2012). "Junior Ministerial reshuffle rolling blog". ConservativeHome. Retrieved 6 September 2012. 
  71. ^ Watt, Nicholas (31 January 2013). "Tory party: the rising stars and those fading fast". The Guardian (London). 
  72. ^ BBC News (8 April 2010). "Respect Party leader Salma Yaqoob". BBC. Retrieved 15 July 2011. 
  73. ^ "Baroness Warsi quits as Foreign Office minister over Gaza". BBC. 5 August 2014. Retrieved 5 August 2014. 
  74. ^ "Mehdi Hasan". Huffington Post. Retrieved 23 March 2013. 
  75. ^ "Mehdi Hasan - Profile". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 23 March 2013. 
  76. ^ "Rageh Omaar". itv.com. Retrieved 16 November 2013. 
  77. ^ "Faisal Islam". Channel4.com. Archived from the original on 29 June 2008. Retrieved 13 November 2008. 
  78. ^ http://www.mta.tv.  Missing or empty |title= (help)Islam Channel
  79. ^ "About Islam Channel". Islam Channel website. Retrieved 10 February 2010. 
  80. ^ Baddhan, Lakhvinder, ed. (12 August 2009). "Ummah Channel replaces 9X on Sky EPG". BizAsia.co.uk. Biz Asia. Retrieved 10 February 2010. 
  81. ^ "Muslims in Europe: Economic Worries Top Concerns About Religious and Cultural Identity". http://pewglobal.org. 
  82. ^ "Muslims are well-integrated in Britain – but no one seems to believe it; Leon Moosavi | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk". London: Guardian. 2012-07-03. Retrieved 16 November 2012. 
  83. ^ http://www.theguardian.com/world/2006/jun/23/uk.religion
  84. ^ "radical islam" (PDF). Retrieved 16 November 2012. 
  85. ^ Wilson, Graeme (2007-01-29). "Young, British Muslims 'getting more radical'". London: Telegraph. Retrieved 16 November 2012. 
  86. ^ Stephen Bates and agencies (2007-01-29). "More young Muslims back sharia, says poll; UK news". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 16 November 2012. 
  87. ^ a b Butt, Riazat (7 May 2009). "Muslims in Britain have zero tolerance of homosexuality, says poll". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 29 September 2013. 
  88. ^ Hundal, Sunny (27 June 2011). "UK Muslims prouder of gay rights than others". Liberal Conspiracy. Retrieved 29 September 2013. 
  89. ^ "Poll says Muslims are ‘proud’ of Britain’s gay rights". http://www.pinknews.co.uk. 
  90. ^ "Britons more proud of the National Trust than the Royal Family". 
  91. ^ "Muslim leaders stand against gay marriage". The Daily Telegraph (London). 18 May 2013. 
  92. ^ Rogers, Joel (4 June 2013). "British attitudes to integration". YouGov (London). 
  93. ^ "Attitudes to Living in Britain – A Survey of Muslim Opinon". GfK NOP Social Research. Retrieved 8 July 2014. 
  94. ^ Muslims threatened after bombings BBC News 12 July 2005
  95. ^ Vikram Dood (13 July 2005). "Islamophobia blamed for attack". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 4 April 2010 
  96. ^ Muslim graves damaged in cemetery BBC News, 2 November 2006
  97. ^ "Muslim teenager stabbed during attack on UK mosque". Arabic News. 2006-10-03. Retrieved 4 April 2010 
  98. ^ Vikram Dood (28 January 2010). "Media and politicians 'fuel rise in hate crimes against Muslims'". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 4 April 2010 
  99. ^ Jonathan Githens-Mazer & Robert Lambert (28 January 2010). "Muslims in the UK: beyond the hype". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 4 April 2010 
  100. ^ Dr. Jonathan Githens-Mazer & Dr. Robert Lambert. "Islamophobia and Anti-Muslim Hate Crime: a London Case Study". University of Exeter. Retrieved 8 April 2010 
  101. ^ Gilligan, Andrew (9 June 2013). "Muslim hate monitor to lose backing". The Daily Telegraph (London). 
  102. ^ Richardson, John E. (2004). (Mis)representing Islam: the racism and rhetoric of British broadsheet newspapers. John Benjamins Publishing Company. ISBN 90-272-2699-7 
  103. ^ Vikram Dood (21 October 2006). "White pupils less tolerant, survey shows". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 4 April 2010 
  104. ^ "Muslim students 'more tolerant'". BBC News. 11 October 2006. Retrieved 5 April 2010 
  105. ^ Ian Dunt (7 May 2009). "Muslims more patriotic than Brits". Politics. Retrieved 5 April 2010 
  106. ^ "Poll: European Muslims more patriotic than average populace". Deutsche Presse-Agentur. May 7, 2009. Retrieved 5 April 2010 
  107. ^ Nick Allen (24 February 2009). "79 per cent of Muslims say Christianity should have strong role in Britain". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 5 April 2010 
  108. ^ "Britain divided by Islam, survey finds". The Daily Telegraph (London). 11 January 2010. Retrieved 4 April 2010 
  109. ^ The Times: Fascism fears: John Denham speaks out over clashes
  110. ^ Asif Arif (8 April 2014). "Lettre ouverte aux éditeurs du "Luton on Sunday"". Huffington Post (France). Retrieved 10 April 2014. 
  111. ^ Archbishop Cranmer (8 April 2014). "UK: 'Luton on Sunday' newspaper bows to Luton Taliban". Ahmadiyya Times. Retrieved 10 April 2014. 
  112. ^ "The Luton on Sunday ‘Shuffle’ and Impacts on anti-Muslim hate". Tell Mama. 9 April 2014. Retrieved 10 April 2014. 
  113. ^ Committee, Great Britain: Parliament: House of Commons: Communities and Local Government; (Na), Not Available (2010-03-30). Preventing violent extremism: sixth report of session 2009-10. ISBN 9780215545466. Retrieved 17 September 2011. 
  114. ^ a b Allen, Chris (2010). "Fear and Loathing: the Political Discourse in Relation to Muslims and Islam in the British Contemporary Setting". Politics and Religion 4: 221–236. Retrieved 8 June 2011. 
  115. ^ a b Garland, Jon; Treadwell, James (2010). "'No Surrender to the Taliban': Football Hooliganism, Islamophobia and the Rise of the English Defence League". Papers from the British Criminology Conference 10: 19–35. Retrieved 8 June 2011. 
  116. ^ 7:41AM GMT 14 Dec 2010 (14 December 2010). "Telegraph.co.uk". London: Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 17 September 2011. 
  117. ^ Helen Carter (21 October 2010). "Guardian.co.uk". London: Guardian.co.uk. Retrieved 17 September 2011. 
  118. ^ Preventing violent extremism: sixth report of session 2009–10. Google. 2010-03-30. ISBN 9780215545466. Retrieved 17 September 2011. 
  119. ^ "English Defence League says Pastor Terry Jones will not speak at rally". The Daily Telegraph (London). 14 December 2010. 
  120. ^ Helen Carter (21 October 2010). "Inquiry: Police, anti-fascist protester". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 17 September 2011. 
  121. ^ "EDL Goons on Newsnight, part2". Newsnight. 12 October 2009. 1:26 minutes in. BBC. BBC2. http://video.aol.co.uk/video-detail/edl-goons-on-newsnight-part-2/3188268471.
  122. ^ O'Brien, Paraic (12 October 2009). "Under the skin of English Defence League". BBC Newsnight. Retrieved 21 October 2009. 
  123. ^ Maryam Namazie (5 July 2010). "Sharia, Law, religious courts". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 17 September 2011. 
  124. ^ Bracchi, Paul; Stewart, Tim (13 December 2010). "Special Investigation: English Defence League and the hooligans spreading hate on the High Street". Daily Mail (UK). Retrieved 7 November 2011. "The aim of the EDL – to counter what it perceives as the Islamification of Britain – is just a cover" 
  125. ^ "English Defence League's Bradford march banned by Theresa May". Metro. Retrieved 7 November 2011. "The right-wing campaign group, which claims to be taking a stand against what it sees as the rise of radical Islam in England, had planned to march through the streets of Bradford on 28 August." 
  126. ^ "Violence erupts at far-right march in Birmingham". Reuters. 5 September 2009. Retrieved 7 November 2011. "A little-known nationalist group calling itself the English Defence League met in the town centre to protest against what they see as Islamic militancy in Britain" 
  127. ^ Britain's fascists in a right state. Retrieved 15 June 2012.
  128. ^ Gunning (2010): p 151–152
  129. ^ Morey, Peter; Yaqin, Amina. (2011). Framing Muslims: Stereotyping and Representation After 9/11. Harvard University Press. p. 215.
  130. ^ Anonymous-linked groups publish EDL supporters' personal information. Retrieved 2 June 2013.
  131. ^ Cowan, Mark (Jun 6, 2007). "Police guard girl 'forced to become Muslim'". Birmingham Mail. Retrieved 19 August 2013. 
  132. ^ Hundal, Sunny (13 March 2007). "Where is the Hindu Forum’s evidence?". Pickled Politics. Retrieved 26 October 2013. "
    Dear Ian Blair,
    As academics teaching at British universities, we are disturbed by your recent announcement reported in the Daily Mail (22 February), Metro (23 February) and elsewhere, that the police and universities are working together to target extremist Muslims who force vulnerable teenage Hindu and Sikh girls to convert to Islam. Your statements appear to have been made on the basis of claims by the Hindu Forum of Britain who have not presented any evidence that such forced conversions are taking place. In fact the notion of forced conversions of young Hindu women to Islam is part of an arsenal of myths propagated by right-wing Hindu supremacist organisations in India and used to incite violence against minorities. For example, inflammatory leaflets referring to such conversions were in circulation before the massacres of the Muslim minority in Gujarat exactly five years ago which left approximately 2,000 dead and over 200,000 displaced.
    In our view, it is highly irresponsible to treat such allegations at face value or as representative of the views of Hindus in general. While we would condemn any type of pressure on young women to conform to religious beliefs or practices (whether of their own community or another) we can only see statements such as yours as contributing to the further stigmatising of the Muslim community as a whole and as a pretext for further assaults on civil liberties in Britain." 
  133. ^ http://www.mcb.org.uk/media/presstext.php?ann_id=242
  134. ^ "‘Hindu girls targeted by extremists’". http://metro.co.uk. 22 February 2007. 
  135. ^ Sian, Katy; University of Leeds. "'Forced' Conversions in the British Sikh Diaspora". Centre for Ethnicity & Racism Studies School of Sociology and Social Policy University of Leeds. Retrieved 14 June 2013. 
  136. ^ BBC News http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/uk/05/london_blasts/investigation/html/pakistan.stm |url= missing title (help). 
  137. ^ Nelson, Dean; Khan, Emal (22 Jan 2009). "Al-Qaeda commander linked to 2005 London bombings led attacks on Nato convoys". The Telegraph. 
  138. ^ "21 July: Attacks, escapes and arrests". BBC News. 11 July 2007. Archived from the original on 20 December 2010. 
  139. ^ Defending the Transgressed: Mudafi' al-Mazlum by Shaykh Muhammad Afifi al-Akiti Published by Living Islam. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
  140. ^ Mehdi Hasan "Islam Is A Peaceful Religion" Oxford Union debate, 28 February 2013. Video from 8:30.
  141. ^ "UN chief Ban deplores terrorism in Glasgow, London". International Herald Tribune. 1 July 2007. Retrieved 1 July 2007. 
  142. ^ "A time for vigilance". Scotland on Sunday. 1 July 2007. Archived from the original on 4 July 2007. Retrieved 6 July 2007. 
  143. ^ Kirkup, James; Macdonnell, Hamish (3 July 2007). "Airport attack nothing to do with Brown's Scottish roots, says No 10". Edinburgh: The Scotsman. Retrieved 6 July 2007. 
  144. ^ "Five Doctors Held Over Attacks". News.sky.com. Retrieved 19 November 2010. [dead link]
  145. ^ "Hospital staff stunned as doctors are questioned". The Guardian (London). 3 July 2007. Retrieved 16 July 2008. 
  146. ^ Glance at UK terror plot suspects[dead link]
  147. ^ "Glasgow suspects left suicide note". The Australian. 6 July 2007. Archived from the original on 9 July 2007. Retrieved 6 July 2007. [dead link]
  148. ^ "Glasgow Airport attack man dies". BBC News. 3 August 2007. Retrieved 16 July 2008. 
  149. ^ "Woolwich attack: Killed man 'was soldier'". BBC News. 23 May 2013. Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  150. ^ "Woolwich attack victim confirmed as serving soldier". Ministry of Defence, Prime Ministers Office, Home Office. 23 May 2013. Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  151. ^ "An atrocity in London: Return to old-style terror". The Economist. 25 May 2013. 
  152. ^ "Woolwich terrorist attack: Lee Rigby inquest begins as Queen Elizabeth pays tribute". ABC News. 1 June 2013. 
  153. ^ "Woolwich murder: With universal condemnation comes the need for wise action". The Independent (London). 29 May 2013. 
  154. ^ Dodd, Vikram (22 May 2013). "Man killed in deadly terror attack in London street". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 May 2013. 
  155. ^ Duffin, Claire (22 May 2013). "Mum talked down Woolwich terrorists who told her: 'We want to start a war in London tonight'". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  156. ^ Woolwich Suspects 'Known To Security Services', Sky, 23 May 2013
  157. ^ Smith-Spark, Laura (24 May 2013). "UK Muslim groups condemn London slaying, urge leaders to act". CNN. Retrieved 24 May 2013. 
  158. ^ "World press condemns Woolwich killing". BBC. 24 May 2013. 
  159. ^ "US in new strikes on Iraq as fellow captive says James Foley was Islamists’ ‘whipping boy’ because of brother in US Air Force". News.com.au. 22 August 2014. Retrieved 18 September 2014. 
  160. ^ Martin Chulov and Josh Halliday (20 August 2014). "British Isis militant in James Foley video 'guards foreign hostages in Syria'; Former hostage says 'John' is one of three British Islamic State jihadists who guard western captives in Raqqa". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 September 2014. 
  161. ^ McShane, Larry (21 August 2014). "ISIS jihadist who beheaded James Foley may be Londoner named John; Hostages of three ISIS British-accented militants came to call the trio 'The Beatles' — and the militants' ringleader called himself John, the Guardian reports.". New York Daily News. Retrieved 15 September 2014. 
  162. ^ Ian Drury (14 September 2014). "Experts study David Haines beheading video on hunt for Jihadi John". Mail Online. Retrieved 16 September 2014. 
  163. ^ Drury, Ian (14 September 2014). "The monster hiding behind a black mask: Intelligence experts study new beheading video in desperate hunt for Jihadi John". Daily Mail Online. Archived from the original on 15 September 2014. Retrieved 15 September 2014. 
  164. ^ James Harkin, Ian Birrell, Sharon Churcher, and Dan Bloom (23 August 2014). "British spies are on verge of identifying 'Jailer John': Ambassador to US reveals 'we are not far away' from unmasking fanatic who murdered James Foley as SAS gets ready to find him". Daily Mail Online. Retrieved 17 September 2014. 
  165. ^ "British ISIS militants are sadists they tortured us with Tasers say Ex hostages". Daily Bhaskar. Retrieved 17 September 2014. 
  166. ^ Peter Bergen (14 September 2014). "The British connection to ISIS beheadings". CNN. Retrieved 18 September 2014. 
  167. ^ "Siria, l'Isis uccide 500 persone a Raqqa". Affaritaliani (in Italian). 25 August 2014. Retrieved 17 September 2014. 
  168. ^ "Offensiva dell'Is in Siria, 500 morti. Londra: vicini a identificare il boia di Foley". La Repubblica (in Italian). 24 August 2014. Retrieved 17 September 2014. 
  169. ^ Lucy Westcott (21 August 2014). "The Search for ‘Jihadi John,’ Brutal Murderer of American Journalist James Foley". Newsweek. Retrieved 18 September 2014. 
  170. ^ "Western Europe's largest mosque opens in Morden". The Guardian (London). 2003-10-02. 
  171. ^ "ELM Newsletter 2007" (PDF). East London Mosque. Retrieved 26 July 2008. [dead link]
  172. ^ http://www.prnewswire.co.uk/cgi/news/release?id=275738
  173. ^ http://www.mertonconnected.com/MYP-conference-2009
  174. ^ http://www.ekklesia.co.uk/node/11041

External links[edit]