Adam in Islam
alayhi s-salām -
( عليه السلام )
|Native name||ʾĀdam - آدم|
|Known for||First human being|
|Spouse(s)||Hawwā - حواء|
|Children||Hābīl and Qābīl - هابيل ,قابيل|
Adam ( Arabic: آدم, translit.: ʾĀdam, Alternate Spelling: Adem ) is believed to have been the first human being and the first prophet and messenger in Islam. Adam's role as the father of the human race is looked upon by Muslims with reverence. Muslims also venerate his wife, Eve, as the "mother of mankind". Muslims see Adam as the first Muslim, as the Qur'an promulgates that all the prophets preached the same faith of submission to God. His story is told in the Qur'an in numerous places, though his Qur'anic narrative differs from that in the Torah in some aspects.
An Overview of Creation
The Qur'an and hadith give distinctly different accounts of the creation of Adam and Eve. Synthesizing the Qur'an with Sunni hadith can produce the following account. According to the Qur'an, when God informed the angels that he was going to put a successor on Earth, they questioned whether the human would cause blood shed and damage, but He told them that He knew what they did not.  He created Adam from clay and He breathed life into him. Hadith add that he was named Adam after the clay he was made out of, or the skin (adim) of the earth.
Returning to the Qur'an, when God asked all the angels to prostrate before Adam, they all obeyed except Iblis. For this, God banished Iblis to earth where he would be a tester of humans.  God teaches Adam the names of all the things. 
Sunni hadith say that while Adam was sleeping, God took a rib from him and from it He created Eve; however, while the creation of Adam and Eve is referred to in the Qur'an, the exact method of creation is not specified.  The Qur'an then says that God commanded that Adam and Eve not eat from one tree in heaven, but Iblis was able to convince them to taste it. They then began to cover themselves because they now knew that they were naked.  For this, God banished Adam and Eve to earth; non-canonical Sunni hadith say that fruits were turned to thorns and pregnancy became dangerous. Non-canonical Sunni hadith also say that Adam and Eve were cast down far apart, so that they had to search for each other. 
In Islamic theology, it is not believed that Adam's sin is carried by all of his children.  Hadith say that once Adam was on earth, God taught him how to plant seeds and bake bread. This was to become the way of all of Adam's children. Adam proceeded to live for about 1000 years, though this has been a topic of debate. 
Shi'i hadith give a different account of the early existence of Adam and Eve from the above; additionally, in Shi'i theology, eating from the tree is not considered to be a sin, because the prophets are seen as sinless. Thus, neither Adam nor Eve is cursed for this.
The Significance and Importance of Adam
According to the story of Adam, human kind has learned everything from Adam. He was the first to learn to plant, harvest, and bake as well as the first to be told how to repent and how to properly bury someone.  God also revealed the various food restrictions and the alphabet to Adam.  He was made the first prophet and he was taught 21 scrolls and was able to write them himself.  Adam was created in God's image.  Because of this, it is said that all of his children combined were not as beautiful as Adam with the exception of Joseph.  Adam was also created from earth. It is well known that earth produces crops, supports animals, and provides shelter, among many other things. Earth is very important to human kind, so being created from it makes them very distinct.  According to some Hadith, the various races of people are even due to the different colors of soil used in creating Adam. The soil also contributed to the idea that there are good people and bad people and everything in between in the world.  Adam is an important figure in many other religions besides Islam.  In fact, the Qur'an even mentions turning to the "people of the book" (referring to Christians and Jews) for help on certain topics. The story of Adam varies slightly across religions, but manages to maintain a general theme and structure. 
Descendants of Adam
Though it is up for debate, it has been said that Eve went through 120 pregnancies with Adam and each of these consisted of a set of twins: a boy and a girl.  According to several sources, God took all of Adam's progent from his back while they were still in heaven. He asked each of them "am I not your lord?" as read in Q 7:172 and they all replied yes.  For this reason, it is believed that all humans are born with an innate knowledge of God. The most famous of Adam's children are Cain and Abel. These two brothers argued over who should marry the more beautiful of the sisters. The argument over this led to the first murder in human history: the murder of Abel by Cain.  As Adam grieved his son, he would preach to his children about God and faith in Him.  When Adam's death grew near, he appointed his son Seth as his successor. 
Adam in the Qur'an
The story of Adam and creation is pieced throughout the Qur'an. There are references in suras 2, 4, 5, 7, 15, 20, 21, 38 and others.
According to the Qur'an, God Created humankind out of clay, shaped it to a form and then commanded the angels to bow (submit) to Adam. Iblis (Devil) refused out of pride and was banished from Jannah (Heaven). Iblis was one of the jinn to begin with.
In the Garden of Eden, Iblis (later known as Shaytan) lured Adam and Eve into disobeying God by tasting from the forbidden tree. God, as a punishment, sends Adam and Eve out into the rest of the earth.
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