Physics in medieval Islam is the development of physics in the medieval Islamic world in the history of physics. In the course of the expansion of the Islamic world, Muslim scholars encountered the science, mathematics, and medicine of antiquity through the works of Aristotle, Archimedes, Galen, Ptolemy, Euclid, and others. These works and the important commentaries on them were the wellspring of science during the Medieval period. They were translated into Arabic, the of this period. lingua franca Islamic scholarship had inherited Aristotelian physics from the Greeks and during the Islamic Golden Age developed it further, especially placing emphasis on observation and a priori reasoning, formulating crude forms of the scientific method.
Fields of physics studied included
optics and magnetism, mechanics (including statics, dynamics, kinematics and motion), and astronomy.
References [ edit ]
Briffault, Robert (1919), , G. Allen & Unwin Ltd. The Making of Humanity
Duhem, Pierre (1969) , To Save the Phenomena: An Essay on the Idea of Physical theory from Plato to Galileo, University of Chicago Press
Gill, Mohammad (August 2005). "Was Muslim Astronomy the Harbinger of Copernicanism?". Chowk.com . Retrieved 2010-05-06.
Howard, Ian P.; Wade, Nicholas J. (1996), "Ptolemy's contributions to the geometry of binocular vision", Perception 25 (10): 1189–1201, doi: 10.1068/p251189, PMID 9027922
Huff, Toby (2003), The Rise of Early Modern Science: Islam, China, and the West, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-52994-8
King, David A. (1983), "The Astronomy of the Mamluks", Isis 74 (4): 531–555, doi: 10.1086/353360
Marshall, O. S. (1950), "Alhazen and the Telescope", Astronomical Society of the Pacific Leaflets 6: 4
Nasr, Seyyed H. (1st edition in 1964, 2nd edition in 1993), An Introduction to Islamic Cosmological Doctrines (2nd ed.), 1st edition by Harvard University Press, 2nd edition by State University of New York Press, ISBN 0-7914-1515-5
Plott, John C.; Gray, Wallace; Dolin, James Michael (2000)  The Period of Scholasticism (part two) Global History of Philosophy Motilal Banarsidass ISBN 81-208-0552-6 OCLC 491274936
Ragep, F. Jamil (2001a), "Tusi and Copernicus: The Earth's Motion in Context", Science in Context ( Cambridge University Press) 14 (1-2): 145–163.
Ragep, F. Jamil (2001b), "Freeing Astronomy from Philosophy: An Aspect of Islamic Influence on Science", Osiris, 2nd Series 16 (Science in Theistic Contexts: Cognitive Dimensions): 49–64 & 66–71, Bibcode: 2001Osir...16...49R, doi: 10.1086/649338.
Rashed, Roshdi (2007), "The Celestial Kinematics of Ibn al-Haytham", Arabic Sciences and Philosophy ( Cambridge University Press) 17 (01): 7–55 , doi: 10.1017/S0957423907000355.
Rosen, Edward (1985), "The Dissolution of the Solid Celestial Spheres", Journal of the History of Ideas (University of Pennsylvania Press) 46 (1): 13–31, doi: 10.2307/2709773, JSTOR 2709773
Rozhanskaya, Mariam; Levinova, I. S. (1996), "Statics", in Roshdi Rashed & Régis Morelon, (New York, London: Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science Routledge) 2/3, ISBN 0-415-12411-5.
Russell, Gul A. (1996), "Emergence of Physiological Optics", in Roshdi Rashed & Régis Morelon, (New York, London: Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science Routledge) 1/3, ISBN 0-415-12410-7.
Saliba, George (1980), "Al-Biruni", in Strayer, Joseph, Dictionary of the Middle Ages 2, Charles Scribner's Sons, New York
Saliba, George (1994a), "Early Arabic Critique of Ptolemaic Cosmology: A Ninth-Century Text on the Motion of the Celestial Spheres", Journal for the History of Astronomy 25: 115–141, Bibcode: 1994JHA....25..115S.
Saliba, George (1994b), A History of Arabic Astronomy: Planetary Theories During the Golden Age of Islam, New York University Press, ISBN 0-8147-8023-7
Saliba, George (1999), , Whose Science is Arabic Science in Renaissance Europe? Columbia University , retrieved 2008-01-22
Sayılı, Aydın (1987), "Ibn Sīnā and Buridan on the Motion of the Projectile", Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 500 (1): 477–482, Bibcode: 1987NYASA.500..477S, doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1987.tb37219.x.
Wade, Nicholas J. (1998), A Natural History of Vision, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Zaimeche, Salah; Al-Hassani, Salim; Alp, Talip; Salem, Ahmed; Mohammed Abattouy, Mohammed El-Gomati, Salim Ayduz, Savas Konur, Cem Nizamoglu, Anne-Maria Brennan, Maurice Coles, Ian Fenn, Amar Nazir, and Margaret Morris (December 2001). "Astronomical Observatories in the Classical Islamic Culture". MuslimHeritage.com. Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation . Retrieved 2010-05-08
See also [ edit ]