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Islamic eschatology is the branch of Islamic scholarship that studies Yawm al-Qiyāmah (pronounced yome-ul-key-ah-mah; Arabic: يوم القيامة "the Day of Resurrection") or Yawm ad-Dīn (pronounced yome-ud-dean; يوم الدين "the Day of Judgment"). This is believed to be the final assessment of humanity by Allah, consisting of the annihilation of all life, resurrection and judgment.
The time of the event is not specified, although there are major and minor signs which have been foretold to happen with Qiyamah at the end of time. Many verses of Qur'anic Sura contain the motif of the impending Day of Resurrection.
The 75th Sura of the Qur'an, "al-Qiyama", has as its main subject the resurrection. Its tribulation is also described in the hadith, and commentaries of Islamic expositors such as al-Ghazali, Ibn Kathir, Ibn Majah, al-Bukhari, and Ibn Khuzaymah. The Day of Judgment is also known as the Day of Reckoning, the Last Day and al-sā'ah, or the Hour.
The hadith describe end time with more specificity than the Qur'an, describing the events of al-Qiyamah through twelve major signs. At the time of judgment, terrible corruption and chaos will rule. The Mahdi will be sent and with the help of Isa, will battle Masih ad-Dajjal. They will triumph, liberating Islam from cruelty, and this will be followed by a time of serenity with people living true to religious values. However there is no mention of the advent of Mahdi and Isa in one era in any of the hadith. Some Muslim scholars translate the Arabic word "Imam" as "Mahdi" to prove the advent of Mahdi & Isa in single era.
Like other Abrahamic religions, Islam also teaches resurrection of the dead, a final tribulation and eternal division of the righteous and wicked. Islamic apocalyptic literature describing Armageddon is often known as fitnah, malāhim, or ghaybah in Shī‘a Islam. Righteous are rewarded with pleasures of Jannah, while unrighteous are tortured in Jahannam.
- 1 Six articles of faith
- 2 Sources
- 3 Three periods
- 4 Major and minor signs
- 5 Major figures
- 6 Major events
- 7 Comparison with Christianity
- 8 Islamic eschatology in literature
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 Sources
- 12 External links
Six articles of faith
The Day of Judgment or Resurrection, al-Qiyāmah, is one of the six articles of faith in Islam. The tribulation associated with it is described in the Qur'an and hadith, and commentaries of Islamic expositors like al-Ghazali, Ibn Kathir, Ibn Majah, al-Bukhari, and Ibn Khuzaymah. The Day of Judgment is also known as the Day of Reckoning, the Hour, and the Last Day. The Day of Judgment or Resurrection, al-Qiyāmah, relates to one of the six aqīdah in Sunni Islam, and seven aqidah in Shī‘a belief.
There are two main sources in Islamic scripture that discuss the Last Judgment, the Qur'an, which is viewed in Islam as infallible, and the hadith, or sayings of the prophet. Hadith are viewed with more flexibility due to the late compilation of the traditions in written form, two hundred years after the death of Muhammad. The concept has also been discussed in commentaries of Islamic scholars such as al-Ghazali, Ibn Kathir, and Muhammad al-Bukhari.
Last Judgment in the Qur'an
The Qur'an describes the Last Judgment, with a number of interpretations of its verses. There are specific aspects:
- The time is known only to Allah.
- Prophet Muhammad cannot bring it forward.
- Those who have been dead will believe that a short time has passed between birth and death. Nothing will remain except Allah.
- God will resurrect all, even if they have turned to stone or iron.
- Those that have accepted false deities will suffer in the afterlife.
There are three periods before the Day of Judgment, also known as ashratu's-sa'ah or alamatu qiyami's-sa'ah, with some debate as to whether the periods could overlap. The first period began at the passing of Muhammad, and the second began with the passing of his companions and ended a thousand years later. The Tartar invasion, 650 years after the death of Muhammad, occurred in the second period. The Mongols, led by Hulagu Khan, grandson of Genghis Khan, attacked Baghdad in 1258 CE and brought the Abbasid caliphate to an end. They massacred millions of Muslims, and the water of the river Tigris turned red with blood. The Qur'an also foretold a fire at Madinah in the Hijaz near Busra in Syria in the second period, which Islamic scholars believe occurred in 654 AH. We are currently in the second period, with the end of days beginning with the appearance of Mahdi.
Major and minor signs
There are a number of major and minor signs of the end of days in Islam. There is debate over whether they could occur concurrently or must be at different points in times, although Islamic scholars typically divide them into three major periods.
Following the second period, the third will be marked by the twelve major signs known as alamatu's-sa'ah al- kubra (The major signs of the end). They are as follows:
- The false messiah, Masih ad-Dajjal, shall appear with huge powers as a one eyed man with the other eye blind and deformed like a grape. He will claim to be God and to hold keys to heaven and hell and lead many astray, although believers will not be deceived.
- Appearance of the Mahdi
- Medina will be deserted, with true believers going to follow Mahdi and sinners following Dajjal
- The return of Isa, from the second sky to kill Dajjal and wipe out all falsehood and religions other than Islam, he will rule the world until he dies.
- Ya'jooj and Ma'jooj, two tribes of vicious beings which had been imprisoned by Dhul-Qarnayn will break out. They will ravage the earth, drink all the water of Lake Tiberias, and kill all believers in their way (or see). Isa, Imam Al-Mahdi, and the believers with them will go to the top of a mountain and pray for the destruction of Gog and Magog. Allah will eventually send disease and worms to wipe them out.
- Mecca will be attacked and the Kaaba will be destroyed
- A pleasant breeze will blow from the south that shall cause all believers to die
- Quran will be forgotten and no one will recall its verses
- All Islamic knowledge will be lost to the extent where people will not say "La Illah Ila Allah" (There is no god, but Allah), but instead old people will babble without understanding "Allah, Allah"
- Dabbat al-ard, or the Beast that will come out of the ground to talk to people 
- People will fornicate in the streets 'like donkeys'
- A huge black smoke cloud will cover the earth
- The sun will rise from the west 
- The first trumpet blow will be sounded by Israfil, and all that is in heavens and earth will be stunned and die except what God wills, silence envelops everything for forty (an undetermined period of time)
- The second trumpet blow will be sounded, the dead will return to life and a fire will start that shall gather all to Mahshar Al Qiy'amah (The Gathering for Judgment)
The 77 Minor Signs of Qiyamat:
- Time will pass rapidly. [Bukhari, Muslim, & Ahmad]
- Good deeds will decrease. [Bukhari]
- People will become miserly. [Bukhari]
- There will be much killing and murder. [Bukhari, Muslim, Ibn Majah, & Ahmad]
- Power and authority will be given to wrong people. [Bukhari]
- Honesty will be lost. [Bukhari]
- The disappearance of knowledge and the appearance of ignorance [Bukhari, Muslim, Ibn Majah, & Ahmad]
- A mountain of gold will be disclosed from beneath the River Euphrates, but we are not to take anything from it.
- The appearance of 30 false messengers. [Bukhari]
- Two large groups, adhering to the same religious teaching, will fight each other with large numbers of casualties. [Bukhari & Muslim]
- Earthquakes will increase [Bukhari & Muslim]
- Wealth will be in abundance, to the extent that it will be difficult to find someone in need of Zakat. [Bukhari]
- When people begin to compete with others in the construction of taller buildings. [Bukhari]
- A man will pass by a grave and wish that he was in their place. [Bukhari]
- The conquest of Constantinople by the Muslims. [Ahmad, Muslim]
- Stones and trees will help the Muslims fight against the Jews.
- The consumption of intoxicants will be widespread. [Bukhari & Muslim]
- Adultery and fornication will be prevalent. [Bukhari, Muslim, Ibn Majah]
- Women will outnumber men, eventually the ratio will be 50 women to 1 man. [Bukhari, Muslim, & Ahmad]
- People will strive for power about mosques.
- Adultery and fornication will be prevalent. [Bukhari, Muslim, Ibn Majah]
- People will cheat with goods. [Ibn Majah]
- Paying Zakat becomes a burden and miserliness becomes widespread; charity is given reluctantly. [Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah]
- Leaders will not rule according to the Commands of Allah.
- Only the rich receive a share of any gains, and the poor do not. [Tirmidhi]
- The leader of a people will be the worst of them. [Tirmidhi]
- A trust is used to make a profit. [Tirmidhi]
- When a man obeys his wife and disobeys his mother; and treats his friend kindly while shunning his father. [Tirmidhi]
- When voices are raised in the mosques. [Tirmidhi]
- People will treat a man with respect out of fear for some evil he might do. [Tirmidhi]
- Men will begin to wear silk. [Tirmidhi]
- Female singers and musical instruments will become popular. [Tirmidhi]
- When the last ones of the Ummah begin to curse the first ones. [Tirmidhi]
- The nations of the Earth will gather against the Muslims like hungry people going to sit at a table full of food. This will occur when the Muslims are large in number, but "like the foam of the sea".
- The Muslim conquest of Jerusalem. [Bukhari]
- A great plague will spread over the land - may be in reference to the plague of Amwas during the Caliphate of Hazrat Umar ibn al-Khattab. [Bukhari]
- Wealth will increase so much so that if a man were given 10,000, he would not be content with it. [Ahmad & Bukhari]
- A trial will arise in Arabia which will not spare a single household. [Ahmad & Bukhari]
- A treaty will be made between the Muslims and the Westerners - which they will breach with an army of 12,000 soldiers under 80 banners. [Bukhari]
Other signs mentioned in Hadith Sharif include:
- Books/writing will be widespread and (religious) knowledge will be low. [Ahmad]
- People will beat others with whips like the tails of oxen - this may be in reference to the slave trade. [Muslim]
- Children will be filled with rage. [at-Tabarani, al-Hakim]
- Children will be foul. [at-Tabarani, al-Hakim]
- Women will conspire. [at-Tabarani, al-Hakim[
- Rain will be acidic or burning - reference to acid rain. [at-Tabarani, al-Hakim]
- Children of fornication will become widespread or prevalent. [at-Tabarani, al-Hakim]
- When a trust becomes a means of making a profit. [Tirmidhi, Al-Haythami]
- Episodes of sudden death will become widespread. [Ahmad]
- There will be people who will be brethren in public, but enemies in secret. (When asked how that would come about, he replied, "Because they will have ulterior motives in their mutual dealings, and at the same time they will fear one another.") [Tirmidhi]
- People will walk in the marketplace with their thighs exposed.
- Great distances will be traversed in short spans of time - reference to vehicles, aeroplanes.
- The people of Iraq will receive no food and no money due to oppression by the Romans (Europeans). [Muslim]
- People will hop between the clouds and the earth.
- When singers become common. [Al-Haythami]
- People will dance late into the night.
- People will claim to follow the Qur'an but will reject Hadith & Sunnah. [Abu Dawood]
- People will believe in the stars. [Al-Haythami]
- People will reject al-Qadr (the Divine Decree of Destiny). [Al-Haythami]
- Smog will appear over cities because of the evil that they are doing.
- People will be carrying on with their trade, but there will only be a few trustworthy persons.
- There will be attempts to make the deserts green.
- Women will be naked in spite of being dressed, these women will be led astray & will lead others astray. [Muslim]
- The conquest of India by the Muslims, just prior to the return of Prophet Jesus, son of Mary. [Ahmad, an-Nisa'i, Tabarani, al-Hakim]
- There will be a special greeting for the people of distinction. [Ahmad]
- Wild animals will be able to talk to humans. [Ahmad]
- A man will leave his home and his thigh or hip will tell him what is happening back at his home. [Ahmad]
- Years of deceit in which the truthful person will not be believed and the liar will be believed. [Ahmad]
- Bearing false witness will become widespread. [Al-Haythami & Ahmad]
- When men lie with men, and women lie with women. [Al-Haythami]
- Trade will become so widespread that a woman will be forced to help her husband in business. [Ahmad]
- A woman will enter the workforce out of love for this world. [Ahmad]
- Arrogance will increase in the earth. [Tabarani, al-Hakim]
- Family ties will be cut. [Ahmad]
- There will be many women of child-bearing age who will no longer give birth.
- There will be an abundance of food, much of which has no blessing in it.
- People will refuse when offered food.
- Men will begin to look like women and women will begin to look like men.
Mahdi (Arabic: مهدي) translates to 'guided one', with hadith being the primary source of his descriptions. His appearance will be the first sign of the third period. Hadith write that he will be a descendant of Muhammad through his daughter Fatimah and cousin Ali. The Mahdi will be looked upon to kill Al-Dajjal and end the prevalent disintegration of the Muslim community to prepare for the reign of Jesus who will rule for a time after. The Mahdi will similarly kill all enemies of the Prophet and fulfill the prophetic mission as a vision of justice and peace before following Jesus’ rule. The physical features of Mahdi are described in the hadith—he will be of Arab complexion and average height with a large belly, large eyes and a sharp nose. He will have a mole on his cheek, the sign of the prophet on his shoulder, and be recognized by the caliphate while he sits at his own home. As written by Abu Dawud:
Our Mahdi will have a broad forehead and a pointed (prominent) nose. He will fill the earth with justice as it is filled with injustice and tyranny. He will rule for seven years.—Abu Dawud, Sahih, 2.208 and Fusul al-muhimma, 275
Though the duration of his rule differs, hadith are consistent in describing that Allah will perfect him in a single night with inspiration and wisdom, and his name will be announced from the sky. He will bring back worship of true Islamic values, and bring the Ark of the Covenant to light. He will conquer Istanbul and Mount Daylam. And will Eye Jerusalem and the Dome as his Home. His banner will be that of the prophet Muhammad: black and unstitched, with a halo. Unopened since the death of Muhammad, the banner will unfurl when the Mahdi appears. He will be helped by angels and others that will prepare the way for him. He will understand the secrets of abjad.
Sunni and Shi'ite perspectives on the Mahdi
Sunni and Shi'ite Islam have different beliefs on the identity of Mahdi. Historically, Sunni Islam has derived religious authority from the caliphate, who was in turn appointed by the companions of Muhammad at his death. The Sunnis view the Mahdi as the successor of Mohammad, the Mahdi is expected to arrive to rule the world and reestablish righteousness. Various Sunnis also share a parallel belief that though there may be no actual Mahdi, the existence of mujaddid will instead lead the Islamic revolution of a renewal in faith and avoidance of deviation from God’s path. Such an intellectual and spiritual figure of Sunni tradition has been attributed to numerous Muslims at the end of each Muslim century from the origin of Islam through present day. This classical interpretation is favored by Sunni scholars like Ghazali and Ibn Taymiyyah.
Shi'a Islam, in distinction, followed the bloodline of Muhammad, favoring his cousin and son by marriage, Ali. Ali was appointed the first Imam, and following him there were eleven more. Muhammad al-Mahdi, otherwise known as the twelfth imam, went into hiding in 873 AD at the age of four. His father was al-`Askari, and had been murdered, and so he was hidden from the authorities of the Abbasid Caliphate. He maintained contact with his followers until 940 AD, when he was hidden. Twelver Shia Islam believes that al-Mahdi is the current Imam, and will emerge at the end of the current age. Some scholars say that, although unnoticed by others present, the Mahdi of Twelver Shi'a Islam continues to make an annual pilgrimage while he resides outside of Mecca. In distinction, Sunni Islam foresees him as a separate and new person. The present Ayatollahs of Iran see themselves as joint caretakers of the office of the Imam until he returns.
The Mahdi is not described in the Qurʾān, only in hadith, with scholars suggesting he arose when Arabian tribes were settling in Syria under Muawiya. “They anticipated 'the Mahdi who will lead the rising people of the Yemen back to their country’ in order to restore the glory of their lost Himyarite kingdom. It was believed that he would eventually conquer Constantinople.”
Claimants of the Mahdi
Throughout history, there have been multiple claimants to the role of Mahdi that had come into existence through their pious deeds and by subsequently acquiring their own following. One of these men, Muhammad al-Hanifiyya was said to have judgment and character over rival caliphs; and mysteries of his death arose in the 8th century. It was believed he had in fact not died and would one day return as the Mahdi. The sect of Mahdavis arose as followers of another claimant, Muhammad Mahdi of Janpur in the 15th century. Furthermore, a potential Mahdi, Muhammad Ahmad of Sudan, was believed to hold the title following his self-proclamation in 1881 and stand against the Turco-Egyptian government as well as the British. Additionally, Mīrzā Ghulām Aḥmad of Punjab claimed to be the Mahdi during the same period as Muhammad Ahmad and considered a heretic by Orthodox Muslims, though he amassed a substantial following and is credited with founding the sect of Ahmadiyya. It should not be forgotten that two linked Shi'i movements, that of the Bábís and that of the Bahá'ís believed (and believe) that their prophets, Sayyid "Ali Muhammad, the Bab" (d. 1850) and Mirza Husayn "Ali Nuri, Bahá'u'lláh were fulfillers of prophecy. The Bab is thought to be the return of the Twelfth Imam and Bahá'u'lláh the Mahdi. Since the Baha'is now preach a fairly successful international religion with possibly 6 million followers, their concept of a fulfillment of Islamic prophecy is now currently well outside the Islamic world.
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Isa is the Arabic name for Jesus of Nazareth, and his return is considered the third major sign of last days, while the second is the appearance of Masih ad-Dajjal. Although Muhammad is the preeminent Prophet in Islam, Jesus is the only Prophet who is said not to have died but rather raised up by Allah. Thus, in accordance with post-Quranic legend, he will conceivably return to Earth as a just judge before the Day of Judgment. As written in hadith:
Abu Hurayrah narrates that the Messenger of Allah said, "By Him in whose hands my soul rests! It is definitely close in that time that Isa, Son of Maryam descends amongst you as a just ruler. He will break the cross, kill the swine and abolish jaziya. And money will abound in such excess that no one will accept it.—Ahmad bin Hambal, al-Musnad, vol 2, p. 240
Hadith reference both the Mahdi and Isa simultaneously and the return of the Mahdi will coincide with the return of Isa. He will descend from the heavens in al-Quds at dawn. The two will meet, and Mahdi will lead the people in fajr prayer. After the prayer, they will open a gate to the west and encounter Masih ad-Dajjal. After the defeat of ad-Dajjal, Isa will lead a peaceful forty-year reign until his death. He will be buried in a tomb beside Muhammad in Medina. Though the two most certainly differ regarding their role and persona in Islamic eschatology, the figures of the Mahdi and Isa are ultimately inseparable for according to the Prophet. Though Isa is said to descend upon the world once again, the Mahdi will already be present.
- What will be your reaction when the son of Mary (Jesus) descends and your Imam is from among yourselves? (Sahih Muslim, bab nuzul 'isa, Vol. 2; Sahih Bukhari, kitab bad' al-khalq wa nuzul 'isa, Vol. 4)
Al-Dajjal or the Antichrist or False Messiah does not appear in the Quran but is a prominent figure in the Hadiths and Islamic eschatology as a whole. He appears gruesome and is blind in his right eye. His one eye is thought to be a symbol that correlates with how single minded he is in achieving his goal of converting Muslims to his side. Al-Dajjal has the intention of gaining followers through his miracle working abilities and apparent wealth and generosity. These abilities are a test for true believers of Islam, who have been warned about his power and must resist his material temptations. He is thought to appear prior to the Day of Judgment, where he will engage in an epic battle with and be killed by either Jesus (according to Sunni tradition) or the Mahdi (according to the Shia tradition). Al-Dajjal functions symbolically as a key cog in overall Islamic eschatological picture, which emphasizes the world coming to an end, of good finally triumphing over evil, and of the remarkable events that will prefigure the replacement of the mortal world with a more authentic form of existence in the afterlife. Various Muslim political movements use the concept of Al-Dajjal to comment on contemporary events, and often identify him with opposing regimes or other worldly forces that they consider as harmful to Islam.
Ya'juj and Ma'juj
The fourth major sign of end time will be that the wall which imprisons the nations of Ya'juj and Ma'juj will break, and they will surge forth. Some Islamic scholars, such as Sheikh Imran Nazar Hosein, believe the wall began to crack during the life of Muhammad. This is supported in the hadith when the prophet mentions that "a hole has been made in the wall containing the Ya'juj and Ma'juj", indicating the size of the hole with his thumb and index finger. Their release will occur forty years prior to the Last Judgment:
But when Ya'jooj and Ma'jooj are let loose and they rush headlong down every hill and mountain—Qur'an 21:96 
They will ravage the earth. Ultimately, Allah will send worms and insects to destroy them.
Desertion of Medina / Destruction of Mecca / Beast of the Earth
The fifth sign is that Medinah will be deserted, and all that remains in the city will be date palms. The just will have gone to join Mahdi, and the evil to Dajjal. Medinah will have been depopulated for forty years by the time of al-Qiyama. The sixth sign is that a thin ruler with short legs from Ethiopia will attack Mecca and destroy the Kabah.
The seventh sign is written in the Ahadith, and is the appearance of the da'ba-tul-ard, or the Beast of the Earth, who will populate the entire world and judge the wicked:
And when the Word is fulfilled against [the unjust], We shall produce from the earth a Beast to [face] them: he will speak to them, for that mankind did not believe with assurance in our Signs.—Qur'an 27:82
The entire world will be engulfed by dukhan, or smoke, for forty days and there will be three huge earthquakes. The Qur'an will be taken to the heavens and even the huffaz will not recall its verses. Finally, a pleasant breeze will blow that shall cause all believers to die, but infidels and sinners will remain alive. A fire will start from Hadramawt in Yemen that shall gather all the people of the world in the land of Mahshar, and al-Qiyamah will commence.
Separation of the righteous and the damned at al-Qiyamah
The eighth sign is a breeze bearing a pleasant scent will emanate from Yemen, causing the awliya, sulaha and the pious to die peacefully once they inhale it. After the believers die, there will be a period of 120 years during which the world will hold only kafirs, sinners, oppressors, liars and adulterers, and there would be a reversion to idolatry.
The ninth sign is the rising of the sun from the West after a long night, which after midday will set again. According to Hadith:
Abu Hurayrah states that the Messenger of Allah (swt) as said, “The Hour will not be established until the sun rises from the West and when the people see it they will have faith. But that will be (the time) when believing of the soul, that will have not believed before that time, will not benefit it.—Ibn Maja, as-Sunan, vol. 2 p 1352-53
The final signs will be nafkhatu'l-ula, when the trumpet will be sounded for the first time, and which will result in the death of the remaining sinners. Then there will be a period of forty years. Then a second trumpet will sound to signal the resurrection. As written in the Qur'an:
The Trumpet will (just) be sounded, when all that are in the heavens and on earth will swoon, except such as it will please Allah (to exempt). Then will a second one be sounded, when, behold, they will be standing and looking on!
Finally, there will be no more injustice:
Surely God does not do injustice to the weight of an ant, and if it is a good deed He multiplies it and gives from Himself a great reward.
Resurrection of the dead
The eleventh sign is the second sounding of the trumpet, at which time the dead will be resurrected as ba'as ba'da'l-mawt. All will be naked and running to the Place of Gathering, while the enemies of Allah will be travelling on their faces with their legs upright.
At divine judgment, each person's Book of Deeds will be read, in which 'every small and great thing is recorded', will be read, with actions before adolescence not written. Records shall be given in the right hand if they are good, and the left if they are evil. Even the smallest acts will not be ignored:
Then shall anyone who has done an atom's weight of good, see it!
And anyone who has done an atom's weight of evil, shall see it.
This will be followed by perfect, divine and merciful justice. The age of the hereafter, or rest of eternity, is the final stage after the Day of Judgment, when all will receive their judgment from God.
Those who believe in that which is revealed unto thee, Muhammad, and those who are Jews, and Christians, and Sabians - whoever believeth in Allah and the Last Day and doeth right - surely their reward is with their Lord, and there shall no fear come upon them neither shall they grieve.
If one did good deeds, one would go to Jannah, and if unrighteous would go to Jahannam. Punishments will include adhab, or severe pain, and khizy or shame. There will also be a punishment of the grave (for those who disbelieved) between death and the resurrection.
Comparison with Christianity
While appearing similar to certain parts of the Bible (Ezekiel, James, 1 Peter, Revelation), this is dissimilar to some Protestant branches of Christianity, where salvation comes by faith in Jesus alone. Catholics, however, cite James 2:24 as evidence that judgment is not based on faith alone. Islam emphasizes that grace does not conflict with perfect justice.
Islamic eschatology in literature
Ibn al-Nafis wrote of Islamic eschatology in Theologus Autodidactus (circa 1270 CE), where he used reason, science, and early Islamic philosophy to explain how he believed al-Qiyamah would unfold, told in the form of a theological fiction novel.
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- [Quran 74:38]
- Muhammad, S. Umar (1999). Muslims' Eschatological Discourses on Colonialism in Northern Nigeria.. Oxford University Press. pp. 59–84.
- Esposito, John (2003). The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-512558-4, p.264
- "Reward and Punishment", Encyclopedia of the Qur'an(2005)
- Leor Halevi, http://www.nytimes.com/2007/05/04/opinion/04iht-edhalevi.1.5565834.html
- Ezekiel 18:27
- James 2:14-2:17
- 1 Peter 2:23
- Revelation 2:23
- James 2:24
- Dr. Abu Shadi Al-Roubi (1982), "Ibn Al-Nafis as a philosopher", Symposium on Ibn al-Nafis, Second International Conference on Islamic Medicine: Islamic Medical Organization, Kuwait (cf. Ibn al-Nafis As a Philosopher, Encyclopedia of Islamic World)
- "Fath al-bârî fî sharh sahîh al-bukhârî" (from Sahih al-Bukhari by Ibn Hajr al-Asqalani).
- Esposito, John, The Oxford Dictionary of Islam, Oxford University Press, 2003, ISBN 0-19-512558-4.
- Richard C. Martin, Said Amir Arjomand, Marcia Hermansen, Abdulkader Tayob, Rochelle Davis, John Obert Voll, Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World, MacMillan Reference Books, 2003, ISBN 978-0028656038.