Islamic Republic of Iran Railways
|Railway of Islamic Republic of Iran|
Iran railway map, July 2006
|National railway||Rahahan-e Jomhori-e Eslami-e Iran|
|Major operators||RAI, Tooka rail, Samand rail,|
|Passenger km||13 billion|
|Freight||31 million tonnes|
|Total||8,160 kilometres (5,070 mi)|
|Double track||1426 km|
|Main||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in)|
|Main||25 kV 50 Hz AC|
|Tunnel length||120 m|
|Longest bridge||750 m|
|Highest elevation||2500 m|
|Lowest elevation||-20 m|
The Islamic Republic of Iran Railways (abbreviated IRIR or sometimes RAI) (Persian: شركت راه آهن جمهوری اسلامی ایران) is the national state-owned railway system of Iran. The Raja Passenger Train Company is an associate of the IR, and manages its passenger trains including international trains between Tehran and Istanbul and Tehran and Damascus. The Railway Transportation Company is an associate of the IR to manage its freight transport. The Iranian Ministry of Roads and Transportation is the state agency that oversees the IRIR. Some 33 million tons of goods and 29 million passengers are transported annually by the rail transportation network, accounting for 9 percent and 11 percent of the whole transportations in Iran (2011).
- 1 History
- 2 Fleet
- 3 Operations
- 4 Affiliate companies
- 5 Network and corridors
- 6 Railway electrification
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
In the second half of the 19th century, during the time of Nasser-al-Din Shah, a short horse-driven suburban railway was established south of Tehran that was later converted to steam. This line was closed in 1952.
World War II
The 1,392 km (865 mi) long Trans-Iranian Railway from Bandar Torkaman on the Caspian Sea to Bandar Shahpur on the Persian Gulf was opened during the reign of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1939. The railroad was built with rail weighing 67 pounds per yard (33 kg/m) and required more than 3000 bridges. There were 126 tunnels in the Zagros mountains. The longest was 1.5 miles. Grades averaged 1.5 percent south of Tehran, but then increased to 2.8 percent to cross the 7,270-foot pass between Tehran and the Caspian Sea. After the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran in 1941, this Persian Corridor became one of the supply routes for war material for the Soviet Union during World War II, (Railway trend in Iran). The British built a 75-mile (121 km) branch line from the 3000-foot (900-meter) bridge over the Karun River in Ahwaz to a new southern port at Khorramshahr on the Arvandrud River. In 1943 3,473 American soldiers of the Military Railway Service began running trains between the Persian Gulf and Caspian Sea using ALCO RS-1 locomotives rebuilt with 3-axle trucks and designated RSD-1. The Americans set up headquarters in Ahwaz, but were unable to tolerate the daytime heat, and generally operated the railway at night.
The Trans-Iranian railway traverses many mountain ranges, and is full of spirals and 1 in 36 ruling grades. Much of the terrain was unmapped when construction took place, and its geology unknown. Several stretches of line, including tunnels, were built through unsuitable geology, and had to be replaced even before the line opened. Nevertheless, the line was completed ahead of schedule.
In recent years the railways have undergone significant extensions including the 1977 linking to the western railway system at the Turkish border, the 1993 opening of the Bandar Abbas line providing better access to the sea, and the 1996 opening of the Mashad–Sarakhs extension as part of the Silk Road railway to link to the landlocked Central Asian Countries.
|Route||Length in km||Date of Construction|
|Tabriz — Jolfa||148||1912—1916|
|Zahedan — Mirjaveh||94||1920—1921|
|Tehran — Bandar Shah||461||1928—1938|
|Tehran — Bandar Shahpur||928||1928—1939|
|Ahvaz — Khorramshahr||121||1942—1943|
|Sar Bandar — Mahshahr||12||1950—1951|
|Garmsar — Mashhad||812||1938—1958|
|Tehran — Tabriz||736||1939—1959|
|Gorgan — Bandar Shah||35||1960—1961|
|Tabriz — Bazargan||192||1912—1971|
|Qom — Zarand||847||1939—1971|
|Isfahan — Zarrin Shahr||111||1969—1972|
|Zarand — Kerman||80||1975—1979|
|Bafq — Bandar-Abbas||626||1982—1995|
|Arpin — Maleki[disambiguation needed]||24||1993—1997|
|Arpin — Mohammediya-2||122||1994—1999|
|Chadormalu — Meibod||219||1992—1999|
|Мohammediya-2 — Мohammediya-1||6||1994—1999|
|Bafq — Kashmar||800||1992—2001|
|Isfahan — Shiraz||506||2009|
|Kerman - Zahedan||546||2009|
Diesel is a strategic industry, and by using this heavy oil as a fuel instead of gas for locomotives, the Islamic Republic of Iran has joined the 12 world countries which manufacture this type of engine. Kerman - Zahedan 546 2009- Was completed August 2011
In 2008, the IR operated 11,106 km of rail with a further 18,900 km in various stages of development. Almost all of this is standard gauge of 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in), but 94 km are broad gauge of 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 27⁄32 in) to link up to ex-Soviet Union border states. There is also the no-longer-isolated broad-gauge section of 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) from Zahedan to the Pakistan border that continues to Quetta and the Indian sub-continent. The extent of double-track lines is 1,082 km. The Jolfa–Tabriz line is electrified (148 km). In 2006, IR reported that it possessed 565 engines, 1,192 passenger coaches, and 16,330 wagons. The vast majority of the engines are diesel-powered.
The majority of transportation in Iran is road-based. The government plans to transport 3.5% of the passenger volume and 8.5% of the freight volume by rail. Extensive electrification is planned. The railway network expands by about 500 km per year according to the Ministry of R&T. According to plan, Iran’s railway lines are to reach 15,000 kilometers by 2015 and 25,000 kilometers by the year 2025. 5
The State Railways Company has 300 locomotives with an average lifespan of 40 years. The Islamic Republic of Iran Railways, the Iran Power Plant Projects Management (Mapna) and Germany's Siemens have signed a contract for 150 IranRunner locomotives for passenger trains. Siemens is committed to exporting to Iran some 30 locomotives in the first phase and manufacture another 120 using domestic capacities and expertise over the next six years (2007). MLC (Mapna Locomotive Engineering and Manufacturing Company) is the manufacturing company responsible for this production. Another locomotive manufacturer in Iran is Wagon Pars which builds AD43C locomotives in partnership with Iranian power plant maker DESA diesel.
- Raja Passenger Train Company is an associate of the Islamic Republic of Iran Railways (IRIR) and manages its passenger trains, including international trains linking Tehran to Istanbul and Damascus. Raja Passenger Train Company carried more than 4 million passengers during 2003-05. The number of passengers traveling by rail increased from 11.7 million in 2000 to 17.3 million in the year ending March 2005. Every passenger wagon annually carries 7,340 passengers per kilometer on average (whereas the figure is 3,950 people per kilometer in Turkey and 5,220 passengers per kilometer in Egypt). Private enterprises are expected to operate 5,000 wagons by 2009 (50% of total).
- Railway Transportation Company is also a subsidiary of the IRIR to manage its freight transport while the Ministry of Roads and Transportation is the state agency that oversees the IRIR. In Iran, for every wagon, some 1,050 tons of freight are being transported (2008). The cargo rail system between Iran, Turkey and Pakistan will begin regular operations by August 2010.
- Zarand Company provides the national railroad system with freight and passenger train carriages.
Network and corridors
The railway network converges on Tehran. The Iranian cities of Isfahan and Shiraz were linked to Tehran in 2009. Further extension of this line to Bushehr and Bandar Abbas is planned. Furthermore the construction of Chabahar-Zahedan-Mashhad railway, extending from southeast to northeast of the country to the length of 1,350 kilometers, started in 2010 with 3 billion euro credit.
The western railway extension links to Turkey at the Razi–Kapıköy border. A northern connection to Azerbaijan, the Caucasus, and Russia has a bogie-changing station at the border at Jolfa. The southern routes connect Tehran to the Persian Gulf ports of Bandar Imam and Bandar Abbas. A line to the Caspian Sea ends at the terminal of Amir Abad and at Bandar Torkaman, and is part of a North-South corridor to Russia and Scandinavia. The north-east corridor connects Mashad and continues further to the bogie-changing station at Sarakh. For the landlocked countries of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Kazakhstan; this line provides access to the sea. A recent connection from Mashad to Bafqh has significantly shortened access to the port city of Bandar Abbas.
Tehran-Mashhad with a length of 900 kilometers, Tehran-Qom-Esfahan with a length of 410 kilometers, Qazvin-Rasht-Anzali-Astara with a length of 370 kilometers will all be built with help from China at a cost of $12 billion. In total, Iran has signed a number of contracts with China for the development of 5,000 kilometres of railway lines.
Links to Republic of Azerbaijan and Armenia
Iran's first rail link to the outside world appeared simultaneously with the beginning of the country's railway system, as Iran's first major railway (1916) connected Tabriz with Jolfa on the border with the Russian Empire. The link continued its importance throughout the USSR era; Iran and the USSR signed an agreement on cross-border rail transport in 1940, and amended it in 1958. It is reported that during the late-Soviet era, some 350 railcars crossed the border at Jolfa daily, with the annual amount of cross-border freight reaching 3.5 million tons.
However, after the break-up of the USSR and the closing of the border between Armenia and Azerbaijan the Jolfa connection became a dead end, as it only links Iran with the isolated Nakhichevan exclave of the Republic of Azerbaijan.
There is presently no direct railway connection between Iran and Armenia, even though the two countries share a border. In 2009, Iran and Armenia agreed to build a railway linking Armenia with Iran’s Persian Gulf ports.
Links to Central Asia
Former states of the Soviet Union have railways using a 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 27⁄32 in) wider gauge, thus the Iranian Railways maintain break-of-gauge services at borders to Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan, and beyond brief wide-track rail segments to the border crossing.
Links to Iraq, Syria and Afghanistan
Also under construction are the Khorramshahr–Basra and the Kermanshah-Baghdad line as a link with southern and northern Iraq, and a line connecting from Mashad to Herat in Afghanistan. A line connecting the city of Torbat-Hayderiayyah to Khaf on the border with Afghanistan was also recently completed (visible on Google Earth). It is being extended to Herat in Afghanistan.
Link to Turkey, and International Standard Gauge route to Europe
In 1977, the Iranian railways linked to the western railway system at the Turkish border.
The route to the west into Turkey terminates at Van with a 90 km (56 mi) train ferry for both freight wagons and international passenger traffic (baggage car only) across Lake Van, which is at an altitude of 1,650 m (5,413 ft), to Tatvan where it joins the Turkish standard-gauge network.
Link to Pakistan
|Wikinews has related news: Pakistan to Turkey container train service launched|
The construction the railway from Bam to Zahedan was completed in early 2009 connecting Tehran to Pakistan border with an opening ceremony on 19 July 2009. However international container traffic will commence operations on 14 August 2009 with transshipment (or transloading) between 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) wide and 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge wagons in the new Zahedan Exchange Yard on the bypass line.
A recent update of Google Earth shows the complete route through difficult gorges south west of Zahedan that required 11 bridges, of which the largest bridge was 400 metres (1,312 ft) long, and 20 tunnels totalling 5,320 metres (17,454 ft). With the completion of this route, railways in South Asia and Europe were connected for the first time, using train ferries across the Bosphorus (soon to be replaced by the Marmaray Tunnel) and the Lake Van train ferry (in 2007 Turkish Railways started planning a rail route around the lake, avoiding the need for a train ferry). The Bam-Zahedan route reaches a summit of 1,800 m (5,906 ft) some 40 km (25 mi) southwest of Zahedan.
Iranian Railways have been trying to persuade Pakistan Railways to convert its route to Quetta to standard gauge, in order to facilitate the flow of international traffic to Europe. Pakistan responded in 2006 with a statement that it is to convert its network to standard gauge, and would plan a link with the standard gauge system of China. There is a transhipment yard at Zahedan.
- Afghanistan - Mashhad-Khvaf-Islam Qala railway being constructed by an Iranian firm (the line inside Afghanistan is funded by the Afghan government)
- Azerbaijan - break-of-gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in)/1,520 mm (4 ft 11 27⁄32 in)
- only via the Azerbaijani exclave Nakhchivan.
- railway link with Azerbaijan proper planned.
- Armenia - planned - break of gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in)/1,520 mm (4 ft 11 27⁄32 in)
- Iraq - part under construction, part planned.
- Pakistan - break-of-gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in)/1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) - missing link from Bam to Zahedan completed 2009.
- Turkey - via Lake Van - train ferry 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in)
- Turkmenistan - break-of-gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in)/1,520 mm (4 ft 11 27⁄32 in)
Although railway electrification in Iran was started in 1975, it was stopped for almost 30 years. A contract for electrification of the Tehran-Mashhad double-track line and the supply of 70 electric locomotives was awarded in 2009. Speeds of up to 200 km/h for locomotive-hauled passenger trains and 250 km/h for tilting EMUs will reduce existing journey times of 7.5 to 12 to less than 5 hours.
- "شرکت قطارهای مسافربری رجا" [Raja Passenger Trains Company], www.raja.ir (in Persian/English) , company website
- "News Archive", www.msedv.com, RAJA Passenger Trains Operating Company, "Passenger Trains Operating Company, RAJA, is a joint stock company affiliated to Islamic Republic of Iran's Railway Company (RAI). It was established in October 1996 as a part of RAI restructuring process, aimed at separating passenger and freight train operations management from infrastructure maintenance and development."
- Pinkepank, Jerry A. The Second Diesel Spotter's Guide 1973 Kalmbach Books p.233
- DeNevi & Hall United States Military Railway Service (1992) Boston Mills Press ISBN 1-55046-021-8 pp.8&73-77
- راه آهن ج.ا.ا
- "Rail Privatization Underway". Iran Daily. 16 December 2008.
- "Iran Manufactures 1st Express Train". Iran Daily. 3 February 2007.
- "17 Billion Euro Foreign Investment in Rail Industry". Payvand.com. Mehr News Agency. 19 August 2009.
- "Privatizing Railways". Iran Daily. 30 December 2006.
- "IRAN". Railways Africa. Retrieved 2010-12-01.
- СОГЛАШЕНИЕ О СОВЕТСКО-ИРАНСКОМ ЖЕЛЕЗНОДОРОЖНОМ СООБЩЕНИИ (МОСКВА, 20 ЯНВАРЯ 1958 Г.) (Agreement on Soviet-Iranian railway communications; Moscow, 20 January 1958)
- На торговом пути «Север — Юг» (The North-South trade route) (Russian)
- Georgia to remain vital transit route for Armenia. Quote: "However, there are no expectations that in the near future there will be a resolution of the Karabakh conflict and the railroads connecting Armenia and Azerbaijan - Yerevan-Nakhichevan-Baku and Ichevan-Baku - will begin operating."
- "Iran Iraq links". Railway Gazette International. 1 September 2005.
- Pakistan - Iran - Turkey container train
- Islamabad-Istanbul freight train to start on 14 Aug
- Passenger service
- "Iranian engineer brings roads, rail to Afghan west". Reuters. 17 April 2010.
- "Tehran - Mashhad electrification contract". Railway Gazette International. 4 March 2009.
- Official Map
- Official Website
- Ministry of transportation website
- Raja website
- North–South corridor
- Unofficial website
- 2005 update on status of Iran's railways