Islamic view of the Christian Bible
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The Islamic view of the Christian Bible is based on the belief that parts of Bible are a revelation from God, however some of that has become distorted or corrupted (tahrif), while a lot of text has been added which was not part of the revelation. The Qur'an – the revelation Muslims believe was given to the prophet Muhammad as a remedy – identifies three sets of books from the Bible as genuine divine revelation given to trusted messengers: the Tawrat (Torah) given to Musa (Moses), the Zabur (Psalms) given to Daud (David) and the Injil (Gospel) given to Isa (Jesus). Together, the Qur'an, these books and the now-lost Suhuf Ibrahim ("Scrolls of Abraham") constitute Islam's scripture. Belief that this scripture is divinely inspired is one of Islam's fundamental tenets, but, since all scripture before the Qur'an is also held to have become corrupted, Muslims are directed to take guidance from the Qur'an alone. Abu Hurairah, a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad had narrated, "The people of the Scripture (Jews) used to recite the Torah in Hebrew and they used to explain it in Arabic to the Muslims. On that Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) said, "Do not believe the people of the Scripture or disbelieve them, but say:-- "We believe in Allah and what is revealed to us."
Islamic view of the Torah (Tawrat)
The Qur'an mentions the word Torah eighteen times and confirms that it was The Word Of God. However, it also states that over time there have been additions to, and subtractions from, the original text.
Islamic view of the Book of Psalms (Zabur)
Islamic view of the Gospel (Injil)
When the Qur'an speaks of the Gospel, it refers to an original divinely revealed Book that came to the Prophet Jesus Christ. It does not refer to any Gospel written by any of Jesus's disciples, such as the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John and other lost Gospels such as that of Peter.
Although Muslims believe that Jesus' original Gospel has been corrupted and lost, they believe that hints of the message of the original Gospel are still evident in the traditional Gospels of Christianity. However, like the Torah, they believe that there have been additions and subtractions made to the real story in these Gospels.
Muhammad and the Bible
Certain passages in the Bible have been interpreted by some Islamic scholars as prophetic references to Muhammad, such as Deuteronomy 18:15-22. Verse 15 says: "...a Prophet from the midst of thee, of thy brethren, like unto me;..."
Though Muhammad was not an Israelite, according to Islamic tradition, he was a descendant of Ishmael and therefore traced his descent back to Abraham, like the Israelites. Deuteronomy 18:22 states, "When a prophet speaketh in the name of the Lord, if the thing follow not, nor come to pass, that is the thing which the Lord hath not spoken, but the prophet hath spoken it presumptuously: thou shalt not be afraid of him.".
Mention of Parakleitos (English translation commonly "Comforter") in John 14:16, 15:26, 16:7 and 18:36 have been taken to be prophetic references to Muhammad. Christian scholars, on the other hand, interpret Parakleitos as the Holy Spirit.
Qur'anic references to other persons in the Bible
Some of the people found in both the Qur'an and the Bible include; Aaron, Abel, Abraham, Adam, Cain, David, the disciples of Jesus, Elias, Elisha, Enoch, Eve, Ezra, Goliath, Isaac, Ishmael, Jacob, Jesus, John the Baptist, Jonah, Joseph, Lot, Mary, Moses, Noah, the Pharaohs of Egypt, Samuel, Saul, Solomon, and Zacharias.
- Quran 4:163
- Quran 17:55, Quran 21:105
- Abdus Sattar Ghauri (September 2006). "Muhammad foretold in the Bible: An Introduction" Renaissance 16 (9). ISSN 1606-9382.
- Deuteronomy 18:15-22
- John 14:16, 15:26, 16:7, 18:36
- John 16:12-14
- The Koran, N. J. Dawood, Penguin Classics, London, 1999 Index ISBN 0-14-044558-7.