||This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page.
||This article may contain inappropriate or misinterpreted citations that do not verify the text. (January 2010)
||This article's factual accuracy is disputed. (January 2010)
Proto-capitalist economies and free markets were active during the Islamic Golden Age and Muslim Agricultural Revolution, where an early market economy and form of merchant capitalism took root between the 8th–12th centuries.
A vigorous monetary economy was based on a widely-circulated currency (the dinar) and the integration of monetary areas that were previously independent.
Business techniques and forms of business organisation employed during this time included:
Organizational enterprises independent from the state also existed in the medieval Islamic world, while the agency institution was also introduced.
Many of these early capitalist concepts were adopted and further advanced in medieval Europe from the 13th century onwards.
See also 
- ^ a b Banaji, Jairus (2007). Historical Materialism (Brill Publishers) 15 (1): 47–74, 28p. doi:10.1163/156920607X171591.
- ^ Robert Sabatino Lopez, Irving Woodworth Raymond, Olivia Remie Constable (2001), Medieval Trade in the Mediterranean World: Illustrative Documents, Columbia University Press, ISBN 0-231-12357-4.
- ^ Ray Spier (2002), "The history of the peer-review process", Trends in Biotechnology 20 (8), p. 357-358 .
- ^ Said Amir Arjomand (1999), "The Law, Agency, and Policy in Medieval Islamic Society: Development of the Institutions of Learning from the Tenth to the Fifteenth Century", Comparative Studies in Society and History 41, pp. 263–93. Cambridge University Press.
- ^ Samir Amin (1978), "The Arab Nation: Some Conclusions and Problems", MERIP Reports 68, pp. 3–14 [8, 13].
Further reading