Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Islamic State of Iraq)
Jump to: navigation, search
"ISIL" and "ISIS" redirect here. For other uses, see ISIL (disambiguation) and ISIS (disambiguation).
Islamic State
الدولة الإسلامية (Arabic)
ad-Dawlah l-Islāmīyyah
Rayat al-`Uqab, the "Eagle Banner"; also called the black flag of jihad
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: باقية وتتمدد (Arabic)
"Bāqiyah wa-Tatamaddad" (transliteration)
"Remaining and Expanding"
As of 13 September 2014      Areas controlled by the Islamic State      Areas claimed by the Islamic State      Rest of Iraq and Syria Note: map includes uninhabited areas.
As of 13 September 2014

     Areas controlled by the Islamic State      Areas claimed by the Islamic State      Rest of Iraq and Syria

Note: map includes uninhabited areas.
Status Unrecognized state
Capital Ar-Raqqah, Syria[3][4]
35°57′N 39°1′E / 35.950°N 39.017°E / 35.950; 39.017
Government Caliphate
 -  Caliph[5] Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi/ "Ibrahim"[6][7]
 -  Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant declared 3 January 2014[8][9] 
 -  Caliphate declared 29 June 2014[5] 
Time zone Arabia Standard Time (UTC+3)
Islamic State
الدولة الإسلامية (Arabic)
Participant in the Iraq War, the Global War on Terrorism, the Iraqi insurgency, and the Syrian Civil War
Active 2004–present[10][11] (under various names)[12]
Ideology Sunni Islamism
Salafist Jihadism
Worldwide Caliphate
Headquarters Ar-Raqqah, Syria
Area of


Strength 80,000–100,000 (up to 50,000 in Syria and 30,000 in Iraq) (SOHR est.)[18][19]
20,000–31,500 (CIA est.)[20]
Part of al-Qaeda (2004[21]–2014)[22]
Originated as Flag of JTJ.svg Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad
(The Group of Monotheism and Jihad)
Al-Qaeda in Iraq
Mujahideen Shura Council
ShababFlag.svg Islamic State of Iraq



Iraq Sunni Iraqi Insurgents

Iran Iran[37]

Iraq Iraq

Iraqi KurdistanSyrian Kurdistan Kurdish forces

Assyria Assyrian forces

Syria Syria[47]

Syria Syrian Opposition[48][49][50]

United States United States (aerial operations)[52]

Lebanon Lebanon

Turkey Turkey

Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia

Indonesia Indonesia

Malaysia Malaysia

Philippines Philippines


and wars

The Islamic State (IS; Arabic: الدولة الإسلاميةad-Dawlah l-ʾIslāmiyyah), previously calling itself the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL /ˈsəl/) or the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS /ˈsɪs/; Arabic: الدولة الإسلامية في العراق والشام‎), and also known by the Arabic acronym Daʿesh (داعش),[a] is an unrecognized state and a Sunni jihadist group active in Iraq and Syria in the Middle East. In its self-proclaimed status as a caliphate, it claims religious authority over all Muslims across the world[71] and aspires to bring most of the Muslim-inhabited regions of the world under its political control[72] beginning with territory in the Levant region which includes Jordan, Israel, Palestine, Lebanon, Cyprus and part of southern Turkey.[73]

The group has been described by the United Nations,[74] Israel,[75] the Philippines[23] and Western and Middle Eastern media as a terrorist group and has been designated a foreign terrorist organization by the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, Indonesia and Saudi Arabia. The United Nations and Amnesty International have accused the group of grave human rights abuses.

The Islamic State, also widely known as ISIS, ISIL and Daʿesh,[76] originated as Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad in 1999. This group was the forerunner of Tanzim Qaidat al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn—commonly known as al-Qaeda in Iraq (AQI)—a group formed by Abu Musab Al Zarqawi in 2004 which took part in the Iraqi insurgency against American-led forces and their Iraqi allies following the 2003 invasion of Iraq. During the 2003–2011 Iraq War, it joined other Sunni insurgent groups to form the Mujahideen Shura Council, which consolidated further into the Islamic State of Iraq (ISI) (/ˈsɪ/) shortly afterwards.[77] At its height it enjoyed a significant presence in the Iraqi governorates of Al Anbar, Nineveh, Kirkuk, most of Salah ad Din, parts of Babil, Diyala and Baghdad, and claimed Baqubah as a capital city.[78][79][80][81] However, the violent attempts by the Islamic State of Iraq to govern its territory led to a backlash from Sunni Iraqis and other insurgent groups in around 2008 which helped to propel the Awakening movement and a temporary decline in the group.[77][82]

As ISIS, the group grew significantly under the leadership of Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, gaining support in Iraq as a result of alleged economic and political discrimination against Iraqi Sunnis. Then, after entering the Syrian Civil War, it established a large presence in the Syrian governorates of Ar-Raqqah, Idlib, Deir ez-Zor and Aleppo.[83] In June 2014, it had at least 4,000 fighters in its ranks in Iraq.[84] It has claimed responsibility for attacks on government and military targets and for attacks that killed thousands of civilians.[85] In August 2014, the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights claimed that the number of fighters in the group had increased to 50,000 in Syria and 30,000 in Iraq,[18] while the CIA estimated in September 2014 that in both countries it had between 20,000 and 31,500 fighters.[20] ISIS had close links to al-Qaeda until February 2014 when, after an eight-month power struggle, al-Qaeda cut all ties with the group, reportedly for its brutality and "notorious intractability".[86][87]

The group's original aim was to establish an Islamic state in the Sunni-majority regions of Iraq, and following ISIS's involvement in the Syrian Civil War this expanded to include controlling Sunni-majority areas of Syria.[88] A caliphate was proclaimed on 29 June 2014, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi—now known as Amir al-Mu'minin Caliph Ibrahim—was named as its caliph, and the group was renamed the Islamic State.[5]


The group has had a number of different names since it was formed, including some names that other groups use for it.[10]

Index of names

Links are to names in "History of names".

  • al-Dawlah ("the State")
  • al-Dawlat al-Islāmīyah ("the Islamic State")
  • AQI : Al-Qaeda in Iraq : Tanẓīm Qāʻidat al-Jihād fī Bilād al-Rāfidayn
  • DAʿESH/Daʿesh (variously transliterated: DAISH/Daish, DAASH/Daash, DAESH/Daesh, DA'ASH/Da'ash, DAAS/Daas, DA'ISH/Da'ish, DĀ'ASH/Dā'ash, DAIISH/Daiish, based on the acronym: داعش)
  • IS : Islamic State
  • ISI : Islamic State of Iraq : Dawlat al-ʻIraq al-Islāmīyah
  • ISIL : Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant
  • ISIS : Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham
  • Islamic State (name since June 2014)
  • JTJ : Jamāʻat al-Tawḥīd wa-al-Jihād : The Organization of Monotheism and Jihad
  • Mujahideen Shura Council
  • QSIS : Al-Qaeda Separatists in Iraq and Syria

History of names

The group was founded in early 1999 by Abu Musab al-Zarqawi under the name Jamāʻat al-Tawḥīd wa-al-Jihād, "The Organization of Monotheism and Jihad" (JTJ).[77]

In October 2004, al-Zarqawi swore loyalty to Osama bin Laden and changed the name of the group to Tanẓīm Qāʻidat al-Jihād fī Bilād al-Rāfidayn, "The Organization of Jihad's Base in the Country of the Two Rivers" or "The Organization of Jihad's Base in Mesopotamia", more commonly known as "Al-Qaeda in Iraq" (AQI).[10][89] Although the group has never called itself "Al-Qaeda in Iraq", this name has frequently been used to describe it through its various incarnations.[12]

In January 2006, AQI merged with several smaller Iraqi insurgent groups under an umbrella organization called the "Mujahideen Shura Council". This was claimed to be little more than a media exercise and an attempt to give the group a more Iraqi flavour and perhaps to distance al-Qaeda from some of al-Zarqawi's tactical errors, notably the 2005 bombings by AQI of three hotels in Amman.[90] Al-Zarqawi was killed in June 2006, after which the group's direction shifted again.

On 12 October 2006, the Mujahideen Shura Council joined four more insurgent factions and the representatives of a number of Iraqi Arab tribes, and together they swore the traditional Arab oath of allegiance known as Ḥilf al-Muṭayyabīn ("Oath of the Scented Ones").[b][91][92] During the ceremony, the participants swore to free Iraq's Sunnis from what they described as Shia and foreign oppression, and to further the name of Allah and restore Islam to glory.[c][91]

On 13 October 2006, the establishment of the Dawlat al-ʻIraq al-Islāmīyah, "Islamic State of Iraq" (ISI) was announced.[10][93] A cabinet was formed and Abu Abdullah al-Rashid al-Baghdadi became ISI's figurehead emir, with the real power residing with the Egyptian Abu Ayyub al-Masri.[94] The declaration was met with hostile criticism, not only from ISI's jihadist rivals in Iraq, but from leading jihadist ideologues outside the country.[95] Al-Baghdadi and al-Masri were both killed in a US–Iraqi operation in April 2010. The next leader of the ISI was Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, the current leader of ISIS.

On 8 April 2013, having expanded into Syria, the group adopted the name "Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant", also known as "Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham."[96][97][98] The name is abbreviated as ISIL or alternately ISIS. The final "S" in the acronym ISIS stems from the Arabic word Shām (or Shaam), which in the context of global jihad—as in Jund al-Sham, for example—refers to the Levant or Greater Syria.[99][100] ISIS was also known as al-Dawlah ("the State"), or al-Dawlat al-Islāmīyah ("the Islamic State"). These are short-forms of the name "Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham" in Arabic.[101]

The name "Daʿesh" (pronounced "Daʔesh" and transliterated as "Dāʿesh") is used particularly by ISIS's detractors such as those in Syria. The term based on the Arabic letters, Dāl, ʾAlif, ʿAyn and Šīn(Shin), which form the acronym (داعش) of the Arabic name translated as, "the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant" (al-Dawla al-Islamiya fi Iraq wa ash-Sham).[102][103] The group considers the term derogatory and reportedly uses flogging as a punishment for people who use the acronym in ISIS-controlled areas.[104][105]

On 14 May 2014, the United States Department of State announced its decision to use "Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant" (ISIL) as the group's primary name.[103] Which of these acronyms should be used to designate the group, ISIL or ISIS, has been discussed by several commentators.[100][101]

On 29 June 2014, the establishment of a new caliphate was announced, and the group formally changed its name to the "Islamic State" (IS).[5][106][107][d]

In late August 2014, a leading Islamic authority Dar al-Ifta al-Misriyyah in Egypt advised Muslims to stop calling the group "Islamic State" and instead refer to it as "Al-Qaeda Separatists in Iraq and Syria" or "QSIS", because of the militant group's un-Islamic character.[109][110]

Ideology and beliefs

ISIS is a Sunni extremist group that follows al-Qaeda's hard-line ideology and adheres to global jihadist principles.[111][112] Like al-Qaeda and many other modern-day jihadist groups, ISIS emerged from the ideology of the Muslim Brotherhood, the world’s first Islamist group dating back to the late 1920s in Egypt.[113] ISIS follows an extreme anti-Western interpretation of Islam, promotes religious violence and regards those who do not agree with its interpretations as infidels or apostates. Concurrently, ISIS—now IS—aims to establish a Salafist-orientated Islamist state in Iraq, Syria and other parts of the Levant.[112]

ISIS's ideology originates in the branch of modern Islam that aims to return to the early days of Islam, rejecting later "innovations" in the religion which it believes corrupt its original spirit. It condemns later caliphates and the Ottoman Empire for deviating from what it calls pure Islam and hence has been attempting to establish its own caliphate.[114] However, some Sunni commentators, including Salafi and jihadi muftis such as Adnan al-Aroor and Abu Basir al-Tartusi, say that ISIS and related terrorist groups are not Sunnis, but modern-day Kharijites—Muslims who have stepped outside the mainstream of Islam—serving an imperial anti-Islamic agenda.[115][116][117][118] Other critics of ISIS's brand of Sunni Islam include Salafists who previously publicly supported jihadist groups such as al-Qaeda, for example the Saudi government official Saleh Al-Fawzan who claims that ISIS is a creation of “Zionists, Crusaders and Safavids”, and the Jordanian-Palestinian writer Abu Muhammad al-Maqdisi who was released from prison in Jordan in June 2014.[118]

Salafists such as ISIS believe that only a legitimate authority can undertake the leadership of jihad, and that the first priority over other areas of combat, such as fighting non-Muslim countries, is the purification of Islamic society. For example, when it comes to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, since ISIS regards the Palestinian Sunni group Hamas as apostates who have no legitimate authority to lead jihad, it regards fighting Hamas as the first step toward confrontation with Israel.[119][120]


Since 2004, the group's goal has been the foundation of an Islamic state in the Levant.[121][122] Specifically, ISIS sought the establishment of a caliphate, a type of Islamic state led by a group of religious authorities under a supreme leader—caliph—who is believed to be the successor to Mohammed.[123] In June 2014, ISIS published a document which it claimed linked ISIS's leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi to the prophet.[123] That same month, ISIS removed "Iraq and the Levant" from its name and began to refer to itself as the Islamic State, declaring the territory that it occupied in Iraq and Syria a new caliphate and naming al-Baghdadi as its caliph.[5] By declaring a caliphate, al-Baghdadi was demanding the allegiance of all devout Muslims according to Islamic jurisprudence—fiqh.[124] ISIS has also stated: "The legality of all emirates, groups, states and organizations becomes null by the expansion of the khilafah's [caliphate's] authority and arrival of its troops to their areas."[123] ISIS thus rejects the political divisions established by Western powers at the end of World War I in the Sykes–Picot Agreement as it absorbs territory in Syria and Iraq.[125][126][127]

Territorial claims

On 13 October 2006, the group announced the establishment of the Islamic State of Iraq, which claimed authority over the Iraqi governorates of Baghdad, Anbar, Diyala, Kirkuk, Salah al-Din, Nineveh and parts of Babil.[93] Following the 2013 expansion of the group into Syria and the announcement of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, the number of wilayah—provinces—which it claimed increased to 16. In addition to the seven Iraqi wilayah, the Syrian divisions, largely lying along existing provincial boundaries, are Al Barakah, Al Kheir, Ar-Raqqah, Al Badiya, Halab, Idlib, Hama, Damascus and the Coast.[128] After taking control of both sides of the border in mid-2014, ISIS created a new province incorporating both Syrian territory around Albu Kamal and Iraqi territory around Qaim. This new wilayah was designated al-Furat.[129] In Syria, ISIS's seat of power is in Ar-Raqqah Governorate. Top ISIS leaders, including Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, are known to have visited its provincial capital, Ar-Raqqah.[128]


British security expert Frank Gardner concluded that the group's prospects of maintaining control and rule were greater in 2014 than they had been in 2006. Despite being as brutal as before, ISIS has become "well entrenched" among the population and is not likely to be dislodged by ineffective Syrian or Iraqi forces. It has replaced corrupt governance with functioning locally-controlled authorities. Services have been restored and there are adequate supplies of water and oil. With Western-backed intervention being unlikely, the group will "continue to hold their ground" and rule an area "the size of Pennsylvania for the foreseeable future", he said.[130][131]

Ar-Raqqah in Syria is the de facto capital of the Islamic State. It is said to be a "test case" or "show case" of ISIS governance.[132] As of September 2014, governance in Ar-Raqqah is under the total control of ISIS, where it has rebuilt the structure of modern government in less than a year. Former government workers from the Assad regime maintain their jobs after pledging allegiance to ISIS. Institutions, restored and restructured, are providing services. The Ar-Raqqah dam continues to provide electricity and water. Foreign expertise supplements Syrian officials in running civilian institutions. Only the police and soldiers are ISIS fighters, who receive confiscated lodging previously owned by non-Sunnis and others who fled. Welfare services are provided, price controls established, and taxes imposed on the wealthy. Exporting oil from oilfields that it has captured brings in tens of millions of dollars.[131][133] ISIS runs a soft power program in the areas under its control in Iraq and Syria, which includes social services, religious lectures and da'wah—proselytizing—to local populations. It also performs public services such as repairing roads and maintaining the electricity supply.[134]


After significant setbacks for the group during the latter stages of the coalition forces' presence in Iraq, by late 2012 it was thought to have renewed its strength and more than doubled the number of its members to about 2,500,[135] and since its formation in April 2013, ISIS grew rapidly in strength and influence in Iraq and Syria. In June 2014, The Economist reported that "ISIS may have up to 6,000 fighters in Iraq and 3,000–5,000 in Syria, including perhaps 3,000 foreigners; nearly a thousand are reported to hail from Chechnya and perhaps 500 or so more from France, Britain and elsewhere in Europe".[136] Chechen fighter Abu Omar al-Shishani, for example, was made commander of the northern sector of ISIS in Syria in 2013.[137][138] According to The New York Times, among ISIS's foreign fighters there are more than 100 Americans.[139]

Analysts have underlined the deliberate inflammation of sectarian conflict between Iraqi Shias and Sunnis during the Iraq War by various Sunni and Shia players as the root cause of ISIS's rise. The post-invasion policies of the international coalition forces have also been cited as a factor, with Fanar Haddad, a research fellow at the National University of Singapore's Middle East Institute, blaming the coalition forces during the Iraq War for "enshrining identity politics as the key marker of Iraqi politics".[140]

By 2014, ISIS was increasingly being viewed as a militia rather than a terrorist group by some organizations.[141] As major Iraqi cities fell to al-Baghdadi's cohorts in June, Jessica Lewis, a former US army intelligence officer at the Institute for the Study of War, described ISIS as "not a terrorism problem anymore", but rather "an army on the move in Iraq and Syria, and they are taking terrain. They have shadow governments in and around Baghdad, and they have an aspirational goal to govern. I don't know whether they want to control Baghdad, or if they want to destroy the functions of the Iraqi state, but either way the outcome will be disastrous for Iraq." Lewis has called ISIS "an advanced military leadership". She said, "They have incredible command and control and they have a sophisticated reporting mechanism from the field that can relay tactics and directives up and down the line. They are well-financed, and they have big sources of manpower, not just the foreign fighters, but also prisoner escapees."[141]

According to the Institute for the Study of War, ISIS's 2013 annual report reveals a metrics-driven military command, which is "a strong indication of a unified, coherent leadership structure that commands from the top down".[142] Middle East Forum's Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi said, "They are highly skilled in urban guerrilla warfare while the new Iraqi Army simply lacks tactical competence."[141] Seasoned observers point to systemic corruption within the Iraq Army, it being little more than a system of patronage, and have attributed to this its spectacular collapse as ISIS and its allies took over large swaths of Iraq in June 2014.[143]

While officials fear ISIS may either inspire attacks in the United States by sympathizers or those returning after joining ISIS, American intelligence agencies find there is no immediate threat or specific plots. Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel sees an “imminent threat to every interest we have.” Daniel Benjamin, former top counterterrorism adviser, derides such alarmist talk as a “farce” that panics the public.[144]

Hillary Clinton has stated: "The failure to help build up a credible fighting force of the people who were the originators of the protests against Assad—there were Islamists, there were secularists, there was everything in the middle—the failure to do that left a big vacuum, which the jihadists have now filled."[145]

Propaganda and social media

The logo of Al-Hayat Media Center

ISIS is also known for its effective use of propaganda.[146] In November 2006, shortly after the creation of the Islamic State of Iraq, the group established the al-Furqan Institute for Media Production, which produces CDs, DVDs, posters, pamphlets, and web-related propaganda products.[147] ISIS's main media outlet is the I'tisaam Media Foundation,[148] which was formed in March 2013 and distributes through the Global Islamic Media Front (GIMF).[149] In 2014, ISIS established the Al Hayat Media Center, which targets a Western audience and produces material in English, German, Russian and French.[150][151] In 2014 it also launched the Ajnad Media Foundation, which releases jihadist audio chants.[152]

In July 2014, ISIS began publishing a digital magazine called Dabiq in multiple languages, including English. According to the magazine, its name is taken from the town in northern Syria, which is mentioned in a hadith about Armageddon.[153] Harleen K. Gambhir, of the Institute for the Study of War, found that while al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula's Inspire magazine focused on encouraging its readers to carry out lone-wolf attacks on the West, Dabiq is more concerned with establishing the religious legitimacy of ISIS and its self-proclaimed caliphate, and encouraging Muslims to emigrate there.[154]

ISIS's use of social media has been described by one expert as "probably more sophisticated than [that of] most US companies".[155][156] It regularly takes advantage of social media, particularly Twitter, to distribute its message by organizing hashtag campaigns, encouraging Tweets on popular hashtags, and utilizing software applications that enable ISIS propaganda to be distributed to its supporters' accounts.[157] Another comment is that "ISIS puts more emphasis on social media than other jihadi groups. ... They have a very coordinated social media presence."[158] In August 2014, Twitter administrators shut down a number of accounts associated with ISIS. ISIS recreated and publicized new accounts the next day, which were also shut down by Twitter administrators.[159] The group has attempted to branch out into alternative social media sites, such as Quitter, Friendica and Diaspora; Quitter and Friendica, however, almost immediately worked to remove ISIS's presence from their sites.[160] ISIS released some special videos to influence Muslim youths in the Indian subcontinent. Reportedly two youths from Thane and four from Mumbai joined ISIS from India.[161] After finding this to be a genuine report the Indian Government has introduced measures to stop youths joining ISIS[citation needed]. Four youths from Hyderabad were caught in Kolkata while flying to Syria to join ISIS.

On 19 August 2014, a propaganda video showing the beheading of US photojournalist James Foley was posted on the Internet. ISIS claimed that the killing had been carried out in revenge for the US bombing of ISIS targets. The video promised that a second captured US journalist Steven Sotloff would be killed next if the airstrikes continued.[162] On 2 September 2014, ISIS released a video purportedly showing their beheading of Sotloff.[163] In the video the executioner says, "I'm back, Obama, and I'm back because of your arrogant foreign policy towards the Islamic State, because of your insistence on continuing your bombings and on Mosul Dam, despite our serious warnings. So just as your missiles continue to strike our people, our knife will continue to strike the necks of your people." [164] The next scene shows the same executioner holding the orange jumpsuit of another prisoner, and saying "We take this opportunity to warn those governments that enter this evil alliance of America against the Islamic State to back off and leave our people alone."[164][165] On 13 September 2014, ISIS released another similar video purportedly depicting the beheading of David C. Haines, a British aid worker they had been holding hostage.[166]


A study of 200 documents—personal letters, expense reports and membership rosters—captured from Al-Qaeda in Iraq and the Islamic State of Iraq was carried out by the RAND Corporation in 2014.[167] It found that from 2005 until 2010, outside donations amounted to only 5% of the group’s operating budgets, with the rest being raised within Iraq.[167] In the time-period studied, cells were required to send up to 20% of the income generated from kidnapping, extortion rackets and other activities to the next level of the group's leadership. Higher-ranking commanders would then redistribute the funds to provincial or local cells that were in difficulties or needed money to conduct attacks.[167] The records show that the Islamic State of Iraq was dependent on members from Mosul for cash, which the leadership used to provide additional funds to struggling militants in Diyala, Salahuddin and Baghdad.[167]

In mid-2014, Iraqi intelligence extracted information from an ISIS operative which revealed that the organization had assets worth US$2 billion,[168] making it the richest jihadist group in the world.[169] About three quarters of this sum is said to be represented by assets seized after the group captured Mosul in June 2014; this includes possibly up to US$429 million looted from Mosul's central bank, along with additional millions and a large quantity of gold bullion stolen from a number of other banks in Mosul.[170][171] However, doubt was later cast on whether ISIS was able to retrieve anywhere near that sum from the central bank,[172] and even on whether the bank robberies had actually occurred.[173]

ISIS has routinely practised extortion, by demanding money from truck drivers and threatening to blow up businesses, for example. Robbing banks and gold shops has been another source of income.[174] The group is widely reported as receiving funding from private donors in the Gulf states,[175][176] and both Iran and Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki have accused Saudi Arabia and Qatar of funding ISIS,[177][178][179][180] although there is reportedly no evidence that this is the case.[180][181][182][183]

The group is also believed to receive considerable funds from its operations in Eastern Syria, where it has commandeered oilfields and engages in smuggling out raw materials and archaeological artifacts.[184][185] ISIS also generates revenue from producing crude oil and selling electric power in northern Syria. Some of this electricity is reportedly sold back to the Syrian government.[186]

Since 2012, ISIS has produced annual reports giving numerical information on its operations, somewhat in the style of corporate reports, seemingly in a bid to encourage potential donors.[155][187]


The most common weapons used against US and other Coalition forces during the Iraq insurgency were those taken from Saddam Hussein's weapon stockpiles around the country, these included AKM variant assault rifles, PK machine guns and RPG-7s.[188] ISIS has been able to strengthen its military capability by capturing large quantities and varieties of weaponry during the Syrian Civil War and Post-US Iraq insurgency. These weapons seizures have improved the group's capacity to carry out successful subsequent operations and obtain more equipment.[189] Weaponry that ISIS has reportedly captured and employed include SA-7[190] and Stinger[191] surface-to-air missiles, M79 Osa, HJ-8[192] and AT-4 Spigot[190] anti-tank weapons, Type 59 field guns[192] and M198 howitzers,[193] Humvees, T-54/55, T-72, and M1 Abrams[194]main battle tanks,[192] M1117 armoured cars,[195] truck mounted DShK guns,[190] ZU-23-2 anti-aircraft guns,[196][197] BM-21 Grad multiple rocket launchers[189] and at least one Scud missile.[198]

When ISIS captured Mosul Airport in June 2014, it seized a number of UH-60 Blackhawk helicopters and cargo planes that were stationed there.[199][200] However, according to Peter Beaumont of The Guardian, it seemed unlikely that ISIS would be able to deploy them.[201]

ISIS captured nuclear materials from Mosul University in July 2014. In a letter to UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, Iraq's UN Ambassador Mohamed Ali Alhakim said that the materials had been kept at the university and "can be used in manufacturing weapons of mass destruction". Nuclear experts regarded the threat as insignificant. International Atomic Energy Agency spokeswoman Gill Tudor said that the seized materials were "low grade and would not present a significant safety, security or nuclear proliferation risk".[202][203]


As Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad, Al-Qaeda in Iraq and Mujahideen Shura Council (1999-2005)

Following the 2003 US-led invasion of Iraq, the Jordanian Salafi Jihadist Abu Musab al-Zarqawi and his militant group Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad, founded in 1999, achieved notoriety in the early stages of the Iraq insurgency, by not just carrying out attacks on coalition forces but also conducting suicide attack on civilian targets and beheading hostages.[77][204] Al-Zarqawi’s group grew in strength and attracted more fighters, and in October 2004 it officially pledged allegiance to Osama bin Laden's al-Qaeda network, changing its name to Tanzim Qaidat al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn (تنظيم قاعدة الجهاد في بلاد الرافدين, "Organization of Jihad's Base in Mesopotamia"), also known as Al-Qaeda in Iraq (AQI).[21][205][206] Attacks by the group against civilians, the Iraqi Government and security forces continued to increase in the next two years—see list of major resistance attacks in Iraq.[207] In a letter to al-Zarqawi in July 2005, Ayman al-Zawahiri outlined a four-stage plan to expand the Iraq War, which included expelling US forces from Iraq, establishing an Islamic authority—a caliphate—spreading the conflict to Iraq's secular neighbors, and engaging in the Arab–Israeli conflict.[208]

On 7 June 2006, al-Zarqawi was killed in an American airstrike and was succeeded as AQI's leader by the Egyptian militant Abu Ayyub al-Masri.[209][210] On 13 October 2006, the Mujahideen Shura Council (MSC), an umbrella organisation of AQI and other insurgent groups, declared the establishment of the Islamic State of Iraq (ISI), comprising Iraq's six mostly Sunni Arab governorates, with Abu Omar al-Baghdadi being announced as the self-proclaimed state's Emir.[93][207] Al-Masri was given the title of Minister of War within the ISI's ten-member cabinet.[211] According to a study compiled by US intelligence agencies in early 2007, the ISI planned to seize power in the central and western areas of the country and turn it into a Sunni Islamic state.[212]

As Islamic State of Iraq (2006–2013)

Strength and activity

US Marines in Ramadi, May 2006. The Islamic State of Iraq had declared the city to be its capital.

In 2006, the State Department's Bureau of Intelligence and Research estimated that Al-Qaeda in Iraq's core membership was "more than 1,000".[213] These figures do not include the other six[214][irrelevant citation] AQI-led Salafi groups in the Islamic State of Iraq. In 2007, estimates of the group's strength ranged from just 850 to several thousand full-time fighters.[213][215] The group was said to be suffering high manpower losses, including those from its many "martyrdom" operations, but for a long time this appeared to have little effect on its strength and capabilities, implying a constant flow of volunteers from Iraq and abroad. However, Al-Qaeda in Iraq more than doubled in strength, from 1,000 to 2,500 fighters, after the US withdrawal from Iraq in late 2011.[216]

In 2007, some observers and scholars suggested that the threat posed by AQI was being exaggerated and that a "heavy focus on al-Qaeda obscures a much more complicated situation on the ground".[217][218] According to National Intelligence Estimate and Defense Intelligence Agency reports in July 2007, AQI accounted for 15% percent of attacks in Iraq. However, the Congressional Research Service noted in its September 2007 report that attacks from al-Qaeda were less than 2% of the violence in Iraq. It criticized the Bush administration's statistics, noting that its false reporting of insurgency attacks as AQI attacks had increased since the surge operations began in 2007.[213][219] In March 2007, the US-sponsored Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty analyzed AQI attacks for that month and concluded that the group had taken credit for 43 out of 439 attacks on Iraqi security forces and Shia militias, and 17 out of 357 attacks on US troops.[213]

According to a US Government report in 2006, this group was most clearly associated with foreign jihadist cells operating in Iraq and had specifically targeted international forces and Iraqi citizens; most of Al-Qaeda in Iraq (AQI)'s operatives were not Iraqi, but were coming through a series of safe houses, the largest of which was on the Iraq–Syria border. AQI's operations were predominately Iraq-based, but the United States Department of State alleged that the group maintained an extensive logistical network throughout the Middle East, North Africa, South Asia and Europe.[220] In a CNN special report in June 2008, Al-Qaeda in Iraq was called "a well-oiled … organization … almost as pedantically bureaucratic as was Saddam Hussein's Ba'ath Party", collecting new execution videos long after they stopped publicising them, and having a network of spies even in the US military bases. According to the report, Iraqis—many of them former members of Hussein's secret services—were now effectively running Al-Qaeda in Iraq, with "foreign fighters' roles" seeming to be "mostly relegated to the cannon fodder of suicide attacks", although the organization's top leadership was still dominated by non-Iraqis.[221]


The high-profile attacks linked to the group continued through early 2007, as AQI claimed responsibility for attacks such as the March assassination attempt on Sunni Deputy Prime Minister of Iraq Salam al-Zaubai, the April Iraqi Parliament bombing, and the May capture and subsequent execution of three American soldiers. Also in May, ISI leader al-Baghdadi was declared to have been killed in Baghdad, but his death was later denied by the insurgents; later, al-Baghdadi was even declared by the US to be non-existent. There were conflicting reports regarding the fate of al-Masri. From March to August, coalition forces fought the Battle of Baqubah as part of the largely successful attempts to wrest the Diyala Governorate from AQI-aligned forces. Through 2007, the majority of suicide bombings targeting civilians in Iraq were routinely identified by military and government sources as being the responsibility of al-Qaeda and its associated groups, even when there was no claim of responsibility, as was the case in the 2007 Yazidi communities bombings, which killed some 800 people in the deadliest terrorist attack in Iraq to date.

By late 2007, violent and indiscriminate attacks directed by rogue AQI elements against Iraqi civilians had severely damaged their image and caused loss of support among the population, thus isolating the group. In a major blow to AQI, many former Sunni militants who had previously fought alongside the group started to work with the American forces (see also below). The US troops surge supplied the military with more manpower for operations targeting the group, resulting in dozens of high-level AQI members being captured or killed.[222] Al-Qaeda seemed to have lost its foothold in Iraq and appeared to be severely crippled.[223] Accordingly, the bounty issued for al-Masri was eventually cut from $5 million to $100,000 in April 2008.[224]

As of 2008, a series of US and Iraqi offensives managed to drive out the AQI-aligned insurgents from their former safe havens, such as the Diyala and Al Anbar governorates and the embattled capital of Baghdad, to the area of the northern city of Mosul, the latest of the Iraq War's major battlegrounds.[224] The struggle for control of Ninawa Governorate—the Ninawa campaign—was launched in January 2008 by US and Iraqi forces as part of the large-scale Operation Phantom Phoenix, which was aimed at combating al-Qaeda activity in and around Mosul, and finishing off the network's remnants in central Iraq that had escaped Operation Phantom Thunder in 2007. In Baghdad a pet market was bombed in February 2008 and a shopping centre was bombed in March 2008, killing at least 98 and 68 people respectively; AQI were the suspected perpetrators.

US soldiers and Sunni Arab tribesmen scan for enemy activity in a farm field in southern Arab Jibor, January 2008

AQI has long raised money, running into tens of millions of dollars, from kidnappings for ransom, car theft—sometimes killing drivers in the process—hijacking fuel trucks and other activities.[224] According to an April 2007 statement by their Islamic Army in Iraq rivals, AQI was demanding jizya tax and killing members of wealthy families when it was not paid.[225] According to both US and Iraqi sources, in May 2008 AQI was stepping up its fundraising campaigns as its strictly militant capabilities were on the wane, with especially lucrative activity said to be oil operations centered on the industrial city of Bayji. According to US military intelligence sources, in 2008 the group resembled a "Mafia-esque criminal gang".[224]

Conflicts with other groups

The first reports of a split and even armed clashes between Al-Qaeda in Iraq and other Sunni groups date back to 2005.[226][227] In the summer of 2006, local Sunni tribes and insurgent groups, including the prominent Islamist-nationalist group Islamic Army in Iraq (IAI), began to speak of their dissatisfaction with al-Qaeda and its tactics,[228] openly criticizing the foreign fighters for their deliberate targeting of Iraqi civilians. In September 2006, 30 Anbar tribes formed their own local alliance called the Anbar Salvation Council (ASC), which was directed specifically at countering al-Qaeda-allied terrorist forces in the province,[229][230] and they openly sided with the government and the US troops.[231]

By the beginning of 2007, Sunni tribes and nationalist insurgents had begun battling with their former allies in AQI in order to retake control of their communities.[232] In early 2007, forces allied to Al-Qaeda in Iraq committed a series of attacks on Sunnis critical of the group, including the February 2007 attack in which scores of people were killed when a truck bomb exploded near a Sunni mosque in Fallujah.[233] Al-Qaeda supposedly played a role in the assassination of the leader of the Anbar-based insurgent group 1920 Revolution Brigade, the military wing of the Islamic Resistance Movement.[234] In April 2007, the IAI spokesman accused the ISI of killing at least 30 members of the IAI, as well as members of the Jamaat Ansar al-Sunna and Mujahideen Army insurgent groups, and called on Osama bin Laden to intervene personally to rein in Al-Qaeda in Iraq.[225][235] The following month, the government announced that AQI leader al-Masri had been killed by ASC fighters.[210][236] Four days later, AQI released an audio tape in which a man claiming to be al-Masri warned Sunnis not to take part in the political process; he also said that reports of internal fighting between Sunni militia groups were "lies and fabrications".[237] Later in May, the US forces announced the release of dozens of Iraqis who were tortured by AQI as a part of the group's intimidation campaign.[238]

By June 2007, the growing hostility between foreign-influenced jihadists and Sunni nationalists had led to open gun battles between the groups in Baghdad.[239][240] The Islamic Army soon reached a ceasefire agreement with AQI, but refused to sign on to the ISI.[241] There were reports that Hamas of Iraq insurgents were involved in assisting US troops in their Diyala Governorate operations against Al-Qaeda in August 2007. In September 2007, AQI claimed responsibility for the assassination of three people including the prominent Sunni sheikh Abdul Sattar Abu Risha, leader of the Anbar "Awakening council". That same month, a suicide attack on a mosque in the city of Baqubah killed 28 people, including members of Hamas of Iraq and the 1920 Revolution Brigade, during a meeting at the mosque between tribal and guerilla leaders and the police.[242] Meanwhile, the US military began arming moderate insurgent factions when they promised to fight Al-Qaeda in Iraq instead of the Americans.[243]

By December 2007, the strength of the "Awakening" movement irregulars—also called "Concerned Local Citizens" and "Sons of Iraq"—was estimated at 65,000–80,000 fighters.[244] Many of them were former insurgents, including alienated former AQI supporters, and they were now being armed and paid by the Americans specifically to combat al-Qaeda's presence in Iraq. As of July 2007, this highly controversial strategy proved to be effective in helping to secure the Sunni districts of Baghdad and the other hotspots of central Iraq, and to root out the al-Qaeda-aligned militants.

By 2008, the ISI was describing itself as being in a state of "extraordinary crisis",[245] which was attributable to a number of factors,[246] notably the Anbar Awakening.

Transformation and resurgence

In early 2009, US forces began pulling out of cities across the country, turning over the task of maintaining security to the Iraqi Army, the Iraqi Police Service and their paramilitary allies. Experts and many Iraqis were worried that in the absence of US soldiers the ISI might resurface and attempt mass-casualty attacks to destabilize the country.[247] There was indeed a spike in the number of suicide attacks,[248] and through mid- and late 2009, the ISI rebounded in strength and appeared to be launching a concerted effort to cripple the Iraqi government.[249] During August and October 2009, the ISI claimed responsibility for four bombings targeting five government buildings in Baghdad, including attacks that killed 101 at the ministries of Foreign Affairs and Finance in August and 155 at the Ministry of Justice and Ministry of Municipalities and Public Works in September; these were the deadliest attacks directed at the new government in more than six years of war. These attacks represented a shift away from the group's previous efforts to incite sectarian violence, although a series of suicide attacks in April targeted mainly Iranian Shia pilgrims, killing 76, and in June, a mosque bombing in Taza killed at least 73 Shias from the Turkmen ethnic minority.

In late 2009, the commander of the US forces in Iraq, General Ray Odierno, stated that the ISI "has transformed significantly in the last two years. What once was dominated by foreign individuals has now become more and more dominated by Iraqi citizens". Odierno's comments reinforced accusations by the government of Nouri al-Maliki that al-Qaeda and ex-Ba'athists were working together to undermine improved security and sabotage the planned Iraqi parliamentary elections in 2010.[250] On 18 April 2010, the ISI’s two top leaders, Abu Ayyub al-Masri and Abu Omar al-Baghdadi, were killed in a joint US-Iraqi raid near Tikrit.[251] In a press conference in June 2010, General Odierno reported that 80% of the ISI’s top 42 leaders, including recruiters and financiers, had been killed or captured, with only eight remaining at large. He said that they had been cut off from Al Qaeda's leadership in Pakistan, and that improved intelligence had enabled the successful mission in April that led to the killing of al-Masri and al-Baghdadi; in addition, the number of attacks and casualty figures in Iraq for the first five months of 2010 were the lowest since 2003.[252][253][254] In May 2011, the Islamic State of Iraq's "emir of Baghdad" Huthaifa al-Batawi, captured during the crackdown after the 2010 Baghdad church attack in which 68 people died, was killed during an attempted prison break, during which an Iraqi general and several others were also killed.[255][256]

On 16 May 2010, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi was appointed the new leader of the Islamic State of Iraq;[257] he had previously been the general supervisor of the group's provincial sharia committees and a member of its senior consultative council.[258] Al-Baghdadi replenished the group's leadership, many of whom had been killed or captured, by appointing former Ba'athist military and intelligence officers who had served during the Saddam Hussein regime. These men, nearly all of whom had spent time imprisoned by American forces, came to make up about one-third of Baghdadi's top 25 commanders. One of them was a former Colonel, Samir al-Khlifawi, also known as Haji Bakr, who became the overall military commander in charge of overseeing the group's operations.[259][260]

In July 2012, al-Baghdadi’s first audio statement was released online. In this he announced that the group was returning to the former strongholds that US troops and their Sunni allies had driven them from prior to the withdrawal of US troops.[261] He also declared the start of a new offensive in Iraq called Breaking the Walls which would focus on freeing members of the group held in Iraqi prisons.[261] Violence in Iraq began to escalate that month, and in the following year the group carried out 24 waves of VBIED attacks and eight prison breaks. By July 2013, monthly fatalities had exceeded 1,000 for the first time since April 2008.[262] The Breaking the Walls campaign culminated in July 2013, with the group carrying out simultaneous raids on Taji and Abu Ghraib prison, freeing more than 500 prisoners, many of them veterans of the Iraqi insurgency.[262][263]

Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi was declared a Specially Designated Global Terrorist on 4 October 2011 by the US State Department, with an announced reward of US$10 million for information leading to his capture or death.[264]

As Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (2013–2014)

Declaration and dispute with al-Nusra Front

In March 2011, protests began in Syria against the government of Bashar al-Assad. In the following months, violence between demonstrators and security forces led to a gradual militarisation of the conflict.[265] In August 2011, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi began sending Syrian and Iraqi ISI members, experienced in guerilla warfare, across the border into Syria to establish an organization inside the country. Led by a Syrian known as Abu Muhammad al-Jawlani, the group began to recruit fighters and establish cells throughout the country.[266][267] On 23 January 2012, the group announced its formation as Jabhat al-Nusra li Ahl as-ShamJabhat al-Nusra—more commonly known as al-Nusra Front. Al-Nusra grew rapidly into a capable fighting force with popular support among Syrian opposition.[266]

In April 2013, al-Baghdadi released an audio statement in which he announced that al-Nusra Front had been established, financed and supported by the Islamic State of Iraq[268] and that the two groups were merging under the name "Islamic State of Iraq and Al-Sham".[96] Al-Jawlani issued a statement denying the merger and complaining that neither he nor anyone else in al-Nusra's leadership had been consulted about it.[269] In June 2013, Al Jazeera reported that it had obtained a letter written by al-Qaeda leader Ayman al-Zawahiri, addressed to both leaders, in which he ruled against the merger, and appointed an emissary to oversee relations between them to put an end to tensions.[270] In the same month, al-Baghdadi released an audio message rejecting al-Zawahiri's ruling and declaring that the merger was going ahead.[271] In October 2013, al-Zawahiri ordered the disbanding of ISIS, putting al-Nusra Front in charge of jihadist efforts in Syria,[272] but al-Baghdadi contested al-Zawahiri's ruling on the basis of Islamic jurisprudence,[271] and the group continued to operate in Syria. In February 2014, after an eight-month power struggle, al-Qaeda disavowed any relations with ISIS.[86]

According to journalist Sarah Birke, there are "significant differences" between al-Nusra Front and ISIS. While al-Nusra actively calls for the overthrow of the Assad government, ISIS "tends to be more focused on establishing its own rule on conquered territory". ISIS is "far more ruthless" in building an Islamic state, "carrying out sectarian attacks and imposing sharia law immediately". While al-Nusra has a "large contingent of foreign fighters", it is seen as a home-grown group by many Syrians; by contrast, ISIS fighters have been described as "foreign 'occupiers'" by many Syrian refugees.[273] It has a strong presence in central and northern Syria, where it has instituted sharia in a number of towns.[273] The group reportedly controlled the four border towns of Atmeh, al-Bab, Azaz and Jarablus, allowing it to control the entrance and exit from Syria into Turkey.[273] Foreign fighters in Syria include Russian-speaking jihadists who were part of Jaish al-Muhajireen wal-Ansar (JMA).[274] In November 2013, the JMA's ethnic Chechen leader Abu Omar al-Shishani swore an oath of allegiance to al-Baghdadi;[275] the group then split between those who followed al-Shishani in joining ISIS and those who continued to operate independently in the JMA under a new leadership.[14]

In May 2014, al-Qaeda leader Ayman al-Zawahiri ordered al-Nusra Front to stop attacks on its rival ISIS.[32] In June 2014, after continued fighting between the two groups, al-Nusra's branch in the Syrian town of al-Bukamal pledged allegiance to ISIS.[276][277]

Conflicts with other groups

In Syria, rebels affiliated with the Islamic Front and the Free Syrian Army launched an offensive against ISIS militants in and around Aleppo in January 2014.[278][279]

Relations with the Syrian government

In January 2014, The Daily Telegraph said that Western "intelligence sources" believed that the Syrian government made secret oil deals with ISIS and al-Nusra Front, alleging that the militants were funding their campaign by selling crude oil to the regime from the fields they have captured.[280]

As Islamic State (2014–present)

On 29 June 2014, ISIS removed "Iraq and the Levant" from its name and began to refer to itself as the Islamic State, declaring the territory under its control a new caliphate and naming Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi as its caliph.[5] On the first night of Ramadan, Shaykh Abu Muhammad al-Adnani al-Shami, spokesperson for ISIS, described the establishment of the caliphate as "a dream that lives in the depths of every Muslim believer" and "the abandoned obligation of the era". He said that the group's ruling Shura Council had decided to establish the caliphate formally and that Muslims around the world should now pledge their allegiance to the new caliph.[281][282] The declaration of a caliphate has been criticized and ridiculed by Muslim scholars and rival Islamists inside and outside the occupied territory.[283][284][285][286][287][288]

By that time, many moderate rebels had been assimilated into the group. In August 2014, a high-level IS commander said that "In the East of Syria, there is no Free Syrian Army any longer. All Free Syrian Army people [there] have joined the Islamic State".[289] The Islamic State had recruited more than 6,300 fighters in July 2014 alone, many of them coming from the Free Syrian Army.[290]

Analysts observed that dropping the reference to region reflected a widening of the group's scope, and Laith Alkhouri, a terrorism analyst, thought that after capturing many areas in Syria and Iraq, ISIS felt this was a suitable opportunity to take control of the global jihadist movement.[291]

A week before it changed its name to the Islamic State, ISIS had captured the Trabil crossing on the Jordan–Iraq border,[292] the only border crossing between the two countries.[293] ISIS has received some public support in Jordan, albeit limited, partly owing to state repression there.[294] Raghad Hussein, the daughter of Saddam Hussein now living in opulent asylum in Jordan, has publicly expressed support for the advance of ISIS in Iraq, reflecting the Ba'athist alliance of convenience with ISIS with the goal of return to power in Bagdad.[295] ISIS undertook a recruitment drive in Saudi Arabia[181] where tribes in the north are linked to those in western Iraq and eastern Syria.[296]

In June and July 2014, Jordan and Saudi Arabia moved their troops to the borders with Iraq after Iraq lost control of, or withdrew from, the strategic crossing points that came under the control of ISIS.[64][293] There was speculation that al-Maliki had ordered a withdrawal of troops from the Iraq–Saudi crossings in order "to increase pressure on Saudi Arabia and bring the threat of Isis over-running its borders as well".[296]

After the group captured Kurdish-controlled territory[297] and massacred Yazidis,[298] the US launched a humanitarian mission and aerial bombing campaign against ISIS.[299]

In July 2014, Boko Haram leader Abubakar Shekau declared support for the new Calpihate and Caliph Ibrahim.[24] In August, Shekau announced that Boko Haram had captured the Nigerian town of Gwoza. Shekau announced: "Thanks be to God who gave victory to our brethren in Gwoza and made it a state among the Islamic states".[300][301] Boko Haram launched an offensive in Adamawa and Borno States in northeastern Nigeria in September, following the example of the Islamic State.[302]

The moderate Free Syrian Army rebels have been backed by the United States with weapons and training.[303][304] On 12 September 2014, the Western-backed Free Syrian Army and the Islamic State signed a "non-aggression" agreement.[305] However, according to a Syrian National Coalition official, no Syrian opposition groups have entered a ceasefire agreement with ISIS.[306]

Human rights abuses

In early September 2014, the United Nations Human Rights Council agreed to send a team to Iraq and Syria to investigate the abuses and killings being carried out by the Islamic State on "an unimaginable scale". Zeid Ra'ad al Hussein of Jordan, who has taken over Navi Pillay's post as the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, urged world leaders to step in to protect women and children suffering at the hands of Islamic State militants, who he said were trying to create a "house of blood". He appealed to the international community to concentrate its efforts on ending the conflict in Iraq and Syria.[307]

War crimes accusations

In July 2014, the BBC reported the United Nations' chief investigator as stating: "Fighters from the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (Isis) may be added to a list of war crimes suspects in Syria."[308]

In August 2014, the United Nations accused the Islamic State of committing "mass atrocities" and war crimes.[309][310]

Religious persecution

ISIS compels people in the areas it controls, under the penalty of death, torture or mutilation, to declare Islamic creed, and live according to its interpretation of Sunni Islam and sharia law.[311][312] It directs violence against Shia Muslims, indigenous Assyrian, Chaldean, Syriac and Armenian Christians, Yazidis, Druze, Shabaks and Mandeans in particular.[313]

Amnesty International has accused ISIS of the ethnic cleansing of minority groups in northern Iraq.[314]

Treatment of civilians

During the Iraqi conflict in 2014, ISIS released dozens of videos showing its ill treatment of civilians, many of whom had apparently been targeted on the basis of their religion or ethnicity. Navi Pillay, UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, warned of war crimes occurring in the Iraqi war zone, and disclosed one UN report of ISIS militants murdering Iraqi Army soldiers and 17 civilians in a single street in Mosul. The United Nations reported that in the 17 days from 5 to 22 June, ISIS killed more than 1,000 Iraqi civilians and injured more than 1,000.[315][316][317] After ISIS released photographs of its fighters shooting scores of young men, the United Nations declared that cold-blooded "executions" said to have been carried out by militants in northern Iraq almost certainly amounted to war crimes.[318]

ISIS's advance in Iraq in mid-2014 was accompanied by continuing violence in Syria. On 29 May, a village in Syria was raided by ISIS and at least 15 civilians were killed, including, according to Human Rights Watch, at least six children.[319] A hospital in the area confirmed that it had received 15 bodies on the same day.[320] The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights reported that on 1 June, a 102-year-old man was killed along with his whole family in a village in Hama.[321]

ISIS has recruited to its ranks Iraqi children, who can be seen with masks on their faces and guns in their hands patrolling the streets of Mosul.[322]

Sexual violence allegations

According to one report, ISIS's capture of Iraqi cities in June 2014 was accompanied by an upsurge in crimes against women, including kidnap and rape.[323][324][325] The Guardian reported that ISIS's extremist agenda extended to women's bodies and that women living under their control were being captured and raped.[326] Hannaa Edwar, a leading women’s rights advocate in Baghdad who runs an NGO called Iraqi Al-Amal Association (IAA),[327] said that none of her contacts in Mosul were able to confirm any cases of rape.[328] However, another Baghdad-based women's rights activist, Basma al-Khateeb, said that a culture of violence existed in Iraq against women generally and felt sure that sexual violence against women was happening in Mosul involving not only ISIS but all armed groups.[328]

During a meeting with Nouri al-Maliki, British Foreign Minister William Hague said with regard to ISIS: "Anyone glorifying, supporting or joining it should understand that they would be assisting a group responsible for kidnapping, torture, executions, rape and many other hideous crimes".[329] According to Martin Williams in The Citizen, some hard-line Salafists apparently regard extramarital sex with multiple partners as a legitimate form of holy war and it is "difficult to reconcile this with a religion where some adherents insist that women must be covered from head to toe, with only a narrow slit for the eyes".[330]

Haleh Esfandiari from the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars has highlighted the abuse of local women by ISIS militants after they have captured an area. "They usually take the older women to a makeshift slave market and try to sell them. The younger girls ... are raped or married off to fighters", she said, adding, "It's based on temporary marriages, and once these fighters have had sex with these young girls, they just pass them on to other fighters."[331] Yezidi girls in Iraq allegedly raped by ISIS fighters have committed suicide by jumping to their death from Mount Sinjar, as described in a witness statement.[332]

Guidelines for civilians

After the self-proclaimed Islamic State captured cities in Iraq, ISIS issued guidelines on how to wear clothes and veils. ISIS warned women in the city of Mosul to wear full-face veils or face severe punishment.[333][334] A cleric told Reuters in Mosul that ISIS gunmen had ordered him to read out the warning in his mosque when worshippers gathered.[333] ISIS also banned naked mannequins and ordered the faces of both male and female mannequins to be covered.[335] ISIS released 16 notes labeled "Contract of the City", a set of rules aimed at civilians in Nineveh. One rule stipulated that women should stay at home and not go outside unless necessary. Another rule said that stealing would be punished by amputation.[134][336]

In addition to banning the sale and use of alcohol (which is customary in Muslim culture), militants have banned the sale and use of cigarettes and hookah pipes. They have also banned "music and songs in cars, at parties, in shops and in public, as well as photographs of people in shop windows.”[337]

Christians living in areas under ISIS control who wanted to remain in the "caliphate" faced three options: converting to Islam, paying a religious levy—jizya—or death. "We offer them three choices: Islam; the dhimma contract – involving payment of jizya; if they refuse this they will have nothing but the sword", ISIS said.[338] ISIS had already set similar rules for Christians in Ar-Raqqah, Syria, once one of the nation's most liberal cities.[339][340]

Timeline of events

2003–06 events

The Al-Askari Mosque, one of the holiest sites in Shia Islam, after the first attack by Al-Qaeda in Iraq in 2006
  • The group was founded in 1999 and its first leader was the Jordanian militant Abu Musab al-Zarqawi,[77] who declared allegiance to Osama bin Laden's al-Qaeda network on 17 October 2004.[341] Foreign fighters from outside Iraq were thought to play a key role in its network.[342] The group became a primary target of the Iraqi government and its foreign supporters, and attacks between these groups resulted in more than 1,000 deaths every year between 2004 and 2010.[343]
  • The Islamic State of Iraq made clear its belief that targeting civilians was an acceptable strategy and it has been responsible for thousands of civilian deaths since 2004.[344] In September 2005, al-Zarqawi declared war on Shia Muslims and the group used bombings—especially suicide bombings in public places—massacres and executions to carry out terrorist attacks on Shia-dominated and mixed sectarian neighbourhoods.[345] Suicide attacks by the ISI also killed hundreds of Sunni civilians, which engendered widespread anger among Sunnis.

2007 events

  • Between late 2006 and May 2007, the ISI brought the Dora neighborhood of southern Baghdad under its control. Numerous Christian families left, unwilling to pay the jizya tax.[citation needed] US efforts to drive out the ISI presence stalled in late June 2007, despite streets being walled off and the use of biometric identification technology. By November 2007, the ISI had been removed from Dora, and Assyrian churches could be re-opened.[346][not in citation given] In 2007 alone the ISI killed around 2,000 civilians, making that year the most violent in its campaign against the civilian population of Iraq.[344]
  • 19 April: The organization announced that it had set up a provisional government termed "the first Islamic administration" of post-invasion Iraq. The "emirate" was stated to be headed by Abu Omar al-Baghdadi and his "cabinet" of ten "ministers".[211]
Name (English transliteration) and notable pseudonyms Arabic name Post Notes
Abu Omar al-Baghdadi
d. 18 April 2010
Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi al-Husseini al-Qurashi[349] (aka Abu Du'a)[350]
أبو عمر البغدادي، أبو بكر البغدادي الحسيني القرشي Emir Abu Du'a, also known as Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi,[350] is the second leader of the group.[351]
Abu Abdullah al-Husseini al-Qurashi al-Baghdadi أبو عبدالله الحسيني القرشي البغدادي Vice Emir[citation needed]
Abu Abdul Rahman al-Falahi أبو عبد الرحمن الفلاحي
ʾAbū ʿAbd ar-Raḥmān al-Falāḥī
"First Minister" (Prime Minister)
Abu Hamza al-Muhajir (aka Abu Ayyub al-Masri)
d. 18 April 2010
Al-Nasser Lideen Allah Abu Suleiman (aka Neaman Salman Mansour al Zaidi)
أبو حمزة المهاجر War Identity of al-Muhajir with al-Masri suspected. ISI only used former name. Abu Suleiman is the second minister of war.
Abu Uthman al-Tamimi أبو عثمان التميمي
ʾAbū ʿUṯmān at-Tamīmī
Sharia affairs
Abu Bakr al-Jabouri
(aka Muharib Abdul-Latif al-Jabouri)
d. 1/2 May 2007
أبو بكر الجبوري
ʾAbū Bakr al-Ǧabūrī

(aka محارب عبد اللطيف الجبوري
Muḥārib ʿAbd al-Laṭīf al-Ǧabūrī)
Public Relations Common spelling variants: al-Jubouri, al-Jiburi.
Abu Abdul Jabar al-Janabi أبو عبد الجبار الجنابي Security Established "Committee for the Promotion of Virtue and Prevention of Vice"[352]
Abu Muhammad al-Mashadani أبو محمد المشهداني
ʾAbū Muḥammad al-Mašhadānī
Abu Abdul Qadir al-Eissawi أبو عبد القادر العيساوي
ʾAbū ʿAbd al-Qādir al-ʿĪsāwī
Martyrs and Prisoners Affairs
Abu Ahmed al-Janabi أبو أحمد الجنابي
ʾAbū ʾAḥmad al-Ǧanābī
Mustafa al-A'araji مصطفى الأعرجي
Muṣṭafā al-ʾAʿraǧī
Agriculture and Fisheries
Abu Abdullah al-Zabadi أبو عبد الله الزيدي Health
Mohammed Khalil al-Badria محمد خليل البدرية
Muḥammad Ḫalīl al-Badriyyah
Education Announced on 3 September 2007

The names listed above are all considered to be noms de guerre.

  • 3 May: Iraqi sources claimed that Abu Omar al-Baghdadi had been killed a short time earlier. According to The Long War Journal, no evidence was provided to support this and US sources remained skeptical.[353] The Islamic State of Iraq released a statement later that day which denied his death.[354]
  • 12 May: In what was apparently the same incident, it was announced that "Minister of Public Relations" Abu Bakr al-Jabouri had been killed on 12 May 2007 near Taji.[verification needed] The exact circumstances of the incident remain unknown. The initial version of the events at Taji, as given by the Iraqi Interior Ministry, was that there had been a shoot-out between rival Sunni militias. Coalition and Iraqi government operations were apparently being conducted in the same area at about the same time and later sources implied that they were directly involved, with al-Jabouri being killed while resisting arrest. (See Abu Omar al-Baghdadi for details.)
  • 12 May: The ISI issued a press release claiming responsibility for an ambush at Al Taqa, Babil on 12 May 2007, in which one Iraqi soldier and four US 10th Mountain Division soldiers were killed. Three soldiers of the US unit were captured and one was found dead in the Euphrates 11 days later. After a 4,000-man hunt by the US and allied forces ended without success, the ISI released a video in which it was claimed that the other two soldiers had been killed and buried, but no direct proof was given. Their bodies were found a year later.[355][356]
  • 25 June: The suicide bombing of a meeting of Al Anbar tribal leaders and officials at Mansour Hotel, Baghdad[358] killed 13 people, including six Sunni sheikhs[359] and other prominent figures. This was proclaimed by the ISI to have been in retaliation for the rape of a Sunni woman by Iraqi police.[360] Security at the hotel, which is 100 meters outside the Green Zone, was provided by a British contractor[361] which had apparently hired guerrilla fighters to provide physical security.[362][not in citation given] There were allegations that an Egyptian Islamist group may have been responsible for the bombing, but this has never been proven.[363]
  • In July, Abu Omar al-Baghdadi released an audio tape in which he issued an ultimatum to Iran. He said: "We are giving the Persians, and especially the rulers of Iran, a two-month period to end all kinds of support for the Iraqi Shia government and to stop direct and indirect intervention ... otherwise a severe war is waiting for you." He also warned Arab states against doing business with Iran.[364] Iran supports the Iraqi government which many see as anti-Sunni.[citation needed]
  • Resistance to coalition operations in Baqubah turned out to be less than anticipated. In early July, US Army sources suggested that any ISI leadership in the area had largely relocated elsewhere in early June 2007, before the start of Operation Arrowhead Ripper.[365]

2009–12 events

  • 8 February 2011: According to the SITE Institute, a statement of support for Egyptian protesters—which appears to have been the first reaction of any group affiliated with al-Qaeda to the protests in Egypt during the 2011 Arab Spring Movement—was issued by the Islamic State of Iraq on jihadist forums. The message addressed to the protesters was that the "market of jihad" had opened in Egypt, that "the doors of martyrdom had opened", and that every able-bodied man must participate. It urged Egyptians to ignore the "ignorant deceiving ways" of secularism, democracy and "rotten pagan nationalism". "Your jihad", it went on, is in support of Islam and the weak and oppressed in Egypt, for "your people" in Gaza and Iraq, and "for every Muslim" who has been "touched by the oppression of the tyrant of Egypt and his masters in Washington and Tel Aviv".[372]
  • In a four-month process ending in October 2011, the Syrian government reportedly released imprisoned Islamic radicals and provided them with arms "in order to make itself the least bad choice for the international community."[373]
  • 23 July 2012: About 32 attacks occurred across Iraq, killing 116 people and wounding 299. The ISI claimed responsibility for the attacks, which took the form of bombings and shootings.[374]
  • In August 2012, two Iraqi refugees who have resided in Kentucky were accused of assisting AQI by sending funds and weapons; one has pleaded guilty.[375]

2013 events

2012–14 Iraqi protests: Iraqi Sunni demonstrators protesting against the Shia-led government.
  • Starting in April 2013, the group made rapid military gains in controlling large parts of Northern Syria, where the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights described them as "the strongest group".[376]
  • 11 May: Two car bombs exploded in the town of Reyhanlı in Hatay Province, Turkey. At least 51 people were killed and 140 injured in the attack.[377] The attack was the deadliest single act of terrorism ever to take place on Turkish soil.[378] Along with the Syrian intelligence service, ISIS was suspected of carrying out the bombing attack.[379]
  • By 12 May, nine Turkish citizens, who were alleged to have links with Syria's intelligence service, had been detained.[380] On 21 May 2013, the Turkish authorities charged the prime suspect, according to the state-run Anatolia news agency. Four other suspects were also charged and 12 people had been charged in total.[clarification needed] All suspects were Turkish nationals whom Ankara believed were backed by the Syrian government.[381]
  • In July, Free Syrian Army battalion chief Kamal Hamami—better known by his nom de guerre Abu Bassir Al-Jeblawi—was killed by the group's Coastal region emir after his convoy was stopped at an ISIS checkpoint in Latakia's rural northern highlands. Al-Jeblawi was traveling to visit the Al-Izz Bin Abdulsalam Brigade operating in the region when ISIS members refused his passage, resulting in an exchange of fire in which Al-Jeblawi received a fatal gunshot wound.[382]
  • Also in July, ISIS organised a mass break-out of its members being held in Iraq's Abu Ghraib prison. British newspaper The Guardian reported that over 500 prisoners escaped, including senior commanders of the group.[383][384] ISIS issued an online statement claiming responsibility for the prison break, describing the operation as involving 12 car bombs, numerous suicide bombers and mortar and rocket fire.[383][384] It was described as the culmination of a one-year campaign called "destroying the walls", which was launched on 21 July 2012 by ISIS leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi; the aim was to replenish the group's ranks with comrades released from the prison.[385]
  • In early August, ISIS led the final assault in the Siege of Menagh Air Base.[386]
  • In September, members of the group kidnapped and killed the Ahrar ash-Sham commander Abu Obeida Al-Binnishi, after he had intervened to protect members of a Malaysian Islamic charity; ISIS had mistaken their Malaysian flag for that of the United States.[387][388]
  • Also in September, ISIS overran the Syrian town of Azaz, taking it from an FSA-affiliated rebel brigade.[389] ISIS members had attempted to kidnap a German doctor working in Azaz.[390] In November 2013, Today's Zaman, an English-language newspaper in Turkey, reported that Turkish authorities were on high alert, with the authorities saying that they had detailed information on ISIS's plans to carry out suicide bombings in major cities in Turkey, using seven explosive-laden cars being constructed in Ar-Raqqah.[391]
  • From 30 September, several Turkish media websites reported that ISIS had accepted responsibility for the attack and had threatened further attacks on Turkey.[392][393][394][395]
  • In November, the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights stated: "ISIS is the strongest group in Northern Syria—100%—and anyone who tells you anything else is lying."[376]
  • In December, there were reports of fighting between ISIS and another Islamic rebel group, Ahrar ash-Sham, in the town of Maskana, Aleppo in Syria.[396]
  • In December, ISIS began an offensive in Anbar province in Iraq, changing insurgency there into a regional war which involved the United States and most of the states in the area.[citation needed]

2014 events

Current military situation (September 2014):
  Controlled by the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS)
  Controlled by other Syrian rebels
  Controlled by Syrian government
  Controlled by Iraqi government
  Controlled by Syrian Kurds
  Controlled by Iraqi Kurds
  (under Israeli occupation)

Some of the most recent events are transcluded below:

  • 18 August: Pope Francis, leader of the world's 1.2 billion Roman Catholics, said that the international community would be justified in stopping Islamist militants in Iraq. He also said that it should not be up to a single nation to decide how to intervene in the conflict.[397]
  • 19 August: According to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, the Islamic State now has an army of more than 50,000 fighters in Syria.[18] American journalist James Foley was beheaded by the Islamic State on video tape.[398]
  • 20 August: President Obama denounced the "brutal murder of Jim Foley by the terrorist group ISIL."[399]
  • 21 August: The US military admitted that a covert rescue attempt involving dozens of US Special Operations forces had been made to rescue James Foley and other Americans held captive in Syria by Islamic State militants. The air and ground assault, involving the first known US military ground action inside Syria, had the authorization of President Obama. The ensuing gunfight resulted in one US soldier being injured. The rescue was unsuccessful, as Foley and the other captives were not in the location targeted. This was the first known engagement by US ground forces with suspected Islamic State militants.[400] The US Defense Secretary warned that the Islamic State were tremendously well-funded, adding, "They have no standard of decency, of responsible human behavior", and that they were an imminent threat to the US.[401]
  • 22 August: The US is considering airstrikes on ISIS in Syria, which would draw US military forces directly into the Syrian Civil War, as President Obama develops a long-term strategy to defeat the Islamic State.[402]
  • 26 August: The Islamic State carried out a suicide attack in Baghdad killing 15 people and injuring 37 others.[403]
  • 28 August: The Islamic State beheaded a Lebanese Army soldier whom they had kidnapped.[404] The group also beheaded a Kurdish Peshmerga fighter in response to Kurdistan's alliance with the United States, and executed around 250 Syrian soldiers captured after the fall of Tabqa Air Base in Ar-Raqqah province.[405] The soldiers had earlier been marched to their place of execution wearing just their underwear.[406]
  • 29 August: UK Prime Minister David Cameron raised the UK's terror level to "severe" and committed to fight radical Islam "at home and abroad".[407][408]
  • 31 August: Iraqi military forces supported by Shia militias and American airstrikes broke the two-month siege of the northern Iraqi town of Amerli by Islamic State militants.[409] German Federal Minister of Defence Ursula von der Leyen announced that Germany will send enough weapons to arm 4,000 Peshmerga fighters in northern Iraq fighting Islamic State insurgents.[410] The delivery to be scheduled in stages will include 16,000 assault rifles, 40 machine guns, 240 rocket-propelled grenades, 500 MILAN anti-tank missiles with 30 launchers and 10,000 hand grenades, with a total value of around 70 million euros. In order to assess the needs of the Peshmerga and prevent an excessive accumulation of arms, the Bundeswehr seconded six liaison officers to Erbil who will report to Berlin.[411]

September 2014

  • 1 September: The German government's Cabinet decision to arm the Kurdish Peshmerga militia was ratified in the Bundestag by a "vast majority" of votes, after an emotional debate.[412]
  • 2 September: The IS released a video showing the beheading of a man whom they identified as American journalist Steven Sotloff.[413][414]
  • 4 September: A member of the Islamic State issued a threat to Russian President Vladimir Putin, vowing to oust him over his support of Bashar al-Assad's regime in Syria.[415][416]
  • 5 September: The German Bundeswehr dispatched the first of a planned series of cargo planes to Iraq, loaded with helmets, vests, radios, and infrared night-vision rifle scopes. After a three-hour stopover in Baghdad for inspection, the aircraft will deliver the equipment to German personnel already in Erbil for distribution to the Kurdish fighters.[417] Qassem Soleimani, Commander of the elite Iranian Revolutionary Guard Quds Force, has been to the Iraqi city of Amirli, to work with the United States in pushing back militants of the Islamic State.[418][419][420]
  • 8 September: The Islamic State carried out a double suicide attack in a town north of Baghdad killing 9 people and wounding 70 others.[421]
  • 10 September: After ISIS had outraged American opinion by beheading two American journalists and had seized control of large portions of Syria and Iraq in the face of ineffective opposition from American allies, President Obama decided on a new objective for a rollback policy in the Middle East. He announced: "America will lead a broad coalition to roll back this terrorist threat. Our objective is clear: We will degrade, and ultimately destroy, ISIL through a comprehensive and sustained counterterrorism strategy."[422]
  • 12 September: Western-backed Syrian rebels and the Islamic State signed a "non-aggression" agreement.[423]
  • 13 September: UK humanitarian aid worker David Cawthorne Haines, whose life had been threatened by Jihadi John in the Steven Sotloff video, was purportedly beheaded in a video titled "A Message to the Allies of America".[424]
  • 15 September: The Battle of Suq al Ghazi ended with a US–Iraqi win.[citation needed]
  • 18 September: The Australian Federal Police, Australian Security Intelligence Organisation, Queensland Police and New South Wales Police launched the largest counterterrorism operation in Australian history. The targets were ISIS-linked networks thought to be planning to behead an Australian at home and launch mass-casualty attacks in populated areas. Fifteen people were arrested in the raids by police and intelligence organisations.[425]

Notable members

Mugshot of Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi by US armed forces while in detention at Camp Bucca in 2004
Other personnel

Designation as a terrorist organization

Country Date References
United States United States 17 December 2004 [426]
Australia Australia 2 March 2005 [427]
Canada Canada 20 August 2012 [428]
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia 7 March 2014 [429]
United Kingdom United Kingdom 20 June 2014 [430]
Indonesia Indonesia 1 August 2014 [431]

Media sources worldwide have also called IS a terrorist organization.[174][311][432][433][434]

Conspiracy theories

Conspiracy theorists in the Arab world have advanced false rumors that the US is secretly behind the existence and emboldening of ISIS, as part of an attempt to further destabilize the Middle East. After the rumors gained viral status, the US embassy in Lebanon issued an official statement denying the allegations, calling them a complete fabrication.[435] Others are convinced that ISIS leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi is an Israeli Mossad agent and actor called "Simon Elliot". The rumors claim that NSA documents leaked by Edward Snowden reveal this connection. Snowden’s lawyer has called the story "a hoax".[436][437][438]

See also


  1. ^ The Islamic State was previously known as the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), alternately called the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) or the Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham[70] (referring to Greater Syria; Arabic: الدولة الاسلامية في العراق والشامad-Dawlah l-ʾIslāmiyyah fīl-ʿIrāq wash-Shām). The group is also known by the Arabic acronym DAʿESH (Arabic: داعشDāʿesh). These names continue to be used.
  2. ^ According to classical Islamic sources, Hilf al-Mutayyabin was an oath of allegiance taken in pre-Islamic times by several clans of the Quraysh tribe, in which they undertook to protect the oppressed and the wronged. The name "oath of the scented ones" apparently derives from the fact that the participants sealed the oath by dipping their hands in perfume and then rubbing them over the Kaʻbah. This practice was later adopted by the Islamic prophet Muhammad and incorporated into Islam.[91]
  3. ^ During this ceremony, the participants declared: "We swear by Allah...that we will strive to free the prisoners of their shackles, to end the oppression to which the Sunnis are being subjected by the malicious Shi'ites and by the occupying Crusaders, to assist the oppressed and restore their rights even at the price of our own lives ... to make Allah's word supreme in the world, and to restore the glory of Islam..."[91]
  4. ^ "Accordingly, the "Iraq and Shām" in the name of the Islamic State is henceforth removed from all official deliberations and communications, and the official name is the Islamic State from the date of this declaration."[108]


  1. ^ Hassan, Hassan (11 June 2014). "Political reform in Iraq will stem the rise of Islamists". The National. Retrieved 18 June 2014. 
  2. ^ Khatib, Lina (12 June 2014). "What the Takeover of Mosul Means for ISIS". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Retrieved 18 June 2014. 
  3. ^ "ISIS on offense in Iraq". Al-Monitor. 10 June 2014. Retrieved 11 June 2014. 
  4. ^ Kelley, Michael B. (20 August 2014). "One Big Question Surrounds The Murder Of US Journalist James Foley By ISIS". Business Insider. Retrieved 20 August 2014. "...the de facto ISIS capital of Raqqa, Syria..." 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Withnall, Adam (29 June 2014). "Iraq crisis: Isis changes name and declares its territories a new Islamic state with 'restoration of caliphate' in Middle East". The Independent. Retrieved 29 June 2014. 
  6. ^ Rubin, Alissa J. (5 July 2014). "Militant Leader in Rare Appearance in Iraq". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 July 2014. 
  7. ^ "ISIS Spokesman Declares Caliphate, Rebrands Group as Islamic State". SITE Institute. 29 June 2014. Retrieved 29 June 2014. 
  8. ^ "Iraqi City in Hands of Al-Qaida-Linked Militants". Voice of America. 4 January 2014. Retrieved 16 January 2014. 
  9. ^ "The Crisis in Iraq". UMAA. 18 June 2014. Retrieved 29 August 2014. 
  10. ^ a b c d Uppsala Data Conflict Programme: Conflict Encyclopaedia (Iraq).  (See One-sided violence – ISIS-civilians – Actor information-ISIS.) Retrieved 5 August 2014.
  11. ^ "Al-Qaeda chief disbands main jihadist faction in Syria: Al-Jazeera". Hürriyet Daily News. 8 November 2013. Retrieved 12 July 2014. 
  12. ^ a b Knights, Michael (29 May 2014). "The ISIL's Stand in the Ramadi-Falluja Corridor". Combating Terrorism Center. Retrieved 12 July 2014. 
  13. ^ Akhmeteli, Nina (9 July 2014). "The Georgian roots of Isis commander Omar al-Shishani". BBC News. Retrieved 9 July 2014. 
  14. ^ a b "Syria crisis: Omar Shishani, Chechen jihadist leader". BBC News. 3 December 2013. Retrieved 8 December 2013. 
  15. ^ "Here's What We Know About the 'Caliph' of the New Islamic State". Business Insider. Agence France-Presse. 29 June 2014. Retrieved 18 July 2014. 
  16. ^ Mohammed Tawfeeq and Laura Smith-Spark (4 January 2014). "Islamist group ISIS claims deadly Lebanon blast, promises more violence". CNN. Retrieved 22 January 2014. 
  17. ^ "ISIS claims responsibility for Beirut car bomb". The Daily Star. 4 January 2014. Retrieved 22 January 2014. 
  18. ^ a b c "Islamic State 'has 50,000 fighters in Syria'". Al Jazeera. 19 August 2014. Retrieved 19 August 2014. 
  19. ^ ISIS has 100,000 fighters, growing fast - Iraqi govt adviser
  20. ^ a b "IS has 20,000-31,500 fighters in Iraq and Syria: CIA". Yahoo! News. 12 September 2014. Retrieved 12 September 2014. 
  21. ^ a b Pool, Jeffrey (16 December 2004). "Zarqawi's Pledge of Allegiance to Al-Qaeda: From Mu'Asker Al-Battar, Issue 21". Terrorism Monitor 2 (24): The Jamestown Foundation. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 30 July 2014. 
  22. ^ "Al-Qaeda disavows ISIS militants in Syria". BBC News. 3 February 2014. Retrieved 3 February 2014. 
  23. ^ a b c d e "Philippines condemns, vows to 'thwart' ISIS". Rappler. 17 September 2014. Retrieved 19 September 2014. 
  24. ^ a b "Boko Haram voices support for ISIS’ Baghdadi". Al Arabiya. 13 July 2014. Retrieved 24 August 2014. 
  25. ^ "Al-Qaeda in Islamic Maghreb backs ISIS – Al-Monitor: the Pulse of the Middle East". Al-Monitor. Retrieved 23 August 2014. 
  26. ^ Bill O'Reilly (1 October 2006). "Al-Qaeda in Yemen Declares Support for ISIS – Fox Nation". Fox News Channel. Retrieved 23 August 2014. 
  27. ^ "BIFF, Abu Sayyaf pledge allegiance to Islamic State jihadists | GMA News Online". 16 August 2014. Retrieved 22 August 2014. 
  28. ^ Dean, Sarah (21 August 2014). "PM Tony Abbott warns Australians of threats from Indonesian Jemaah Islamiyah group". Daily Mail. Retrieved 23 August 2014. 
  29. ^
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Helene Cooper (5 September 2014). "Obama Enlists 9 Allies". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 September 2014. 
  31. ^ a b Patrick Wintour (5 September 2014). "U.S. Forms 'core coalition' to fight ISIS militants in Iraq". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 September 2014. 
  32. ^ a b "ISIS-rebel clashes resume in Deir al-Zor". The Daily Star. 18 June 2014. Retrieved 20 June 2014. 
  33. ^ Aymenn Jawad al-Tamimi (11 May 2014). "Key Updates on Iraq's Sunni Insurgent Groups". Brown Moses blog. Retrieved 26 May 2014. 
  34. ^ Category: POLITICS (23 July 2014). "Baath in Iraq declares war on ISIS". Retrieved 20 August 2014. 
  35. ^ Hassan, Hassan (17 June 2014). "More Than ISIS, Iraq's Sunni Insurgency". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Retrieved 20 June 2014. 
  36. ^ Mahdi, Osama (13 June 2014). "Council of the rebels begin appointing conservative management control areas". Elaph. Retrieved 21 August 2014. 
  37. ^ Dehghanpisheh, Babak (3 August 2014). "Iran's elite Guards fighting in Iraq to push back Islamic State". Reuters. 
  38. ^ "Iran Rushes Elite Quds Force Unit To Iraq To Help Government Stop ISIS Advance". 11 June 2014. Retrieved 18 June 2014. 
  39. ^ "In Pictures: Tension in Kirkuk". al Jazeera. Retrieved 18 July 2014. [dead link]
  40. ^ Ahmed, Raman (8 July 2014). "ISIL struggles for control over Syrian Kurdish areas". ARA News. Retrieved 9 July 2014. 
  41. ^ "Presence of the MFS at the border of Iraq". Syriac International News Agency. 16 June 2014. Retrieved 30 July 2014. 
  42. ^ Steinbach, Peter. "Die Christen in Syrien ziehen in die Schlacht". Die Welt. Retrieved 2 September 2014. 
  43. ^ "The first detachment of the sons of our people from the Assyrian National Party fighters on the battlefield in the Nineveh Plain". Assyrian Patriotic Party. Retrieved 2 September 2014. 
  44. ^
  45. ^ "مسيحيو العراق يتطوعون في قوات الدفاع عن المناطق المسيحية". LBC. Retrieved 26 August 2014. 
  46. ^ Motlagh, Jason (20 July 2014). "Iraqi Christians under threat yet again". Gulf News. The Washington Post. Retrieved 8 August 2014. 
  47. ^"Syria conflict: President Assad finally turns on Isis"
  48. ^ Mulcaire, Jack (22 April 2014). "Aleppo: Syria's Stalingrad?". The National Interest. Retrieved 29 April 2014. 
  49. ^ "Al-Qaeda-linked Isis under attack in northern Syria". BBC News. 4 January 2014. Retrieved 15 January 2014. 
  50. ^ Muslim, Hana (13 May 2014). "Syria rebels struggle for control over ISIL-held Raqqa". ARA News. Retrieved 16 May 2014. 
  51. ^ "Syria rebels unite and launch new revolt, against jihadists". AFP. 4 January 2014. Retrieved 28 April 2014. 
  52. ^ Sciutto, Jim; Schoichet, Catherine E.; Starr, Barbara (8 August 2014). "Obama authorizes 'targeted airstrikes' in Iraq to counter militants". CNN. Retrieved 8 August 2014. 
  53. ^ Majumdar, Dave (8 August 2014). "U.S. Navy Strikes ISIS Targets in Iraq". USNI News. Retrieved 8 August 2014. 
  54. ^ "U.S. fighter jets hit ISIS artillery with laser-guided, 500-pound bombs in Iraq: Pentagon". National Post. 
  55. ^ "Air Force crews deliver 114,000 meals, 35,000 gallons of water in Iraq". Navy Times. 
  56. ^ "Islamic State seizes territory inside Lebanon". The Telegraph. 4 August 2014. 
  57. ^ Mortada, Radwan (19 May 2014). "Hezbollah fighters and the "jihadis": Mad, drugged, homicidal, and hungry". Al Akhbar (Lebanon). Retrieved 9 June 2014. 
  58. ^ "TSK, IŞİD konvoyunu vurdu". Milliyet. Retrieved 1 February 2014. 
  59. ^ "Türkiye IŞİD konvoyunu vurdu". Retrieved 1 February 2014. 
  60. ^ "TSK, Irak-Şam İslam Devleti Örgütü konvoyunu vurdu". CNN Turkey. Retrieved 1 February 2014. 
  61. ^ "Turkish army returns fire from al-Qaeda-affiliated fighters on Syrian border". Today's Zaman. 16 October 2013. Retrieved 18 December 2013. 
  62. ^
  63. ^
  64. ^ a b Spencer, Richard (3 July 2014). "Saudi Arabia sends 30,000 troops to Iraq border". The Telegraph. Retrieved 6 July 2014. 
  65. ^ "Densus 88 tangkap aktivis ISIS dan ketua harian JAT". 11 August 2014. Retrieved 14 August 2014. 
  66. ^ "Najib: Malaysia strongly condemns Islamic State militants". The Star. Retrieved 20 September 2014.  Text "date 28 August 2014" ignored (help)
  67. ^ "Former Guantanamo detainee killed while leading jihadist group in Syria". The Long War Journal. 4 April 2014. Retrieved 19 May 2014. 
  68. ^ "En Syrie, les Kurdes infligent une cuisante défaite aux jihadistes" [In Syria, the Kurds inflict a crushing defeat on the jihadists]. L'Orient-Le Jour. 18 July 2013. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 18 July 2014. 
  69. ^ Prothero, Mitchell (4 March 2014). "ISIS joins other rebels to thwart Syria regime push near Lebanon". The Sacramento Bee. McClatchy News. Retrieved 18 July 2014. 
  70. ^ Ferran, Lee; Momtaz, Rym. "ISIS: Trail of Terror". ABC News. Retrieved 14 September 2014. 
  71. ^ "داعش تعلن تأسيس دولة الخلافة وتسميتها "الدولة الإسلامية" فقط دون العراق والشام والبغدادي أميرها وتحذر "لا عذر لمن يتخلف عن البيعة". Arabic CNN. 29 June 2014. Retrieved 31 July 2014 (Google translation available.). 
  72. ^ "Isis rebels declare 'Islamic state' in Iraq and Syria". BBC News. 30 June 2014. Retrieved 30 June 2014. 
  73. ^ "What is ISIS? — The Short Answer". The Wall Street Journal. 12 June 2014. Retrieved 15 June 2014. 
  74. ^ "Security Council concerned about illicit oil trade as revenue for terrorists in Iraq, Syria". UN News Centre. 28 July 2014. Retrieved 17 August 2014. 
  75. ^ Rieger, Sol (26 August 2014). "Israel Moves to Declare Support for ISIS Illegal as Photo of Groups Flag Appear". JP Updates. Retrieved 19 September 2014. 
  76. ^
  77. ^ a b c d e "The War between ISIS and al-Qaeda for Supremacy of the Global Jihadist Movement". Washington Institute for Near East Policy. June 2014. Retrieved 26 August 2014. 
  78. ^ Ricks, Thomas E. (11 September 2006). "Situation Called Dire in West Iraq". The Washington Post. Retrieved 13 July 2014. 
  79. ^ Linzer, Dafna; Ricks, Thomas E. (28 November 2006). "Anbar Picture Grows Clearer, and Bleaker". The Washington Post. Retrieved 18 July 2014. 
  80. ^ Engel, Richard (27 December 2006). "Reporting under al-Qaida control". MSNBC. Retrieved 28 October 2009. 
  81. ^ Engel, Richard (17 January 2007). "Dangers of the Baghdad plan". MSNBC. Archived from the original on 2 November 2007. Retrieved 28 October 2009. 
  82. ^ "Iraqi neighbours rise up against al-Qa'eda". The Telegraph. 12 April 2008. Retrieved 27 August 2014. 
  83. ^ Sly, Liz (23 July 2013). "Islamic law comes to rebel-held Syria". The Washington Post. 
  84. ^ Lewis, Jessica (12 June 2014). "The Terrorist Army Marching on Baghdad". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 23 June 2014. (subscription required) Accessible via Google.
  85. ^ al-Salhy, Suadad (11 December 2013). "Al Qaeda tightens grip on western Iraq in bid for Islamic state". Reuters. Retrieved 23 June 2014. 
  86. ^ a b Sly, Liz (3 February 2014). "Al-Qaeda disavows any ties with radical Islamist ISIS group in Syria, Iraq". The Washington Post. Retrieved 7 February 2014. 
  87. ^ McClam, Erin (20 June 2014). "More Extreme than al Qaeda? How ISIS compares to other terror groups". NBC News. Retrieved 28 June 2014. 
  88. ^ Cockburn, Patrick (9 June 2014). "Battle to establish Islamic state across Iraq and Syria". The Independent. Retrieved 12 June 2014. 
  89. ^ Whitlock, Craig (10 June 2006). "Death Could Shake Al-Qaeda In Iraq and Around the World". The Washington Post. Retrieved 22 July 2014. 
  90. ^ Fishman 2008, pp. 48–9.
  91. ^ a b c d "Jihad Groups in Iraq Take an Oath of Allegiance". MEMRI. 17 October 2006. Retrieved 2 June 2014. 
  92. ^ "al Qaeda's Grand Coalition in Anbar". The Long War Journal. 12 October 2006. Retrieved 2 June 2014. 
  93. ^ a b c "The Rump Islamic Emirate of Iraq". The Long War Journal. 16 October 2006. Retrieved 2 June 2014. 
  94. ^ Fishman 2008, pp. 49–50.
  95. ^ Phillips 2009, p. 74.
  96. ^ a b "ISI Confirms That Jabhat Al-Nusra Is Its Extension In Syria, Declares 'Islamic State Of Iraq And Al-Sham' As New Name of Merged Group". MEMRI. 8 April 2013. Retrieved 10 April 2013. 
  97. ^ "Key Free Syria Army rebel 'killed by Islamist group'". BBC News. 12 July 2013. 
  98. ^ "Al-Qaeda in Iraq confirms Syria's Nusra Front is part of its network". Al Arabiya. 9 April 2013. Retrieved 15 June 2014. 
  99. ^ "Profile: Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL)". BBC News. 11 June 2014. Retrieved 16 June 2014. 
  100. ^ a b Saxena, Vivek (18 June 2014). "ISIS vs ISIL – Which One Is It?". The Inquisitr. Retrieved 20 June 2014. 
  101. ^ a b Tharoor, Ishaan (18 June 2014). "ISIS or ISIL? The debate over what to call Iraq's terror group". The Washington Post. Retrieved 21 June 2014. 
  102. ^ "Isis, Isil or Da'ish? What to call militants in Iraq". BBC News. 24 June 2014. Retrieved 16 August 2014. 
  103. ^ a b "Terrorist Designations of Groups Operating in Syria". United States Department of State. 14 May 2014. Retrieved 18 June 2014. 
  104. ^ Abouzeid, Rania (16 January 2014). "Syria's uprising within an uprising". European Council on Foreign Relations. Archived from the original on 25 January 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014. 
  105. ^ Keating, Joshua (16 June 2014). "Who Is Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi?". Slate. Retrieved 22 July 2014. 
  106. ^ Khosla, Simran (30 June 2014). "This Is What The World's Newest Islamic Caliphate Might Look Like". Business Insider (GlobalPost). Retrieved 22 July 2014. 
  107. ^ "ISIL renames itself ‘Islamic State’ and declares Caliphate in captured territory". Euronews. 30 June 2014. Retrieved 30 June 2014. 
  108. ^ "ISIS announces formation of Caliphate, rebrands as 'Islamic State'". The Long War Journal. 29 June 2014. Retrieved 30 June 2014. 
  109. ^ Taylor, Adam (27 August 2014). "Meet ‘QSIS’: A new twist in what to call the extremist group rampaging in Iraq and Syria". The Washington Post. 
  110. ^ Meky, Shounaz (24 August 2014). "Egypt's Dar al-Ifta: ISIS extremists not 'Islamic State'". Al Arabiya. Retrieved 27 August 2014. 
  111. ^ a b "Islamic State". Australian National Security. Australian Government. Retrieved 22 July 2014. 
  112. ^ Hussain, Ghaffar (30 June 2014). "Iraq crisis: What does the Isis caliphate mean for global jihadism?". The Independent. Retrieved 6 July 2014. 
  113. ^ Fernholz, Tim (1 July 2014). "Don’t believe the people telling you to freak out over this "ISIL" map". Quartz. Retrieved 6 July 2014. 
  114. ^ Paraszczuk, Joanna (7 February 2014). "Syria: Umar Shishani's Second-in-Command in ISIS Slams Scholars Who "Sow Discord" & Don’t Fight". EA WorldView. Retrieved 8 July 2014. 
  115. ^ "عدنان العرعور يرد على (داعش) ويتهمها بالتكفير والعمالة للمخابرات الأمريكية والبريطانية". المستشار (in arabic). Retrieved 8 July 2014. 
  116. ^ "عدنان العرعور يرد على (داعش) ويتهمها بالتكفير والعمالة للمخابرات الأمريكيةسوريا: "العرعور" يحذر السوريين من داعش و يصفهم بالخوارج". العهد (in arabic). Retrieved 8 July 2014. 
  117. ^ a b "The slow backlash – Sunni religious authorities turn against Islamic State". The Economist. 6 September 2014. 
  118. ^ Mamouri, Ali (29 July 2014). "Why Islamic State has no sympathy for Hamas". Al-Monitor. Retrieved 1 August 2014. 
  119. ^ "Hamas appears in the Foreign Terrorist Organizations list of the US Department of State". 
  120. ^ Zack Beauchamp (2 September 2014). "17 things about ISIS and Iraq you need to know". Vox Media. Retrieved 5 September 2014. 
  121. ^ Abu Mohammad. "Letter dated 9 July 2005". Office of the Director of National Intelligence. Retrieved 22 July 2014.  See page 2 onwards.
  122. ^ a b c M. Alex Johnson (3 September 2014). "'Deviant and Pathological': What Do ISIS Extremists Really Want?". NBC News. Retrieved 5 September 2014. 
  123. ^ Laith Kubba (7 July 2014). "Who is the U.S. targeting in Iraq air strikes?". Al Jazeera. 
  124. ^ Tran, Mark; Weaver, Matthew (30 June 2014). "Isis announces Islamic caliphate in area straddling Iraq and Syria". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 July 2014. 
  125. ^ McGrath, Timothy (2 July 2014). "Watch this English-speaking ISIS fighter explain how a 98-year-old colonial map created today's conflict". Los Angeles Times. GlobalPost. Retrieved 22 July 2014. 
  126. ^ Romain Caillet (27 December 2013). "The Islamic State: Leaving al-Qaeda Behind". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. 
  127. ^ a b "ISIS' 'Southern Division' praises foreign suicide bombers". The Long War Journal. 9 April 2014. Retrieved 2 June 2014. 
  128. ^ "Middle East – تنظيم الدولة الإسلامية يعلن قيام "ولاية الفرات" على أراض سورية وعراقية – فرانس 24". France 24. 31 August 2014. Retrieved 6 September 2014. 
  129. ^ Gardner, Frank (9 July 2014). "'Jihadistan': Can Isis militants rule seized territory?". BBC News. Retrieved 17 August 2014. 
  130. ^ a b Charles C. Caris; Samuel Reynolds (July 2014). "ISIS Governance in Syria". Institute for the Study of War. 
  131. ^ Ben Hubbard (24 July 2014). "Life in a Jihadist Capital: Order With a Darker Side". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 September 2014. 
  132. ^ Mariam Karouny (4 September 2014). "In northeast Syria, Islamic State builds a government". Reuters. 
  133. ^ a b Zelin, Aaron Y. (13 June 2014). "The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria Has a Consumer Protection Office". The Atlantic. Retrieved 17 June 2014. 
  134. ^ Uppsala Data Conflict Programme: Conflict Encyclopaedia (Iraq). (See War & minor conflict – Iraq: government – In depth – Continued armed conflict after USA's troop withdrawal from Iraq.) Retrieved 5 August 2014.
  135. ^ "Two Arab countries fall apart". The Economist (14 June 2014). Retrieved 18 July 2014. 
  136. ^ "The Syrian rebel groups pulling in foreign fighters". BBC News. 24 December 2013. Retrieved 24 December 2013. 
  137. ^ "Chechen fighter emerges as face of Iraq militant group". Fox News Channel. Associated Press. 2 July 2014. 
  138. ^ Schmidt, Michael S. (15 September 2014). "U.S. Pushes Back Against Warnings That ISIS Plans to Enter From Mexico". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 September 2014. "Their efforts have focused on the more than 2,000 Europeans and 100 Americans who have traveled to Syria to fight alongside extremist groups, nearly all of them crossing over its unprotected borders." 
  139. ^ Beauchamp, Zack (20 June 2014). "The real roots of Iraq's Sunni-Shia conflict". Vox. Retrieved 27 June 2014. 
  140. ^ a b c Vick, Karl; Baker, Aryn (11 June 2014). "Extremists in Iraq Continue March Toward Baghdad". Time. Retrieved 23 June 2014. 
  141. ^ Bilger, Alex (22 May 2014). "ISIS Annual Reports Reveal a Metrics-Driven Military Command". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 6 July 2014. 
  142. ^ Cockburn, Patrick (15 June 2014). "Iraq crisis: West must take up Tehran's offer to block an Isis victory". The Independent. Retrieved 17 June 2014. 
  143. ^ Mazzetti, Mark; Schmitt, Eric; Landler, Mark (10 September 2014). "Struggling to Gauge ISIS Threat, Even as U.S. Prepares to Act". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 September 2014. 
  144. ^ Jeffrey Goldberg (10 August 2014). "Hillary Clinton: 'Failure' to Help Syrian Rebels Led to the Rise of ISIS". The Atlantic. Retrieved 10 August 2014. 
  145. ^ Stone, Jeff (17 June 2014). "ISIS Attacks Twitter Streams, Hacks Accounts To Make Jihadi Message Go Viral". International Business Times. Retrieved 19 June 2014. 
  146. ^ "US targets al Qaeda's al Furqan media wing in Iraq". The Long War Journal. 28 October 2007. Retrieved 24 June 2014. 
  147. ^ Bilger 2014, p. 1.
  148. ^ Zelin, Aaron Y. (8 March 2013). "New statement from the Global Islamic Media Front: Announcement on the Publishing of al-I'tiṣām Media Foundation – A Subsidiary of the Islamic State of Iraq – It Will Be Released Via GIMF". JIHADOLOGY. Retrieved 24 June 2014. 
  149. ^ Gertz, Bill (13 June 2014). "New Al Qaeda Group Produces Recruitment Material for Americans, Westerners". The Washington Free Beacon. Retrieved 24 June 2014. 
  150. ^ "ISIS Declares Islamic Caliphate, Appoints Abu Bakr Al-Baghdadi As 'Caliph', Declares All Muslims Must Pledge Allegiance To Him". MEMRI. 30 June 2014. Retrieved 7 July 2014. 
  151. ^ "ISIL Launches 'Ajnad Media Foundation' to Specialize in Jihadi Chants". SITE Institute. 15 January 2014. Retrieved 25 June 2014. (subscription required)
  152. ^ "Dabiq: What Islamic State’s New Magazine Tells Us about Their Strategic Direction, Recruitment Patterns and Guerrilla Doctrine". The Jamestown Foundation. 1 August 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014. 
  153. ^ "Dabiq: The Strategic Messaging of the Islamic State". Institute for the Study of War. 15 August 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014. 
  154. ^ a b Roula Khalaf and Sam Jones (17 June 2014). "Selling terror: how Isis details its brutality". Financial Times. Retrieved 18 June 2014. 
  155. ^ Berger, J. M. (16 June 2014). "How ISIS Games Twitter". The Atlantic. Retrieved 19 June 2014. 
  156. ^ "ISIS Propaganda Campaign Threatens U.S.". Anti-Defamation League. 27 June 2014. Retrieved 27 June 2014. 
  157. ^ Sheera, Frenkel (16 June 2014). "Meet The 'ISIS Fanboys' Spreading The Message Of Iraq’s Most Feared Terror Group". BuzzFeed. 
  158. ^ Dan Friedman (17 August 2014). "Twitter stepping up suspensions of ISIS-affiliated accounts: experts". Daily News. New York. Retrieved 8 September 2014. 
  159. ^ "ISIS Faces Resistance From Social Media Companies". Anti-Defamation League. 23 July 2014. Retrieved 24 July 2014. 
  160. ^ "ISIS Influence on India". Times of india. 23 July 2014. Retrieved 28 August 2014. 
  161. ^ "Second US journalist held by ISIS at risk of being executed". Miami News. 23 August 2014. Retrieved 23 August 2014. 
  162. ^ Jalabi, Raya (2 September 2014). "Video of Steven Sotloff beheading bears many similarities to James Foley killing". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 September 2014. 
  163. ^ a b "IS jihadi group beheads US journalist Steven Sotloff". CNN. 2 September 2014. Retrieved 17y September 2014. 
  164. ^ "A Second Message to America". Al-Furqan Media Productions. 
  165. ^ Holmes, Oliver (13 September 2014). "Islamic State video purports to show beheading of UK hostage David Haines". Reuters. Retrieved 13 September 2014. 
  166. ^ a b c d Allam, Hannah (23 June 2014). "Records show how Iraqi extremists withstood U.S. anti-terror efforts". McClatchy News. Retrieved 25 June 2014. 
  167. ^ Chulov, Martin (15 June 2014). "How an arrest in Iraq revealed Isis's $2bn jihadist network". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 June 2014. 
  168. ^ Moore, Jack (11 June 2014). "Mosul Seized: Jihadis Loot $429m from City's Central Bank to Make Isis World's Richest Terror Force". International Business Times UK. Retrieved 19 June 2014. 
  169. ^ McCoy, Terrence (12 June 2014). "ISIS just stole $425 million, Iraqi governor says, and became the 'world's richest terrorist group'". The Washington Post. Retrieved 18 June 2014. 
  170. ^ Carey, Glen; Haboush, Mahmoud; Viscusi, Gregory (26 June 2014). "Financing Jihad: Why ISIS Is a Lot Richer Than Al-Qaeda". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 19 July 2014. 
  171. ^ "U.S. Official Doubts ISIS Mosul Bank Heist Windfall". NBC News. 24 June 2014. Retrieved 22 July 2014. 
  172. ^ Daragahi, Borzou (17 July 2014). "Biggest bank robbery that 'never happened' – $400m Isis heist". Financial Times. Retrieved 21 July 2014. (subscription required) Accessible via Google.
  173. ^ a b Lister, Tim (13 June 2014). "ISIS: The first terror group to build an Islamic state?". CNN. Retrieved 14 June 2014. 
  174. ^ Rogin, Josh (14 June 2014). "America's Allies Are Funding ISIS". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 19 June 2014. 
  175. ^ "Iraq crisis: How Saudi Arabia helped Isis take over the north of the country". The Independent. 13 July 2014. Retrieved 9 August 2014. 
  176. ^ Parker, Ned; Ireland, Louise (9 March 2014). "Iraqi PM Maliki says Saudi, Qatar openly funding violence in Anbar". Reuters. 
  177. ^ "Maliki: Saudi and Qatar at war against Iraq". Al Jazeera. 9 March 2014. 
  178. ^ "Maliki accuses Saudi Arabia of backing rebels". Al Arabiya. 17 June 2014. Retrieved 17 June 2014. 
  179. ^ a b Bozorgmehr, Najmeh; Kerr, Simeon (25 June 2014). "Iran-Saudi proxy war heats up as Isis entrenches in Iraq". Financial Times. Retrieved 29 June 2014. 
  180. ^ a b Carey, Glen; Almashabi, Deema (16 June 2014). "Jihadi Recruitment in Riyadh Revives Saudi Arabia's Greatest Fear". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 17 June 2014. 
  181. ^ Hauslohner, Abigail (13 June 2014). "Jihadist expansion in Iraq puts Persian Gulf states in a tight spot". The Washington Post. Retrieved 18 June 2014. 
  182. ^ Black, Ian (19 June 2014). "Saudi Arabia rejects Iraqi accusations of Isis support". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 June 2014. 
  183. ^ Chulov, Martin (15 June 2014). "Iraq arrest that exposed wealth and power of Isis jihadists". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 June 2014. 
  184. ^ Solomon, Erika (28 April 2014). "Syria's jihadist groups fight for control of eastern oilfields". Financial Times. Retrieved 17 June 2014. 
  185. ^ Fisher, Max (12 June 2014). "How ISIS is exploiting the economics of Syria's civil war". Vox. Retrieved 17 June 2014. 
  186. ^ Matthews, Dylan (24 July 2014). "The surreal infographics ISIS is producing, translated". Vox. Retrieved 25 July 2014. 
  187. ^ "Insight Into How Insurgents Fought in Iraq". The New York Times. 17 October 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2014. 
  188. ^ a b "Not Just Iraq: The Islamic State Is Also on the March in Syria". The Huffington Post. 7 August 2014. Retrieved 11 August 2014. 
  189. ^ a b c Gibbons-Neff, Thomas (18 June 2014). "ISIS propaganda videos show their weapons, skills in Iraq". The Washington Post. Retrieved 11 August 2014. 
  190. ^ "US-made Stinger missiles have likely fallen into ISIS hands, officials say". Fox News Channel. 16 June 2014. Retrieved 21 June 2014. 
  191. ^ a b c Jeremy Bender (9 July 2014). "As ISIS Routs The Iraqi Army, Here's A Look At What The Jihadists Have In Their Arsenal". Business Insider. Retrieved 11 August 2014. 
  192. ^ Prothero, Mitchell (14 July 2014). "Iraqi army remains on defensive as extent of June debacle becomes clearer". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved 15 July 2014. 
  193. ^ Chelsea J. Carter; Tom Cohen; Barbara Starr (9 August 2019). "U.S. jet fighters, drones strike ISIS fighters, convoys in Iraq". CNN. Retrieved 5 September 2014. 
  194. ^ "ISIS Holds Parade With Captured US Military Vehicles". Zero Hedge. 25 June 2014. Retrieved 16 August 2014. 
  195. ^ Tilghman, Andrew; Schogol, Jeff (12 June 2014). "How did 800 ISIS fighters rout 2 Iraqi divisions?". Military Times. Retrieved 14 June 2014. 
  196. ^ "State of emergency: ISIS militants overrun Iraq city of 1.8mn, free 2,500 prisoners". RT News. 18 June 2014. Retrieved 22 July 2014. 
  197. ^ "Isis leader calls on Muslims to 'build Islamic state'". BBC News. 1 July 2014. Retrieved 2 July 2014. 
  198. ^ "Al Qaeda Militants Capture US Black Hawk Helicopters In Iraq". Zero Hedge. 10 June 2014. Retrieved 14 June 2014. 
  199. ^ Lake, Eli; Dettmer, Jamie; De Visser, Nanette (11 June 2014). "Iraq's Terrorists Are Becoming a Full-Blown Army". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 15 July 2014. 
  200. ^ Beaumont, Peter (12 June 2014). "How effective is ISIS compared with the Iraqi army and the Kurdish peshmerga?". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 June 2014. 
  201. ^ Cowell, Alan (10 July 2014). "Low-Grade Nuclear Material Is Seized by Rebels in Iraq, U.N. Says". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 July 2014. 
  202. ^ Sherlock, Ruth (10 July 2014). "Iraq jihadists seize 'nuclear material', says ambassador to UN". The Telegraph. Retrieved 15 July 2014. 
  203. ^ Gambill, Gary (16 December 2004). "Abu Musab Al-Zarqawi: A Biographical Sketch". Terrorism Monitor 2 (24): The Jamestown Foundation. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 30 July 2014. 
  204. ^ "Zarqawi pledges allegiance to Osama". Dawn. Agence France-Presse. 18 October 2004. Archived from the original on 29 December 2007. Retrieved 13 July 2007. 
  205. ^ "Al-Zarqawi group vows allegiance to bin Laden". NBC News. Associated Press. 18 October 2004. Retrieved 13 July 2007. 
  206. ^ a b "Al-Qaida in Iraq (AQI)". Dudley Knox Library. Naval Postgraduate School. Archived from the original on 1 April 2007. Retrieved 14 July 2014. 
  207. ^ Whitaker, Brian (13 October 2005). "Revealed: Al-Qaida plan to seize control of Iraq". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 September 2014. 
  208. ^ "Al-Qaeda in Iraq names new head". BBC News. 12 June 2006. 
  209. ^ a b Tran, Mark (1 May 2007). "Al-Qaida in Iraq leader believed dead". The Guardian. 
  210. ^ a b "Islamic State of Iraq Announces Establishment of the Cabinet of its First Islamic Administration in Video Issued Through al-Furqan Foundation". SITE Institute. 19 April 2007. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 20 July 2014. 
  211. ^ Mahnaimi, Uzi (13 May 2007). "Al-Qaeda planning militant Islamic state within Iraq". The Sunday Times (London). Archived from the original on 24 May 2011. 
  212. ^ a b c d Tilghman, Andrew (October 2007). "The Myth of AQI". Washington Monthly. Retrieved 14 July 2014. 
  213. ^ "Two leaders linked to al-Qaeda group arrested". Adnkronos. 7 April 2003. Retrieved 20 April 2012. 
  214. ^ Parker, Ned (15 July 2007). "Saudis' role in Iraq insurgency outlined". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 1 September 2007. 
  215. ^ "Al Qaeda in Iraq suicide bomber kills 31 at Iraqi Army base in Taji". The Long War Journal. 6 November 2012. 
  216. ^ Yacoub, Sameer N. (8 June 2007). "In motley array of Iraqi foes, why does U.S. spotlight al-Qaida?". International Herald Tribune. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 27 January 2008. 
  217. ^ Hoyt, Clark (8 July 2007). "Seeing Al Qaeda Around Every Corner". The New York Times. 
  218. ^ "CRS Report for Congress – Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security". Congressional Research Service. 6 September 2007. Archived from the original on 26 February 2008. Retrieved 26 July 2014. 
  219. ^ "Foreign Terrorist Organizations". Country Reports on Terrorism 2011. United States Department of State. 31 July 2012. 
  220. ^ Ware, Michael (11 June 2008). "Papers give peek inside al Qaeda in Iraq". CNN. 
  221. ^ Targeting al Qaeda in Iraq's Network, The Weekly Standard, 13 November 2007
  222. ^ Ricks, Thomas; DeYoung, Karen (15 October 2007). "Al-Qaeda in Iraq Reported Crippled". The Washington Post. 
  223. ^ a b c d Samuels, Lennox (20 May 2008). "Al Qaeda in Iraq Ramps Up Its Racketeering". Newsweek. (subscription required) Accessible via Google.
  224. ^ a b Andoni, Lamis. "On whose side is Al-Qaeda?". Al-Ahram Weekly. 26 April-2 May 2007. Issue 842. Retrieved 30 July 2014. 
  225. ^ Abdul-Ahad, Ghaith (27 October 2005). "We don't need al-Qaida". The Guardian. 
  226. ^ Caroll, Rory; Mansour, Osama (7 September 2005). "Al-Qaida in Iraq seizes border town as it mobilises against poll". The Guardian. 
  227. ^ "Rebels call on Al Qaida to 'review' behaviour". Gulf News. Reuters. 7 April 2007. Archived from the original on 28 June 2007. 
  228. ^ Klein, Joe (23 May 2007). "Is al-Qaeda on the Run in Iraq?". Time. Archived from the original on 6 July 2007. Retrieved 6 August 2014. 
  229. ^ Beaumont, Peter (3 October 2006). "Iraqi tribes launch battle to drive al-Qaida out of troubled province". The Guardian. 
  230. ^ Burns, John; Rubin, Alissa (11 June 2007). "US Arming Sunnis in Iraq to Battle Old Qaeda Allies". The New York Times. 
  231. ^ Crain, Charles (1 January 2008). "Exit Al-Qaeda. Enter the Militias?". Time. Archived from the original on 11 February 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2014. 
  232. ^ "Iraqis killed by chlorine bombs". BBC News. 17 March 2007. Archived from the original on 20 December 2010. 
  233. ^ "Official Blames Al Qaeda in Iraq for Death of Key Sunni Insurgent Leader". Fox News Channel. Associated Press. 27 March 2007. 
  234. ^ "Al-Qaida linked group moves to patch up rift among insurgent factions". International Herald Tribune. Associated Press. 17 April 2007. Archived from the original on 27 January 2008. 
  235. ^ "Al Qaeda leader in Iraq 'killed by insurgents'". ABC News. 1 May 2007. 
  236. ^ "Tape from 'dead' Al Masri put on Web". Gulf News. 5 May 2007. 
  237. ^ "U.S. frees 42 al Qaeda kidnap victims in Iraq". CNN. 27 May 2007. Retrieved 6 August 2014. 
  238. ^ "Bombed bridge, Turkish troops trouble Kurdish Iraq from two sides". International Herald Tribune. Associated Press. 1 June 2007. Archived from the original on 27 January 2008. 
  239. ^ Hurst, Steven R. (1 June 2007). "U.S. battles al-Qaida gunmen in west Baghdad after Sunnis revolt against terror group". Associated Press. Retrieved 28 June 2014. 
  240. ^ Ghosh, Bobby (6 June 2007). "A Truce Between US Enemies in Iraq". Time. 
  241. ^ "Leader of 'Hamas of Iraq' and 1920 Brigades dead in mosque attack". Adnkronos. 25 September 2007. 
  242. ^ MacAskill, Ewen (12 June 2007). "US arms Sunni dissidents in risky bid to contain al-Qaida fighters in Iraq". The Guardian (London). 
  243. ^ Rubin, Alissa J.; Damien Cave (23 December 2007). "In a Force for Iraqi Calm, Seeds of Conflict". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 December 2007. 
  244. ^ Phillips 2009, p. 65.
  245. ^ Kahl 2008.
  246. ^ Peter, Tom (13 January 2009). "As US withdraws, will Al Qaeda in Iraq find new openings?". The Christian Science Monitor. 
  247. ^ Arraf, Jane (13 May 2009). "Spike in suicide attacks: Is Al Qaeda in Iraq coming back?". The Christian Science Monitor. 
  248. ^ Londoño, Ernesto (22 November 2009). "Resurgent Al-Qaeda in Iraq seeks to undermine government". The Washington Post. 
  249. ^ Christie, Michael (18 November 2009). "Al Qaeda in Iraq becoming less foreign-US general". Reuters. 
  250. ^ Arango, Tim (22 August 2014). "Top Qaeda Leaders in Iraq Reported Killed in Raid". The New York Times. 
  251. ^ Shanker, Thom (4 June 2010). "Qaeda Leaders in Iraq Neutralized, US Says". The New York Times. 
  252. ^ "US says 80% of al-Qaeda leaders in Iraq removed". BBC News. 4 June 2010. 
  253. ^ "Attacks in Iraq down, Al-Qaeda arrests up: US general". Google News. Agence France-Presse. 4 June 2010. [dead link]
  254. ^ "Al-Qaeda leader attempts Baghdad jailbreak leaving 18 dead". The Telegraph (London). 8 May 2011. Retrieved 10 May 2011. 
  255. ^ Mohammed, Muhanad (8 May 2011). "Al Qaeda leader and 17 others killed in Iraq jail clash". Reuters. Archived from the original on 4 July 2013. Retrieved 10 May 2011. 
  256. ^ Shadid, Anthony (16 May 2010). "Iraqi Insurgent Group Names New Leaders". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 August 2014. 
  257. ^ "Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi: Islamic State's driving force". BBC World News. 31 July 2014. Retrieved 19 August 2014. 
  258. ^ "U.S. Actions in Iraq Fueled Rise of a Rebel". The New York Times. 10 August 2014. Retrieved 28 August 2014. 
  259. ^ "Military Skill and Terrorist Technique Fuel Success of ISIS". The New York Times. 27 August 2014. Retrieved 28 August 2014. 
  260. ^ a b "Al-Qaida: We're returning to old Iraq strongholds". Associated Press. 22 July 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2014. 
  261. ^ a b "Al Qaeda in Iraq Resurgent". Institute for the Study of War. September 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2014. 
  262. ^ "Al Qaeda says it freed 500 inmates in Iraq jail-break". Reuters. 23 July 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2014. 
  263. ^ "Terrorist Designation of Ibrahim Awwad Ibrahim Ali al-Badri". United States Department of State. 4 October 2011. Retrieved 8 October 2011. 
  264. ^ Abouzeid, Rania (14 March 2014). "Syria: The story of the conflict". Politico. Retrieved 22 August 2014. 
  265. ^ a b Abouzeid, Rania (23 June 2014). "The Jihad Next Door". Politico. Retrieved 22 August 2014. 
  266. ^ "Jabhat al-Nusra A Strategic Briefing". Quilliam Foundation. 8 January 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2014. 
  267. ^ "Qaeda in Iraq confirms Syria's Nusra is part of network". GlobalPost. Agence France-Presse. 9 April 2013. Retrieved 9 April 2013. 
  268. ^ "Al-Nusra Commits to al-Qaida, Deny Iraq Branch 'Merger'". Naharnet Agence France-Presse. 10 April 2013. Retrieved 18 May 2013. 
  269. ^ Atassi, Basma (9 June 2013). "Qaeda chief annuls Syrian-Iraqi jihad merger". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 10 June 2013. 
  270. ^ a b "Iraqi al-Qaeda chief rejects Zawahiri orders". Al Jazeera. 15 June 2013. Retrieved 15 June 2013. 
  271. ^ "Zawahiri disbands main Qaeda faction in Syria". The Daily Star. 8 November 2013. Retrieved 8 November 2013. 
  272. ^ a b c Birke, Sarah (27 December 2013). "How al-Qaeda Changed the Syrian War". New York Review of Books. 
  273. ^ Vladimir Platov (18 January 2014). "Growth of International Terrorist Threat from Syria". New Eastern Outlook. Retrieved 11 June 2014. 
  274. ^ "Chechen-led group swears allegiance to head of Islamic State of Iraq and Sham". The Long War Journal. 27 November 2013. Retrieved 13 July 2014. 
  275. ^ Syrian branch of al Qaeda vows loyalty to Iraq's ISIS" France 24. 25 June 2014.
  276. ^ "Al Nusra pledges allegiance to Isil". Gulf News. 25 June 2014. Retrieved 29 June 2014. 
  277. ^ Saad, Hwaida; Gladstone, Rick (4 January 2014). "Qaeda-Linked Insurgents Clash With Other Rebels in Syria, as Schism Grows". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 January 2014. 
  278. ^ Casey, Mary Joshua Haber (7 January 2014). "Rebel factions continue fight against ISIL in Northern Syria". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 7 January 2014. 
  279. ^ Sherlock, Ruth (20 January 2014). "Syria's Assad accused of boosting al-Qaeda with secret oil deals". The Telegraph. Retrieved 23 August 2014. 
  280. ^ Daragahi, Borzou; Jones, Sam; Kerr, Simeon (29 June 2014). "Iraq crisis: Isis declares establishment of a sovereign state". Financial Times. Retrieved 29 June 2014. (subscription required)
  281. ^ Zelin, Aaron Y. (30 June 2014). "ISIS Is Dead, Long Live the Islamic State". Foreign Policy (The Washington Institute). Retrieved 22 July 2014. 
  282. ^ Cockburn, Patrick (30 June 2014). "Isis Caliphate has Baghdad worried because of appeal to angry young Sunnis". The Independent. Retrieved 2 July 2014. 
  283. ^ "Iraq's Baghdadi calls for 'holy war'". Al Jazeera. 2 July 2014. Retrieved 2 July 2014. 
  284. ^ Moore, Jack (2 July 2014). "Iraq Crisis: Senior Jordan Jihadist Slams Isis Caliphate". International Business Times UK. Retrieved 2 July 2014. 
  285. ^ Mandhai, Shafik (7 July 2014). "Muslim leaders reject Baghdadi's caliphate". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 12 July 2014. 
  286. ^ Goodenough, Patrick (6 July 2014). "Self-Appointed ‘Caliph’ Makes First Public Appearance". CNS News. Retrieved 26 July 2014. 
  287. ^ Crilly, Rob; Mehsud, Saleem (9 July 2014). "Pakistani terror group swears allegiance to Islamic State". The Telegraph. Retrieved 13 August 2014. 
  288. ^ Mekhennet, Souad (18 August 2014). "The terrorists fighting us now? We just finished training them.". The Washington Post. 
  289. ^ "Syrians adjust to life under ISIS rule". The Daily Star. 29 August 2014. Retrieved 29 August 2014. 
  290. ^ Fieldstadt, Elisha (29 June 2014). "ISIS Declare Themselves an Islamic State". NBC News. Retrieved 5 July 2014. 
  291. ^ Gaouette, Nicole; Ajrash, Kadhim; Sabah, Zaid (23 June 2014). "Militants Seize Iraq-Jordan Border as Kerry Visits Baghdad". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 6 July 2014. 
  292. ^ a b Arango, Tim; Gordon, Michael R. (23 June 2014). "Iraqi Insurgents Secure Control of Border Posts". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 July 2014. 
  293. ^ Abuqudairi, Areej (5 July 2014). "Anger boils over in the 'Fallujah of Jordan'". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 6 July 2014. 
  294. ^ Hall, Benjamin (23 June 2014). "ISIS joins forces with Saddam loyalists in bid to take Baghdad". Fox News Channel. Retrieved 31 August 2014. 
  295. ^ a b Solomon, Erika; Kerr, Simeon (3 July 2014). "Saudi Arabia sends 30,000 troops to Iraq border". Financial Times. Retrieved 6 July 2014.  (subscription required)
  296. ^ Arango, Tim (3 August 2014). "Sunni Extremists in Iraq Seize 3 Towns From Kurds and Threaten Major Dam". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 August 2014. 
  297. ^ Smith-Spark, Laura (6 August 2014). "Iraqi Yazidi lawmaker: 'Hundreds of my people are being slaughtered'". CNN. Retrieved 20 August 2014. 
  298. ^ "Statement by the President". The White House. 7 August 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014. 
  299. ^ "Boko Haram declares caliphate in Nigerian town under rebel control". Deutsche Welle. 24 August 2014. Retrieved 24 August 2014. 
  300. ^ "Boko Haram Did Not Declare a Caliphate". Foundation for Defense of Democracies. 4 September 2014. Retrieved 12 September 2014. 
  301. ^ "Nigeria military says one of its warplanes missing in northeast". Reuters. 14 September 2014. Retrieved 14 September 2014. 
  302. ^ Spencer, Richard (17 February 2014). "US-backed head of Free Syria Army voted out". The Telegraph. 
  303. ^ Youseff, Nancy A. (26 May 2014). "Syrian Rebels Describe U.S.-Backed Training in Qatar". PBS. McClatchy News. 
  304. ^ Masi, Alessandria (12 September 2014). "US-Backed Moderate Group In Syria Signs Truce With ISIS: Reports". International Business Times. 
  305. ^ ISIS Strikes Deal With Moderate Syrian Rebels: Reports
  306. ^ Nebehay, Stephanie (8 September 2014). "New U.N. rights boss warns of 'house of blood' in Iraq, Syria". Reuters. Retrieved 9 September 2014. 
  307. ^ "UN 'may include' Isis on Syrian war crimes list". BBC News. 26 July 2014
  308. ^ UN accuses Islamic State group of war crimes Al Jazeera 27 Aug 2014
  309. ^ "Syria conflict: Islamic State 'committed war crimes'". BBC News. 27 August 2014. Retrieved 2 September 2014. 
  310. ^ a b McCoy, Terrence (13 June 2013). "ISIS, beheadings and the success of horrifying violence". The Washington Post. Retrieved 23 June 2014. 
  311. ^ Bulos, Nabih (20 June 2014). "Islamic State of Iraq and Syria aims to recruit Westerners with video". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 17 August 2014. 
  312. ^ Abi-Habib, Maria (26 June 2014). "Iraq's Christian Minority Feels Militant Threat". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 6 July 2014. (subscription required) Accessible via Google.
  313. ^
  314. ^ "ISIL Militants Killed More Than 1000 Civilians In Recent Onslaught In recent Onslaught in Iraq: UN". RT News. Retrieved 4 July 2014. 
  315. ^ "Iraq violence: UN confirms more than 2000 killed, injured since early June". UN News Centre. 24 June 2014. Retrieved 4 July 2014. 
  316. ^ "UN warns of war crimes as ISIL allegedly executes 1,700". Today's Zaman. 15 June 2014. Retrieved 4 July 2014. 
  317. ^ Spencer, Richard (16 June 2014). "Iraq crisis: UN condemns 'war crimes' as another town falls to Isis". The Telegraph. Retrieved 6 July 2014. 
  318. ^ "Syria: ISIS Summarily Killed Civilians". Human Rights Watch. 14 June 2014. Retrieved 5 July 2014. 
  319. ^ "Syria conflict: Amnesty says ISIS killed seven children in north". BBC News. 6 June 2014. Retrieved 5 July 2014. 
  320. ^ "NGO: ISIS kills 102-year-old man, family in Syria". Al Arabiya. Retrieved 7 July 2014. 
  321. ^ "Armed Children as Young as 9 Patrolling Streets of Mosul". The Clarion Project. 3 July 2014. Retrieved 9 July 2014. 
  322. ^ "Surging Violence Against Women in Iraq". Inter Press Service. 27 June 2014. Retrieved 5 July 2014. 
  323. ^ Winterton, Clare (25 June 2014). "Why We Must Act When Women in Iraq Document Rape". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 10 July 2014. 
  324. ^ إسراء محمد علي. "إعلامي كويتي: "داعش" يطالب أهالي الموصل بتقديم غير المتزوجات لـ"جهاد النكاح". المصری الیوم. Retrieved 10 July 2014. 
  325. ^ Susskind, Yifat (3 July 2014). "Under Isis, Iraqi women again face an old nightmare: violence and repression". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 July 2014. 
  326. ^ "Hanaa Edwar". NGO Working Group on Women, Peace and Security. Retrieved 13 September 2014. 
  327. ^ a b Mike, Giglio (27 June 2014). "Fear Of Sexual Violence Simmers In Iraq As ISIS Advances". BuzzFeed. Retrieved 9 July 2014. 
  328. ^ Ruth, Sherlock (26 June 2014). "Hague urges unity as Iraq launches first counter-attack". The Telegraph. Retrieved 9 July 2014. 
  329. ^ Williams, Martin (25 September 2013). "Sexual jihad is a bit much". The Citizen. Retrieved 7 July 2014. 
  330. ^ Brekke, Kira (8 September 2014). "ISIS Is Attacking Women, And Nobody Is Talking About It". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 11 September 2014. 
  331. ^ Ahmed, Havidar (14 August 2014). "The Yezidi Exodus, Girls Raped by ISIS Jump to their Death on Mount Shingal". Rudaw Media Network. Retrieved 26 August 2014. 
  332. ^ a b "Iraq: Isis warns women to wear full veil or face punishment". The Guardian. Reuters. Retrieved 27 July 2014. 
  333. ^ "Islamic State says women in Mosul must wear full veil or be punished". The Irish Times. 26 July 2014. Retrieved 23 August 2014. 
  334. ^ "Islamic State tells Mosul shopkeepers to cover up naked mannequins". Daily News. 
  335. ^ Taylor, Adam (12 June 2014). "The rules in ISIS’ new state: Amputations for stealing and women to stay indoors.". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2 August 2014. 
  336. ^ "ISIS bans music, imposes veil in Raqqa". Al-Monitor. 20 January 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014. 
  337. ^ "Convert, pay tax, or die, Islamic State warns Christians". The Guardian. Reuters. 18 July 2014. Retrieved 27 July 2014. 
  338. ^ Abedine, Saad; Mullen, Jethro (28 February 2014). "Islamists in Syrian city offer Christians safety – at a heavy price". CNN. Retrieved 27 July 2014. 
  339. ^ Hubbard, Ben. "Life in a Jihadist Capital: Order With a Darker Side". The NewYork Times. Retrieved 27 July 2014. 
  340. ^ Uppsala Data Conflict Programme: Conflict Encyclopaedia (Iraq). (See War & minor conflict – Iraq: government – In depth – 2004–2009 the Al-Qaida ally ISI and its predecessors TQJBR and MSC.) Retrieved 5 August 2014.
  341. ^ Peter Grier, Faye Bowers (8 June 2007). "Iraq's bin Laden? Zarqawi's rise". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 13 July 2007. 
  342. ^ Uppsala Data Conflict Programme: Conflict Encyclopaedia (Iraq). (See War & minor conflict – Iraq: government – Active dyads in this conflict – Iraq: government (entire conflict).) Retrieved 5 August 2014.
  343. ^ a b Uppsala Data Conflict Programme: Conflict Encyclopaedia (Iraq). (See One-sided violence – ISIL-civilians.) Retrieved 5 August 2014.
  344. ^ Uppsala Data Conflict Programme: Conflict Encyclopaedia (Iraq).  (See One-sided violence – ISIS-civilians – Actor information-Summary.) Retrieved 5 August 2014.
  345. ^ Parker, Ned (27 June 2007). "Christians forced out of Baghdad district". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 27 June 2007. 
  346. ^ "Iraqi ministry: Militant leader arrested in Baghdad". CNN. 10 March 2007. Archived from the original on 11 March 2007. Retrieved 14 July 2014. 
  347. ^ "Captured Iraqi not al-Baghdadi". Al Jazeera. 10 March 2007. Archived from the original on 12 March 2007. Retrieved 19 July 2014. 
  348. ^ Anjarini, Suhaib (2 July 2014). "Al-Baghdadi following in bin Laden's footsteps". Al Akhbar (Lebanon). Retrieved 20 July 2014. 
  349. ^ a b "Wanted: Abu Du'a – Up to $10 Million". Rewards for Justice Program. Retrieved 8 October 2011. 
  350. ^ "Most wanted names of terror world". Hindustan Times. 3 April 2012. Retrieved 12 September 2013. 
  351. ^ "Abdullah al Janabi openly preaches in Fallujah mosque". The Long War Journal. 18 January 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014. 
  352. ^ "Unconfirmed report: Abu Omar al Baghdadi killed; Al Qaeda's information minister confirmed killed". The Long War Journal. 3 May 2007. Retrieved 22 July 2014. 
  353. ^ "U.S. says terrorist in Jill Carroll kidnapping killed". CNN. 4 May 2007. Retrieved 22 July 2014. 
  354. ^ Marquez, Jeremiah (24 May 2007). "SoCal family mourns soldier found dead in Iraq river". U-T San Diego. Associated Press. Retrieved 16 November 2013. 
  355. ^ Michael Zitz: "With men still missing, a soldier returns to Iraq". Free Lance-Star, 27 June 2007. Retrieved 27 June 2007.[dead link]
  356. ^ "US launches major Iraq offensive". BBC News.19 June 2007. Retrieved 27 June 2007.
  357. ^ "Suicide bomber kills 13 at busy Baghdad hotel". The Washington Times. 26 June 2014. Retrieved 13 August 2013. 
  358. ^ "Police Release Tribal Shaykhs' Names". IraqSlogger, 27 June 2007. Retrieved 27 June 2007.[dead link]
  359. ^ Tran, Mark (26 June 2007). "Al-Qaida linked to Baghdad hotel bombing". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 July 2014. 
  360. ^ "Brit Security Firm Faulted in Hotel Bombing". IraqSlogger, 27 June 2007. Retrieved 27 June 2007.
  361. ^ "Al Mansour Hotel, Baghdad". Yahoo! Travel, 5 February 2007. Retrieved 27 June 2007.
  362. ^ Drummond, Mike (27 June 2007). "Two tribal leaders killed in Baghdad". The Miami Herald. McClatchy News. Retrieved 27 June 2007. [dead link]
  363. ^ Cordover, Adam B (9 July 2007). "Al-Qaeda Issues Ultimatum to Iran". Cafe Cordover. Retrieved 19 July 2014. 
  364. ^ Al-Mufti, Nermeen. "More death and political intrigue". Al-Ahram Weekly. 5–11 July 2007. Issue 852. Retrieved 30 July 2014.. 
  365. ^ "Baghdad bomb fatalities pass 150". BBC News. 26 October 2009. Retrieved 26 October 2009. 
  366. ^ "Baghdad car bombs cause carnage". BBC News. 8 December 2009. Retrieved 8 December 2009. 
  367. ^ "Qaeda in Iraq claims deadly central bank raid". Agence France-Presse. 17 June 2010. Archived from the original on 3 March 2014. Retrieved 12 September 2013. 
  368. ^ al-Ansary, Khalid (20 August 2010). "Al Qaeda claims responsibility for attack in Iraq". Reuters. 
  369. ^ "Hostages Killed in Al-Qaeda Attack on Baghdad Church". Al-Manar. Agence France-Presse. 1 November 2010. Retrieved 6 November 2010. [dead link]
  370. ^ "Al-Qaeda claims Iraq church attack". Al Jazeera. 2 November 2010. Retrieved 6 November 2010. 
  371. ^ "Al Qaeda in Iraq calls Egypt protesters to wage jihad". Dawn. Agence France-Presse. 9 February 2011. Retrieved 16 November 2013. 
  372. ^ Sands, Phil; Vela, Justin; Maayeh, Suha (21 January 2014). "Assad regime set free extremists from prison to fire up trouble during peaceful uprising". The National. Retrieved 11 August 2014. 
  373. ^ Nordland, Rod (25 July 2012). "Al Qaeda Taking Deadly New Role in Syria Conflict". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 July 2012. 
  374. ^ Brett Barrouquere (16 August 2012). "Iraqis in Ky. linked to IED attack zone". Army Times. Associated Press. Retrieved 27 August 2012. 
  375. ^ a b Gul Tuysuz, Raja Razek, Nick Paton Walsh (6 November 2013). "Al Qaeda-linked group strengthens hold in northern Syria". CNN. Retrieved 3 December 2013. 
  376. ^ "Death toll rises to 42 as explosions hit Turkish town on border with Syria". Hürriyet Daily News. 11 May 2013. Retrieved 11 May 2013. 
  377. ^ "Deadliest Terror Attack in Turkey's History Might Be Another Attempt to Derail Peace Talks? But Which One? Syria or PKK?". The Istanbulian. 11 May 2013. Retrieved 11 May 2013. 
  378. ^ Hacaoglu, Selcan; El Baltaji, Dana (12 May 2013). "Turkey Holds Nine Suspects in Deadly Attack Blamed on Syria". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved 19 July 2014. 
  379. ^ Dorell, Oren (12 May 2013). "Turkey: 9 with Syrian ties arrested in car bombings". USA Today. Retrieved 15 July 2014. 
  380. ^ "Turkey charges prime suspect in car bombings, report says". Al Arabiya. 21 May 2013. Retrieved 18 June 2014. 
  381. ^ Morris, Loveday; DeYoung, Karen (12 July 2013). "Al-Qaeda-affiliated gunmen kill Syrian rebel commander, rebels say". The Washington Post. Retrieved 3 July 2014. 
  382. ^ a b "Iraq:hundreds escape from Abu Ghraib jail". The Guardian. Associated Press. 22 July 2013. Retrieved 24 July 2013. 
  383. ^ a b Schreck (23 July 2013). "Abu Ghraib Prison Break: Al Qaeda in Iraq Claims Responsibility for Raid". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 24 July 2013. 
  384. ^ Lake, Eli (29 July 2013). "Al Qaeda in Iraq Abu Ghraib Jailbreak a Counterterrorism Nightmare". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 1 August 2013. 
  385. ^ Malas, Nour; Abushakra, Rima (6 August 2013). "Islamists Seize Airbase Near Aleppo". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 16 July 2014. (subscription required) Accessible via Google.
  386. ^ Luca, Ana Maria (11 November 2013). "Message from Ayman al-Zawahiri". NOW News. Retrieved 22 January 2014. 
  387. ^ Loyd, Anthony (20 September 2013). "Will I die today? Face to face with jihadists fuelled by hate". The Australian. Retrieved 16 July 2014. (subscription required) Accessible via Google.
  388. ^ Burch, Jonathon; Dziadosz, Alexander (19 September 2013). "Syrian rebels, Qaeda group clash near Turkish border crossing". Reuters. Retrieved 16 July 2014. 
  389. ^ Al-Qaeda group and FSA declare truce as Turkey keeps Syria border gate closed Hürriyet Daily News, 19 September 2013
  390. ^ Syrian al-Qaeda prepares to launch attack in Turkey's big cities Today's Zaman, 4 November 2013
  391. ^ "Reyhanlı saldırısını El Kaide üstlendi". Oda TV. 1 October 2013. 
  392. ^ "Al-Qaeda Claims Responsibility for Reyhanlı". Aydınlık. 2 October 2013. Retrieved 21 January 2014. [dead link]
  393. ^ "ISIL threatens Erdoğan with suicide bombings in Ankara, İstanbul". Today's Zaman. 30 September 2013. Retrieved 21 January 2014. 
  394. ^ "El Kaide, Reyhanlı'yı üstlendi iddiası". CNN Türk. 1 October 2013. 
  395. ^ Surk, Barbara (10 December 2013). "Syrian army pounds rebels near Lebanon border". Yahoo! News. Retrieved 18 December 2013. 
  396. ^ "Pope Francis hints at US trip, says he would go to China 'tomorrow' if invited". The Guardian. 18 August 2014. Retrieved 20 August 2014. 
  397. ^ "Video shows ISIS beheading U.S. journalist James Foley". 
  398. ^ "Obama James Foley ISIS Statement WATCH LIVE STREAM VIDEO". Mediaite. Retrieved 2014-08-20. 
  399. ^ "Pentagon admits failure of operation to free Americans held by jihadists". Big News 21 August 2014. Retrieved 22 August 2014. 
  400. ^ Buel, Meredith (21 August 2014). "US Defense Secretary Says Islamic State is Imminent Threat". Voice of America. Retrieved 27 August 2014. 
  401. ^ Nissenbaum, Dion (22 August 2014). "U.S. Considers Attacks on ISIS in Syria". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 23 August 2014. (subscription required) Accessible via Google.
  402. ^
  403. ^ Karouny, Mariam. "Islamic State militants behead captive Lebanese soldier: video". Reuters. Retrieved 31 August 2014. 
  404. ^ "Syria conflict: IS 'kills dozens of Assad soldiers'". BBC News. 28 August 2014. Retrieved 29 August 2014. 
  405. ^ "Mass massacre of Syrian soldiers by IS militants as mother of captive US scribe appeals for mercy". Big News 28 August 2014. Retrieved 30 August 2014. 
  406. ^
  407. ^ "Britain alerts anti-terror mechanism over IS threat". United Kingdom News.Net. 28 August 2014. Retrieved 30 August 2014. 
  408. ^ Ahmed, Rasheed; Coles, Isabel (31 August 2014). "Jubilant Iraqi forces break two-month siege of Amerli: officials". Reuters. Retrieved 31 August 2014. 
  409. ^ "Germany to send Iraqi Kurds enough weapons for 4,000 fighters". Reuters. 31 August 2014. Retrieved 31 August 2014. 
  410. ^ "Fight against "Islamic State": Germany provides anti-tank missiles to Kurds". Spiegel Online. 31 August 2014. Retrieved 31 August 2014. 
  411. ^ Gathmann, Florian; Meiritz, Annett (1 September 2014). "Iraq debate in the Bundestag: Good weapons, evil weapons". Spiegel Online. Retrieved 1 September 2014. 
  412. ^ Marszal, Andrew; Sanchez, Raf; Henderson, Barney (2 September 2014). "Steven Sotloff 'beheaded by Islamic State' - latest". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2 September 2014. 
  413. ^ "After James Foley, ISIS beheads another US journalist Steven Sotloff". The Times of India. 3 September 2014. Retrieved 3 September 2014. 
  414. ^
  415. ^ Original video with English subtitles and transcript by MEMRI at Jim Hoft (2014-09-04). "ISIS THREATENS PUTIN From Top of Captured Russian Jet: "We Will Liberate Chechnya & Caucusus" (Video)". The Gateway Pundit. 
  416. ^ "Fight against "Islamic State": Bundeswehr flies first military equipment to Iraq". Spiegel Online. 2014-09-05. 
  417. ^ "Iraqi and Kurdish troops enter the sieged Amirli". BBC. Retrieved 31 August 2014. 
  418. ^ "So hilft Israels Todfeind den USA im Kampf gegen ISIS!". Build. Retrieved 4 September 2014. 
  419. ^ "In Iraq, residents of Amerli celebrate end of militant siege". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 5 September 2014. 
  420. ^
  421. ^ Cohen, Tom (10 September 2014). "Obama outlines ISIS strategy: Airstrikes in Syria, more U.S. forces". CNN. Retrieved 10 September 2014. 
  422. ^ Masi, Alessandria (12 September 2014). "US-Backed Moderate Group In Syria Signs Truce With ISIS: Reports". International Business Times. 
  423. ^ Holmes, Oliver (14 September 2014). "Islamic State video purports to show beheading of UK hostage David Haines". Reuters. Retrieved 14 September 2014. 
  424. ^ "IS leader accused of Sydney terror plot". 7 News. Yahoo7. Retrieved 18 September 2014. 
  425. ^ "Foreign Terrorist Organizations". Bureau of Counterterrorism. United States Department of State. Retrieved 28 July 2014. 
  426. ^ "Listed terrorist organisations". Australian National Security. Retrieved 31 July 2014. 
  427. ^ "Currently listed entities". Public Safety Canada. Retrieved 31 July 2014. 
  428. ^ "Saudi Arabia designates Muslim Brotherhood terrorist group". Reuters. 7 March 2014. Retrieved 31 July 2014. 
  429. ^ "Proscribed Terrorist Organisations". Home Office. 20 June 2014. Retrieved 31 July 2014. 
  430. ^ "BNPT Declares ISIS a Terrorist Organization". Tempo. 2 August 2014. Retrieved 4 August 2014. 
  431. ^ Tran, Mark (11 June 2014). "Who are Isis? A terror group too extreme even for al-Qaida". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 June 2014. 
  432. ^ Coughlin, Con; Whitehead, Tom (19 June 2014). "US should launch targeted military strikes on 'terrorist army' Isis, says General David Petraeus". The Telegraph. Retrieved 31 July 2014. 
  433. ^ "Iraq religious leader supports liberation of Mosul, calls ISIS terrorists". Foreign Affairs Committee. National Council of Resistance of Iran. 13 June 2014. Retrieved 8 August 2014. 
  434. ^ The US, IS and the conspiracy theory sweeping Lebanon. BBC
  435. ^ 'Password 360' Conspiracy Theories Linking CIA To Isis Actually Bring A Serious US Denial. The Huffington Post
  436. ^ Inside jobs and Israeli stooges: why is the Muslim world in thrall to conspiracy theories?. Mehdi Hassan. The New Statesman
  437. ^ Why Iran Believes the Militant Group ISIS Is an American Plot. Andy Baker. The New York Times. 19 July 2014


External links