Funerals in Islam (called Janazah in Arabic) follow fairly specific rites, though they are subject to regional interpretation and variation in custom. In all cases, however, sharia (Islamic religious law) calls for burial of the body, preceded by a simple ritual involving bathing and shrouding the body, followed by salah (prayer). Cremation of the body is forbidden.
Common Islamic burial rituals 
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Burial rituals should normally take place as soon as possible and include:
- Bathing the dead body, except in extraordinary circumstances as in battle of Uhud.
- Enshrouding dead body in a white cotton or linen cloth.
- Funeral prayer .( صلاة الجنازة )
- Burial of the dead body in a grave.
- Positioning the deceased so that the head is faced towards Mecca (Makkah Al-Mukarramah).
Bathing the deceased 
The corpse is washed (ghusl bathed), the purpose is to physically cleanse the corpse. The exact manner: the method, style and accessories used for bathing the corpse may vary by locale and temporal position. Bathing the dead body is an essential ritual of the Sunnah of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and therefore a part of the Islamic Sharia. This should occur as soon as possible after death, preferably within hours. Thus non Islamic authorities should see that this issue is of utmost importance .
The "washers" are commonly adult members of the immediate family and of the same gender as the deceased. In Islamic communities , there are appointed committee members who are entrusted to perform this . In the case of violent death, or accident where the deceased has suffered trauma or mutilation, morgue facilities mend the body and wrap it in a shroud to minimize fluid leakage prior to surrendering it to mourners for washing. In Islamic countries , morgue with bath facilities enable bathing to be done after post mortem without having to unwrap for further bathing at home . Morgue staff are trained to perform this as part of the hospital services for free .
Enshrouding the deceased 
The corpse is typically wrapped in a simple plain cloth (the kafan). This is done to respect the dignity and privacy of the deceased. The specifics of this ritual, including the material, style, and color of the cloth, may vary across regions. However, the shroud should be simple and modest. It is for this reason that Muslims have generally preferred to use white cotton cloth to serve as the shroud. Men may use only three pieces of cloth and women five pieces of cloth. Some perfume may be applied to the cloth as well.
Muslim tradition stresses that once a person dies, the burial should happen as soon as possible, so it's important to begin the funeral as soon as the shrouding is complete.
Funeral prayer 
The Muslims of the community gather to offer their collective prayers for the forgiveness of the dead. This prayer has been generally termed as the Salat al-Janazah (Janazah prayer).
The Janazah prayer is as follows:
- like Eid prayer, the Janazah prayer incorporates an additional (four) Takbirs, the Arabic name for the phrase Allahu Akbar, but there is no Ruku' (bowing) and Sujud (prostrating).
- Supplication for the deceased and mankind is recited.
- In extraordinary circumstances, the prayer can be postponed and prayed at a later time as was done in the Battle of Uhud.
- Dogma states it is obligatory for every Muslim adult male to perform the funeral prayer upon the death of any Muslim, but the dogma embraces the practical in that it qualifies, when Janazah is performed by the few it alleviates that obligation for all.
The grave should be aligned perpendicular to the Qibla (i.e. Mecca). The body is placed in the grave without a casket, lying on its right side, and facing the Qibla. Grave markers should be raised only up to a maximum of 30 centimetres (12 in) above the ground. Thus Grave markers are simple, because outwardly lavish displays are discouraged in Islam. Many times graves may even be unmarked, or marked only with a simple wreath. However, it is becoming more common for family members to erect grave monuments and this is against the sunnah and must be condoned .
In Middle Eastern cultures women are generally discouraged from participating in the funeral procession. The reason for this is that in pre-Islamic Arabia it was customary in Arabia for grieving women to wail loudly. Wealthy families often even hired 'wailers' to attend the funerals of their deceased relative. Wailing at funerals is not permitted in Islam.
Three fist-sized spheres of hand-packed soil (prepared beforehand by the gravediggers) are used as props, one under the head, one under the chin and one under the shoulder. The lowering of the corpse, and positioning of the soil-balls is done by the next of kin. In the case of a departed husband, the male brother or brother-in-law usually performs this task. In the case of a departed wife, the husband undertakes this (if physically able). If the husband is elderly, then the eldest male son (or son-in-law) is responsible for lowering, alignment and propping the departed.
The orthodoxy expects those present to symbolically pour three handfuls of soil into the grave while reciting a Quranic verse in Arabic 'Inna lillaahi wa inna ilayhi Raaji'oon' meaning "To Allah we belong and to Allah we return". More prayers are then said, asking for forgiveness of the deceased, and reminding the dead of their profession of faith.
When the body is lowered into the grave, one should recite, “Bismillah-i wa'ala millat-i rasulilah” meaning “In the Name of Allah, (we bury) according to the way of the Prophet of Allah.” When throwing the first handful in the grave one should recite, “Minhaa khalaqnaahum,” (from the (earth) did We create you.) During the second handful one should recite, “Wa minhaa nu'eedukum” (and into it shall We return you.) During the third handful one should recite, “Wa minhaa nukhrijukum taaratan ukhraa” (and from it shall We bring you out once again.)
The corpse is then fully buried by the gravediggers, who may stamp or pat down the grave to shape. Commonly the eldest male will supervise. After the burial, the Muslims who have gathered to pay their respects to the dead, collectively pray for the forgiveness of the dead. This collective prayer is the last formal collective prayer for the dead. In some cultures, e.g. South East Asian Muslims, the surviving members of the deceased scatter flowers and perfumed rose water upon the grave as the last action prior to leaving the grave.
According to orthodoxy, loved ones and relatives are to observe a 3-day mourning period. Islamic mourning is observed by increased devotion, receiving visitors and condolences, and avoiding decorative clothing and jewelry. in accordance with the Qur'an.
During that time, the widow of the deceased is not to remarry or interact with non-mahram (men not directly related to her/men whom she can marry). However in case of emergencies such as visiting a doctor because of a health emergency, the widow can interact with non-mahram. She must also observe an extended mourning period (iddah, period of waiting) which is 4 months and 10 days long. This rule is to confirm that the woman is not pregnant with the deceased's child prior to remarrying.
Grief at the death of a beloved person is normal, and weeping for the dead (by males or females) is perfectly acceptable in Islam. However, wailing or loud crying is strictly forbidden. Islam does expect expression of one's grief to remain dignified: Islam prohibits the expression of grief by loud wailing (bewailing refers to mourning in a loud voice), shrieking, beating the chest and cheeks, tearing hair or clothes, breaking objects, scratching faces or speaking phrases that make a Muslim lose faith, although much latitude is granted in practice, as fatigue and emotion can adversely affect ones' behaviour, and such behaviour is rarely censured.
Directives for widows 
And those of you who die and leave widows behind, they should keep themselves in waiting for four months and ten days. Then when they have fulfilled their term, there is no blame on you about what they do with themselves in accordance with the norms [of society]. And Allah is well acquainted with what you do. And there is also no blame on you if you tacitly send a marriage proposal to these women or hold it in your hearts. Allah knows that you would definitely talk to them. [Do so] but do not make a secret contract. Of course you can say something in accordance with the norms [of the society]. And do not decide to marry until the law reaches its term. And know that Allah has knowledge of what is in your hearts; so be fearful of Him and know that Allah is Most forgiving and Most Forbearing.
Islamic scholars consider this directive a balance between the mourning of a husband's death and the protection of a widow from cultural or societal censure if she became interested in re-marrying after her husband’s death, often an economic necessity. This provision also operates to protect the property rights of the unborn, as the duration is enough to ascertain whether a lady is pregnant or not.
Husbands are recommended to make a will in favor of their wives for the provision of one year’s residence and maintenance, except if the wives themselves leave the house or take any other similar step. As stated in Qur'an:
And those of you who die and leave widows should bequeath for their widows a year’s provision and [bequeath] that [in this period] they shall not be turned out of their residences; but if they themselves leave the residence, there is no blame on you for what they do with themselves according to the norms of society. And Allah is Exalted in Power, Wise.
Marking and Visiting Graves 
Marking Graves 
- To make the grave a little higher than the ground, approximately a handspan, and not to make it level with the ground, so that it may be distinguished as a grave and respected, and not subjected to disrespect.
- There is nothing wrong with placing a marker such as a stone or something similar, so that others of his family may be buried near him later on. This should be as simple as possible, and serve as an indication to family where the body is.
- Water should be sprinkled on the grave so that the soil will settle and not fly around.
Visiting Graves 
The practice of giving flowers is not from sunnah or fard, and is therefore considered "bidah" or innovated, and thus highly discouraged in Islam. One should do pious deeds that will be of benefit to the deceased, for example reciting the Qur'an, giving charity, etc. on behalf of the deceased or completing Hajj for the deceased. Placing flowers on the grave does not benefit the deceased in any way. It is seen as a waste of money. Rather, that money be given to the poor and needy as charity on behalf of the deceased.
It is prescribed in Islam to offer condolences to the family of the deceased. This should take the form of whatever is thought will bring them consolation, stem their grief and help them to be patient. Condolences should be offered in the manner reported from Muhammed if one can remember that, otherwise in whatever good words come easily to one which will achieve the same purpose and which do not go against Islam. It was narrated that Muhammed said: “To Allaah belongs that which He has taken and that which He gives, and with Him everything has an appointed end, so be patient and seek reward.” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, al-Janaa’iz, 1204)
Two things must be avoided:
- Gathering to offer condolences.
- The family of the deceased preparing food to offer to those who come to offer condolences. The sunnah is for the relatives and neighbors of the deceased to make food enough for the bereaved family.
Forbidden Practices 
It is not permissible to disturb graves, whether by digging up the remains, walking over the graves or any other form of disrespect. Another forbidden practice is erecting any structure or property on top of graves.
It is haraam to build up graves or to plaster them or to write anything on them, because Jaabir said: “The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) forbade us to plaster graves with gypsum, to sit on them or to build anything over them.” (Narrated by Muslim, al-Janaa’iz, 1610. According to Abu Dawood, “He forbade us to plaster graves with gypsum, to write on them or to step on them.” (al-Janaa’iz, 3226. Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh Sunan Abi Dawood, 2763)
See also 
- Ghamidi (2001), Customs and Behavioral Laws
- Sahih al-Bukhari 1254
- Sahih al-Bukhari 1346
- Sahih Muslim 943
- Ghamidi, Various types of the prayer
- Sahih Muslim Volume 2, Book 23, Number 344-358
- Nesa, Baduroon. "The Washing and Shrouding of the Deceased". Al-Jazeerah.nfo. Dr. Hassan Ali El-Najjar. Retrieved 17 February 2012.
- Sahih Muslim Volume 2, Book 23, Number 353-358
- Sahih Muslim Volume 2, Book 23, Number 404
- Sahih Muslim Volume 2, Book 23, Number 359
- al-Misri, Ahmad ibn Naqib (1994). Reliance of the Traveler (edited and translated by Nuh Ha Mim Keller. Amana Publications. pp. 238–239. ISBN 0-915957-72-8.
- Sahih Muslim Volume 2, Book 23, Number 368
- Quran 20:55; compare "Dust thou art, and unto dust thou shalt return" (Genesis 3:19)
- Sahih Muslim Volume 2, Book 23, Number 369-371
- Volume 2, Book 23, Number 370-371]
- Quran 2:234
- Sahih Muslim http://www.usc.edu/schools/college/crcc/engagement/resources/texts/muslim/hadith/bukhari/023.sbt.html#002.023.370
- Sahih Muslim Volume 2, Book 23, Number 391
- Sahih Muslim Volume 2, Book 23, Number 375-393
- Islahi (1986), p. 546
- Shehzad Saleem. The Social Directives of Islam: Distinctive Aspects of Ghamidi’s Interpretation, Renaissance. March, 2004
- Ghamidi, Javed (2001). Mizan. Dar al-Ishraq. OCLC 52901690.
- Amin Ahsan Islahi, Tadabbur-i-Qur'an, 2nd ed., vol. 1, (Lahore: Faran Foundation, 1986)
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