Islamic dietary laws
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Islamic jurisprudence specifies which foods are ḥalāl (حَلَال "lawful") and which are ḥarām (حَرَامْ "unlawful"). This is derived from commandments found in the Qur'an, the holy book of Islam, as well as the Hadith and Sunnah, libraries cataloging things the Prophet Muhammad is reported to have said and done. Extensions of these rulings are issued, as fatwas, by mujtahids, with varying degrees of strictness, but they are not always widely held to be authoritative. According to the Quran, the only foods explicitly forbidden are meat from animals that die of themselves, blood, the meat of swine (porcine animals, pigs), and animals dedicated to other than Allah (either undedicated or dedicated to idols), but a person is not guilty of sin in a situation where the lack of any alternative creates an undesired necessity to consume that which is otherwise unlawful. (Quran 2:173) This is the "law of necessity" in Islamic jurisprudence: "That which is necessary makes the forbidden permissible", which, in the case of dietary laws, allows one to eat pork or carrion, or drink wine or ethanol if one was starving or dying of thirst (although the Shafi'i madhhab differs on the issue of ethanolic drinks).
Food hygiene 
Food hygiene is an important part of Islamic dietary law.
Dhabīḥah (ذَبِيْحَة) is a prescribed method of ritual animal slaughter; it does not apply to most aquatic animals. The animal must be slaughtered by a Muslim or by one of the People of the Book, generally speaking, a Christian or a Jew, while mentioning the name of God (Allah in Arabic). According to some fatwas, the animal must be slaughtered specifically by a Muslim, however, other fatwas dispute this, ruling that, according to verse 5:5 of the Qurʼan, an animal properly slaughtered by People of the Book is halal. The animal slaughtered must be killed quickly with a sharpened blade. It must not suffer. It must not see the blade. It must not see or smell the blood from a previous slaughter.
Animals for food may not be killed by being boiled or electrocuted, and the carcass should be hung upside down for long enough to be blood-free. All water game is considered halal (although the Hanafi madhhab differs on this): "Lawful to you is game from the sea and its food as provision for you [who are settled] as well as for travellers, although you are forbidden to hunt on land while you are in the state of pilgrimage. And be conscious of God, unto whom you shall be gathered." (Qurʼan 5:96.)
There are generally no restrictions on the consumption of vegetarian food as the restrictions pertain to slaughter.
Food certification 
Because of the recent rise in Muslim populations in the United States and Europe, certain organizations have emerged that certify that food products and ingredients met dhabiha standards. The Muslim Consumer Group is an example of an organization that employs certification labelling, using the H-MCG symbol, to identify the status of different edible and non-edible consumer products.
In Islam, halal is an Arabic term meaning 'lawful, permissible' and not only encompasses food and drink, but all matters of daily life. When it comes to halal food, most people think of meat products only. However, Muslims must ensure that all foods, particularly processed foods, pharmaceuticals and non-food items such as cosmetics are also halal. Often these products contain animal by-products or other ingredients that are not permissible for Muslim consumption.
Since 1991, mainstream manufacturers of soups, grains, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, prepared foods, and other industries, as well as hotels, restaurants, airlines, hospitals and other service providers have pursued the halal market. Halal certification tells Muslims that the ingredients and production methods of a product have been tested and declared permissible by a certification body. It also allows companies to export products to most Middle Eastern and South East Asian countries. The oldest and most well known halal certifier in the USA is Islamic Services of America.
In Europe, several organizations have been created over the past twenty years in order to certify the halal products. A survey recently published by a French association of Muslim Consumers (ASIDCOM) shows that the market of halal products has been developed in a chaotic way in Europe. The European certification organizations do not have a common definition of "halal" nor agreed upon control procedures and traceability. The controls implemented by individual agencies are all very different: they can go from an annual audit of the slaughterhouse, to checking each production with permanent controls in place and on-going independent.
Some animals and manners of death or preparation can make certain things haram to eat, that is, taboo food and drink. These include what are regarded as unclean animals such as animals that are sick, or have diseases like swine.
Prohibited food 
In Islam, any intoxicants (specifically, alcoholic beverages) are generally forbidden in the Qur'an through several separate verses revealed at different times over a period of years. At first, it was forbidden for Muslims to attend to prayers while intoxicated.
O you who believe! do not go near prayer when you are Intoxicated until you know (well) what you say, nor when you are under an obligation to perform a bath—unless (you are) travelling on the road—until you have washed yourselves; and if you are sick, or on a journey, or one of you come from the privy or you have touched the women, and you cannot find water, betake yourselves to pure earth, then wipe your faces and your hands; surely Allah is Pardoning, Forgiving.— Qurʼan, Sura 4 (al-Nisaʼ), ayah 43
They ask you about intoxicants and games of chance. Say: In both of them there is a great sin and means of profit for men, and their sin is greater than their profit. And they ask you as to what they should spend. Say: What you can spare. Thus does Allah make clear to you the communications, that you may ponder.— Qurʼan, Surah 2 (al-Baqarah), ayah 219
This was the next step in turning people away from consumption of it. Finally, "intoxicants and games of chance" were called "abominations of Satan's handiwork," intended to turn people away from God and forget about prayer, and Muslims were ordered to avoid.
O you who believe! Intoxicants (all kinds of alcoholic drinks), gambling, al-ansāb , and al-azlām (arrows for seeking luck or decision) are an abomination of Shayṭān's (Satan's) handiwork. So avoid (strictly all) that (abomination) in order that you may be successful.— Qurʼan, Surah 5 (al-Maʼidah), ayah 90
In addition to this, most observant Muslims refrain from consuming food products that contain pure vanilla extract or soy sauce if these food products contain alcohol; there is some debate about whether the prohibition extends to dishes in which the alcohol would be cooked off or if it would be practically impossible to consume enough of the food to become intoxicated. The Zaidi and Mutazili sects believe that the use of alcohol has always been forbidden and refer to this Qur'an Ayah (4:43) as feeling of sleepiness and not to be awake.
Blood and its by-products are forbidden in Islam, in the Qurʼan, surah 5, al-Maʼidah, verse 3:
Forbidden to you is that which dies of itself, and blood, and flesh of swine, and that on which any other name than that of Allah has been invoked, and the strangled (animal) and that beaten to death, and that killed by a fall and that killed by being smitten with the horn, and that which wild beasts have eaten, except what you slaughter, and what is sacrificed on stones set up (for idols) and that you divide by the arrows; that is a transgression. This day have those who disbelieve despaired of your religion, so fear them not, and fear Me. This day have I perfected for you your religion and completed My favor on you and chosen for you Islam as a religion; but whoever is compelled by hunger, not inclining willfully to sin, then surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.— Qurʼan, Surah 5 (al-Maʼidah ), ayah 3
Consumption of pork and products made from pork is strictly forbidden in Islam.
The origin of this prohibition is in Surat al-Baqarah:
He has only forbidden you what dies of itself, and blood, and flesh of swine, and that over which any other (name) than (that of) Allah has been invoked; but whoever is driven to necessity, not desiring, nor exceeding the limit, no sin shall be upon him; surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.— Qurʼan, Sura 2 (Al-Baqara), ayat 173
See also 
- Comparison of Dhabiĥa Halal and kashrut
- Dietary laws
- Muslim Consumer Group (MCG)
- Religious restrictions on the consumption of pork
- Laws of Islam concerning food
- List of probably / possibly Haram Ingredients
- Is conventional meat Halal/Zabiha? Green Zabiha
- Learn More: Halal Knowledge Centre