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Islamic socialism is a term coined by various Muslim leaders to describe a more spiritual form of socialism. Muslim socialists believe that the teachings of the Qur'an and Muhammad — especially zakāt — are compatible with principles of economic and social equality. They draw inspiration from the early Medinan welfare state established by Muhammad. Muslim socialists are generally not as socially liberal as their western counterparts. Like Christian democrats, Muslim socialists found their roots in anti-imperialism. Muslim socialist leaders believe in democracy and the derivation of legitimacy from the public, as opposed to Islamic religious texts or claims to be Muhammad's successors.
Abū Dharr al-Ghifārī, a Companion of Prophet Muḥammad, is credited by many as a principal antecedent of Islamic socialism. He protested against the accumulation of wealth by the ruling class during ‘Uthmān's caliphate and urged the equitable redistribution of wealth.
The first experimental Islamic commune was established during the Russian Revolution of 1917 as part of the Wäisi movement, an early supporter of the Soviet government. The Muslim Socialist Committee of Kazan was also active at this time.
Heavily influenced by pan-Arab Egyptian leader, G. Abdul Nasser, the Green Book, was published in three parts (1975, 1977, 1978). It served as the basis for the Islamic Legion. Gaddafi's former mercenaries backed Uganda's Islamic dictator Idi Amin, and later on pushed a racist Arabist ideology in Sudan. It has been alleged that Charles Taylor received military training in Libya, under Ibrahim Bah, a Senegalese national, ex-Hezbollah, and Sierra Leone's RUF's General. The RUF was influenced by Libyan leader Colonel Mu'ammar al-Qadhaff's amalgam of socialist-Islamic philosophies.
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- Gamal Abdel Nasser
- Rafi Ahmed Kidwai, Indian politician and cabinet minister from 1947–1954
- Jalal Al-e Ahmad, Iranian social and political critic
- Tan Malaka, Indonesian Communist of Minangkabau descent and philosopher of dialectical materialism
- Agus Salim, Indonesian hero, patron of Jong Islamienten Bond
- Sjafruddin Prawiranegara, Masyumi politician
- Sultan Ghaliev, the Muslim National Communist
- Sukarno, first President of Indonesia
- Ali Shariati
- Shamsiah Fakeh, Malaysian feminist and guerilla fighter
- Siad Barre, former from President of Somalia;1969-1991. Turned his back to communism in 1978 after the betrayal of the Soviet Union.
- Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, Prime Minister and President.
- Benazir Bhutto, feminist, politician and former Prime minister of Pakistan
- Chaudhry Rehmat Ali
- Yasser Arafat
- Abdul Hamid Khan Bhashani, Political leader in British India, Pakistan and later in Bangladesh.
- Ahmed Jibril
- Faiz Ahmed Faiz
- Habib Jalib
- Sadat Hassan Manto
- Hanif Ramay
- Muammar Gaddafi
- Massoud Rajavi
- Ismail Mahmood, founder of Islamic pantheism
- Muhammad Tahir ul-Qadri, founder of the Pakistan Awami Tehrik
"Islamic Marxism" is a term that has been used to describe Ali Shariati (in Shariati and Marx: A Critique of an "Islamic" Critique of Marxism by Assef Bayat). It is also sometimes used in discussions of the 1979 Iranian Revolution, including parties such as the People's Mujahideen of Iran (MEK), a formerly designated terrorist organization by the United States, Canada, Iraq, and the Islamic Republic of Iran that advocates of overthrow of the latter. The MEK is now, however, claimed to be democratic and secular.
- Islamic economic jurisprudence
- Zanj Rebellion
- Bayt al-mal
- Arab Socialism
- National communism
- Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World. New York: Oxford University Press. 1995. p. 19. ISBN 0-19-506613-8. OCLC 94030758.
- "Abu Dharr al-Ghifari". Oxford Islamic Studies Online. Retrieved 23 January 2010.
- And Once Again Abu Dharr. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
- Hanna, Sami A.; George H. Gardner (1969). Arab Socialism: A Documentary Survey. Leiden: E.J. Brill. pp. 273–274. Retrieved 23 January 2010.
- Hanna, Sami A. (1969). "al-Takaful al-Ijtimai and Islamic Socialism". The Muslim World 59 (3-4): 275–286. doi:10.1111/j.1478-1913.1969.tb02639.x.
- John L. Esposito, "The Islamic Threat: Myth Or Reality?" Oxford University Press, Oct 7, 1999, Political Science, 352 pp., pp. 77-78.
- John L. Espósito, "The Islamic threat: myth or reality?," Oxford University Press, Sep 9, 1993, 247 pp., pp. 80-82
- "Socialism Islamic, WWH
- "US Officials Regard Chad Conflict As Big Test Of Wills With Khadafy." Gainesville Sun, August 19, 1983. New York Times News Service
- The Islamic Legion. Gaddafi's former Mercenaries.
- BBC News - "Charles Taylor: Godfather or peacemaker?," BBC, Mar 11, 2011
- Douglas Farah, Stephen Braun, "Merchant of Death: Money, Guns, Planes, and the Man Who Makes War Possible," John Wiley & Sons, Apr 14, 2008, 320 pp.
- Raymond D. Gastil, "Freedom in the World: The Annual Survey of Political Rights & Civil Liberties 1997-1998," Transaction Publishers, Jan 1, 1997, 610 pp., p. 453
- About So-Called Islamic Marxism
- John Esposito, ed. (1995). "Socialism and Islam". Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World. vol. 4. Oxford University Press. pp. 81–86. ISBN 0-19-506613-8. OCLC 94030758.
- Maxime Rodinson, Marxism and the Muslim world, Zed Press, 1979, 229 pages, ISBN 978-0-905762-21-0 (transl. from the French reference book Maxime Rodinson, Marxisme et monde musulman, Paris, Éditions du Seuil, 1972, 698 pages