Muslim conquest of Transoxiana
|Muslim conquest of Transoxiana|
|Part of the Muslim conquests|
Map of Transoxiana and Khurasan in the 8th century
Abbasid Caliphate (after Umayyad period)
|Commanders and leaders|
|Qutayba ibn Muslim
Muslim ibn Sa'id †
Junayd ibn Abd al-Rahman al-Murri
Sawra ibn al-Hurr al-Abani
Sa'id ibn Amr al-Harashi
Asad ibn Abd Allah al-Qasri
Nasr ibn Sayyar
al-Harith ibn Surayj
Battles between Muslims and Turks
As a corollary to the Muslim conquest of Persia, the Muslims became neighbors of the city states of Transoxiana. Although Transoxiana was included in the loosely defined "Turkestan" region, only the ruling elite of Transoxiana was partially of Turkic origins whereas the local population was mostly a diverse mix of local Iranian populations. As the Arabs reached Transoxiana following the conquest of the Sassanid Persian Empire, local Iranian-Turkic and Arab armies clashed over the control of Transoxiana's Silk Road cities. In particular, the Turgesh under the leadership of Suluk, and Khazars under Barjik clashed with their Arab neighbours in order to control this economically important region.
||The following text needs to be harmonized with text in Turgesh#Umayyad_Caliphate.
Suluk's aim was to reconquer all of Transoxiana from the Arab invaders - his war was paralleled, much more westwards, by the Khazar empire. In 721 Turgesh forces, led by Kül Chor, defeated the Caliphal army commanded by Sa'id ibn Abdu'l-Aziz near Samarkand. Sa'id's successor, Al-Kharashi, massacred Turks and Sogdian refugees in Khujand, causing an influx of refugees towards the Turgesh. In 724 Caliph Hisham sent a new governor to Khorasan, Muslim ibn Sa'id, with orders to crush the "Turks" once and for all, but, confronted by Suluk, Muslim hardly managed to reach Samarkand with a handful of survivors after the so-called "Day of Thirst".
A string of subsequent appointees of Hisham were soundly defeated by Suluk, who in 728 took Bukhara and later on still inflicted painful tactical defeats such as the Battle of the Defile upon the Arabs. The Turgesh state was at its apex, controlling Sogdiana, and the Ferghana Valley. By 732, two powerful Arab expeditions to Samarkand managed, if with heavy losses, to reestablish Caliphal authority in the area; Suluk renounced his ambitions over Samarkand and abandoned Bukhara, withdrawing north.
In 734 an early Abbasid follower, al-Harith ibn Surayj, rose in revolt against Umayyad rule and took Balkh and Marv before defecting to the Turgesh three years later, defeated. In winter 737 Suluk, along with his allies al-Harith, Gurak (a Turco-Sogdian leader) and men from Usrushana, Tashkent and Khuttal launched a final offensive. He entered Jowzjan but was defeated by the Umayyad governor Asad at the Battle of Kharistan.Next year, Suluk was murdered by his general with Chinese support. Then in 739 the general himself was killed by the Chinese and the Chinese power returned to Transoxiana.
Battles between Göktürk Empire and Umayyad Caliphate
The Göktürks also had campaigns against the Arab Muslims. By 705, the Göktürks had expanded as far south as Samarkand and threatened Arab control of Transoxiana. Following Qutaiba's campaigns and Gurek's surrender, the Göktürk Empire sent forces down to the Transoxiana in order to help their Transoxian allies. According to Arab sources the forces were led by Kapagan, Bilge and Tegin. The Göktürks clashed with the Umayyad Caliphate in a series of battles (712-713) in which the Arabs again emerged as victors. The main factor of Göktürk failure was rebellions inside the empire and growing Chinese threat from the East.
The process of islamization of local peoples was slow during the Umayyad Caliphate period, but it became more intensive during the following Abbasid period. The Umayyads treated non-Arab peoples as second class citizens and didn't encourage conversions, therefore only few Soghdian commoners converted to Islam during their rule [Grousset]. However, during the Abbasid period non-Arabs gained an equal status and as a result, Islam began spreading across Central Asia.
The last major victory of Arabs in Central Asia occurred at the Battle of Talas (751). The Tibetan Empire was allied to the Arabs during the battle. Despite the conversion of some Karluk Turks after the Battle of Talas, the majority of Karluks did not convert to Islam until the mid 10th century when they established the Kara-Khanid Khanate. This was long after the Tang dynasty was gone from Central Asia. Barthold states that the Islamic rule over Transoxiana was secured at the Battle of Talas. Turks had to wait two and a half more centuries before reconquering Transoxiana when the Karakhanids reconquered the city of Bukhara in 999. Professor Denis Sinor said that it was interference in the internal affairs of the Western Turkic Khaganate which ended Chinese supremacy in Central Asia, since the destruction of the Western Khaganate rid the Muslims of their greatest opponent, and it was not the Battle of Talas which ended the Chinese presence.
The Arab conquest did not mark the end of Buddhism or Chinese influence in the region. The Buddhist Kara-Khitan Khanate conquered a large part of Central Asia from the Muslim Karluk Kara-Khanid Khanate in the 12th century. The Kara-Khitans also reintroduced the Chinese system of Imperial government, since China was still held in respect and esteem in the region among even the Muslim population, and the Kara-Khitans used Chinese as their main official language.
- Göktürk Empire
- Dani 459.
- Barthold 11.
- Barthold 82.
- The Spread Of Islam
- Bulliet & Crossley & Headrick & Hirsch & Johnson 2010, p. 286.
- Bulliet 2010, p. 286.
- Chaliand 2004, p. 31.
- Wink 2002, p. 68.
- Wink 1997, p. 68.
- Lapidus 2012, p. 230.
- Esposito 1999, p. 351.
- Lifchez & Algar 1992, p. 28.
- Soucek 2000, p. 84.
- Sinor 1990, p. 344.
- Biran 2012, p. 90.
- Biran 2012, p. 90.
- Pozzi & Janhunen & Weiers 2006, p. 114.
- Barthold, V.V. (1956). Four Studies on the History of Central Asia. Leiden: Brill.
- Biran, Michal (October 2012). "Kitan Migrations in Eurasia (10th–14th Centuries)". Journal of Central Eurasian Studies (Center for Central Eurasian Studies) 3: 85–108. Retrieved 3 May 2014. (Account required)
- Bulliet, Richard; Crossley, Pamela; Headrick, Daniel; Hirsch, Steven; Johnson, Lyman (2010). The Earth and Its Peoples (5 ed.). Cengage Learning. ISBN 0538744383. Retrieved 3 May 2014.
- Bulliet, Richard (2010). The Earth and Its Peoples, A Global History, AP* Edition, 5th ed.. Cengage Learning. ISBN 1285288572. Retrieved 3 May 2014.
- Chaliand, Gérard (2004). Nomadic Empires: From Mongolia to the Danube. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 141282978X. Retrieved 3 May 2014.
- Esposito, John L., ed. (1999). The Oxford History of Islam (illustrated ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195107993. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Gibb, H. A. R. (1923). The Arab Conquests in Central Asia. London: The Royal Asiatic Society. OCLC 685253133.
- Kennedy, Hugh (2007). The Great Arab Conquests: How the Spread of Islam Changed the World We Live In. Philadelphia, PA: Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-306-81740-3.
- Lapidus, Ira M. (2012). Islamic Societies to the Nineteenth Century: A Global History (illustrated ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 052151441X. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Lifchez, Raymond; Algar, Ayla Esen, eds. (1992). The Dervish Lodge: Architecture, Art, and Sufism in Ottoman Turkey. Volume 10 of Comparative studies on Muslim societies (illustrated ed.). University of California Press. ISBN 0520070607. Retrieved 1 April 2013.
- Litvinsky, B. A.; Jalilov, A. H.; Kolesnikov, A. I. (1996). "The Arab Conquest". In Litvinsky, B. A. History of civilizations of Central Asia, Volume III: The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. Paris: UNESCO Publishing. pp. 449–472. ISBN 92-3-103211-9.
- Pozzi, Alessandra; Janhunen, Juha Antero; Weiers, Michael, eds. (2006). Tumen Jalafun Jecen Aku: Manchu Studies in Honour of Giovanni Stary. Volume 20 of Tunguso Sibirica. Contributor Giovanni Stary. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 344705378X. Retrieved 1 April 2013.
- Sinor, Denis, ed. (1990). The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia, Volume 1 (illustrated, reprint ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521243041. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Soucek, Svat, ed. (2000). A History of Inner Asia (illustrated, reprint ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521657040. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Mark Edward Lewis (2009). China's Cosmopolitan Empire: The Tang Dynasty. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-05419-6.
- Wink, André (1997). Al-Hind the Making of the Indo-Islamic World: The Slave Kings and the Islamic Conquest : 11Th-13th Centuries. Volume 2 of Al-Hind: The Making of the Indo-Islamic World (illustrated ed.). BRILL. ISBN 9004102361. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Wink, André (2002). Al-Hind: The Slavic Kings and the Islamic conquest, 11th-13th centuries. Volume 2 of Al-Hind: The Making of the Indo-Islamic World (illustrated, reprint ed.). BRILL. ISBN 0391041746. Retrieved 10 March 2014.