Islamist insurgency in Nigeria
|Islamist insurgency in Nigeria|
Map of Nigeria
|Nigerian Government Israel|| Boko Haram
|Commanders and leaders|
| Goodluck Jonathan
Ali Modu Sheriff
| Mohammed Yusuf †
Abubakar Shekau †
Mallam Sanni Umaru
Abu Usmatul al-Ansari
|Boko Haram: 9,000+ |
|Casualties and losses|
Thousands of civilians displaced
The Islamist insurgency in Nigeria, also known as the Sharia Conflict in Nigeria, began in 1999 with the establishment of sharia law in several Muslim-majority states in Northern Nigeria, despite the secular Constitution of Nigeria and the disagreeing Christian minority. From 2000 onwards, occasional riots between Christians and Muslims have resulted in thousands of deaths. Since 2009, when the Islamist group Boko Haram started an armed rebellion against the secular government of Nigeria, the conflict has become more violent. In 2010, 55 people were killed in claimed or suspected Boko Haram attacks. By 2013, the annual death toll exceeded 1000, with a further sharp increase occurring in early 2014.
According to a Nigerian study on demographics and religion, Muslims make up 50.5% of the population. Muslims mainly live in the north of the country; the majority of the Nigerian Muslims are Sunnis. Christians are the second-largest religious group and make up 48.2% of the population. They predominate in the central and southern part of the country.
As Muslims narrowly form the majority of the population, many of them demand the introduction of Sharia – the Islamic law – as the main source of legislation. Twelve Northern states have introduced sharia as a basis of the executive and judicial branches of government in the years 1999 and 2000.
- 1 Background
- 2 Political development
- 3 History
- 4 Other issues
- 5 International context
- 6 See also
- 7 Literature
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Nigeria was amalgamated in 1914, and the North of the newly created country had been largely Muslim (with a pagan minority) for centuries, whereas the South was mostly animist (with exception of some Muslim Yorubas and Christian elites). In the decades to come, much of these ancestral beliefs would be supplanted by the Christian faith in the South. A Christian community would also appear in the North, centred round the cities of Kaduna and Jos.
Religious conflict in Nigeria goes as far back as 1953, when a religious riot occurred in the northern city of Kano. The 1980s saw an upsurge in violence due to death of Mohammed Marwa ("Maitatsine") (see below). In the same decade the erstwhile military ruler of Nigeria, General Ibrahim Babangida enrolled Nigeria in the Organisation of the Islamic Conference. This was a move which aggravated religious tensions in the country, particularly among the Christian community.
Following the return of democracy to Nigeria in 1999, Sharia was instituted as a main body of civil and criminal law in 9 Muslim-majority and in some parts of 3 Muslim-plurality states, when then-Zamfara State governor Ahmad Rufai Sani began the push for the institution of Sharia at the state level of government. As of 2012, the 9 states have instituted Sharia (see below). This was followed by controversy as to the would-be legal status of the non-Muslims in the Sharia system. A spate of Muslim-Christian riots soon emerged.
Blasphemy and apostasy
Twelve out of Nigeria's thirty-six states have Sunni Islam as the dominant religion. In 1999, those states chose to have Sharia courts as well as Customary courts. A Sharia court may treat blasphemy as deserving of several punishments up to, and including, execution. In many predominantly Muslim states, conversion from Islam to another religion is illegal and often a capital offence.
On 21 March 2007, a mob of Muslim students and neighbourhood extremists beat to death Christianah Oluwatoyin Oluwasesin, a mother of two and a teacher at Government Secondary School of Gandu in the city of Gombe. A student complained that Oluwasesin, a Christian, had touched a bag which allegedly contained a Quran, and had thereby defiled the Quran.
In 2014 a Nigerian man, Mubarak Bala was forcibly committed to a psychiatric institution in Kano for eighteen days, where he was forcibly drugged after stating that he was an atheist. The International Humanist and Ethical Union took up the case, stating that Bala's human rights were violated.
Establishment of Sharia
In the primarily Islamic northern states of Nigeria, a variety of Muslim groups and populations exist who favour the nationwide introduction of Sharia Law. The demands of these populations have been at least partially upheld by the Nigerian Federal Government in 12 states, firstly in Zamfara State in 1999. The implementation has been widely attributed as being due to the insistence of Zamfara State governor Ahmad Rufai Sani.
The death sentences of Amina Lawal and Safiya Hussaini attracted international attention to what many saw as the harsh regime of these laws. These sentences were later overturned; the first execution was carried out in 2002.
The events of Abuja in 2000 and Jos in 2001 were riots between Christians and Muslims in Jos, Nigeria about the appointment of a Muslim politician, Alhaji Muktar Mohammed, as local coordinator of the federal programme to fight poverty. Another such riot killed over 100 people in October 2001 in Kano State.
In 2002, the Nigerian journalist Isioma Daniel wrote an article that led to the demonstrations and violence that caused the deaths of over 200 in Kaduna, as well as a fatwa placed on her life. The 2002 Miss World contest was moved from Abuja to London as a result. The rest of the 2000s decade would see inter-religious violence continue in Jos and Kaduna.
The reaction to the Mohammed cartoons brought about a series of violent protests in Nigeria. Clashes between rioters and police claimed several lives, with estimates ranging from 16 to more than a hundred. This led to reprisal attacks in the south of the country, particularly in Onitsha. More than a hundred lost their lives.
In the late 1970s and early 1980s, there was a major Islamic uprising led by Maitatsine and his followers, Yan Tatsine that led to several thousand deaths. After Maitatsine's death in 1980, the movement continued some five years more.
2004 Yelwa massacre
|This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (September 2013)|
|This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (September 2013)|
|This section requires expansion. (September 2013)|
Nigeria was amalgamated in 1914, only about a decade after the defeat of the Sokoto Caliphate and other Islamic states by the British which were to constitute much of Northern Nigeria. The aftermath of the First World War saw Germany lose its colonies, one of which was Cameroon, to French, Belgian and British mandates. Cameroon was divided in French and British parts, the latter of which was further subdivided into southern and northern parts. Following a plebiscite in 1961, the Southern Cameroons elected to rejoin French Cameroon, while the Northern Cameroons opted to join Nigeria, a move which added to Nigeria's already large Northern population. The territory comprised much of what is now Northeastern Nigeria, and a large part of the areas affected by the insurgency.
Religious conflict in Nigeria goes as far back as 1953. The Igbo massacre of 1966 in the North that followed the counter-coup of the same year had as a dual cause the Igbo officers' coup and pre-existing (sectarian) tensions between the Igbos and the local Muslims. This was a major factor in the Biafran secession and the resulting civil war.
The 1980s saw an upsurge in violence due to death of Mohammed Marwa ("Maitatsine") (see above). In the same decade the erstwhile military ruler of Nigeria, General Ibrahim Babangida enrolled Nigeria in the Organisation of the Islamic Conference. This was a move which aggravated religious tensions in the country, particularly among the Christian community. In response, some in the Muslim community pointed out that certain other African member states have smaller proportions of Muslims, as well as Nigeria's diplomatic relations with the Holy See.
Since the return of democracy to Nigeria in 1999, Sharia has been instituted as a main body of civil and criminal law in 9 Muslim-majority and in some parts of 3 Muslim-plurality states, when then-Zamfara State governor Ahmad Rufai Sani began the push for the institution of Sharia at the state level of government. As of 2012, the 9 states have instituted Sharia (see above).
Boko Haram terror campaign
|This section requires expansion. (September 2013)|
The group conducted its operations more or less peacefully during the first seven years of its existence. That changed in 2009 when the Nigerian government launched an investigation into the group's activities following reports that its members were arming themselves. Prior to that the government reportedly repeatedly ignored warnings about the increasingly militant character of the organisation, including that of a military officer.
When the government came into action, several members of the group were arrested in Bauchi, sparking deadly clashes with Nigerian security forces which led to the deaths of an estimated 700 people. During the fighting with the security forces Boko Haram fighters reportedly "used fuel-laden motorcycles" and "bows with poison arrows" to attack a police station. The group's founder and then leader Mohammed Yusuf was also killed during this time while still in police custody. After Yusuf's killing, a new leader emerged whose identity was not known at the time.
After the killing of M. Yusuf, the group carried out its first terrorist attack in Borno in January 2010. It resulted in the killing of four people. Since then, the violence has only escalated in terms of both frequency and intensity.
In January 2012, Abubakar Shekau, a former deputy to Yusuf, appeared in a video posted on YouTube. According to Reuters, Shekau took control of the group after Yusuf's death in 2009. Authorities had previously believed that Shekau died during the violence in 2009.
By early 2012, the group was responsible for over 900 deaths.
2013 Government offensive
|This section requires expansion. (September 2013)|
In May 2013, Nigerian governmental forces launched an offensive in the Borno region in an attempt to dislodge Boko Haram fighters after a state of emergency was called on 14 May. The state of emergency, which is still in force as of May 2014, applies to the states of Borno, Yobe, and Adamawa in northeastern Nigeria. The offensive had initial success, but the Boko Haram rebels have been able to regain their strength. In July, Boko Haram massacred several students in Yobe, bringing the school year to an early end in the state.On 5 August 2013 Boko Haram launched dual attacks on Bama and Malam Fatori, leaving 35 dead.
2014 Chibok kidnapping
On 15 April 2014, terrorists abducted about 276 female students from a college in Chibok in Borno state. The abduction was widely attributed to Boko Haram. It was reported that the group had taken the girls to neighbouring Cameroon and Chad where they were to be sold into marriages at a price below a Dollar. The abduction of another eight girls was also reported later. These kidnappings raised public protests, with some protesters holding placards bearing the Twitter tag #bringbackourgirls which had caught international attention. Several countries pledged support to the Nigerian government and to help their military with intelligence gathering on the whereabouts of the girls and the operational camps of Boko Haram.
2014 Jos Bombings
On 20 May 2014, a total of two bombs in the city of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria, were detonated, resulting in the deaths of at least 118 people and the injury of more than 56 others. The bombs detonated 30 minutes apart, one at a local market place at approximately 3:00 and the second in a parking lot next to a hospital at approximately 3:30, where rescuers responding to the first accident were killed. Though no group or individual has claimed responsibility, the attacks have been attributed to Boko Haram.
First responders were unable to reach the scenes of the accidents, as "thousands of people were fleeing the scene in the opposite direction". The bombs had been positioned to kill as many people as possible, regardless of religion, which differed from previous attacks in which non-Muslims were targeted. The bombers were reported to have used a "back-to-back blast" tactic, in which an initial bomb explodes at a central location and another explodes a short time later with intent to kill rescue workers working to rescue the wounded.
The North consisted of Sahelian states that had long had an Islamic character. These were feudal and conservative, with rigid caste and class systems and large slave populations. Furthermore, the North failed until 1936 to outlaw slavery. Possibly due to geographical factors, many (but not necessarily all) southern tribes, particularly those on the coast, had made contact with Europeans - unlike the North which was engaged mainly with the Arab world and not Europe. Due to the system of indirect rule, the British were happy to pursue a limited course of engagement with the Emirs. The traditionalist Northern elites were skeptical of Western education, at the same time their Southern counterparts often sent their sons abroad to study. In time, a considerable developmental and educational gap grew to appear between the South and the North. Even as of 2014, Northern states still lag behind in literacy, school attendance and educational achievement.
Chris Kwaja, a Nigerian university lecturer and researcher, asserts that "religious dimensions of the conflict have been misconstrued as the primary driver of violence when, in fact, disenfranchisement and inequality are the root causes". Nigeria, he points out, has laws giving regional political leaders the power to qualify people as 'indigenes' (original inhabitants) or not. It determines whether citizens can participate in politics, own land, obtain a job, or attend school. The system is abused widely to ensure political support and to exclude others. Muslims have been denied indigene-ship certificates disproportionately often.
Nigerian opposition leader Buba Galadima says: "What is really a group engaged in class warfare is being portrayed in government propaganda as terrorists in order to win counter-terrorism assistance from the West."
The conflict has seen numerous human rights abuses conducted by the Nigerian security forces, in an effort to control the violence, as well as their encouragement of the formation of numerous vigilante groups (for example, the Civilian Joint Task Force).
Amnesty International has accused the Nigerian government of human rights abuses after 950 suspected Boko Harām militants died in detention facilities run by Nigeria's military Joint Task Force in the first half of 2013. Furthermore, the Nigerian government has been accused of incompetence and supplying misinformation about events in more remote areas.
Boko Haram often engages in kidnapping young girls for use as cooks, sexual slaves or in forced marriage; the most famous example being the Chibok kidnapping in 2014. In addition to kidnapping child brides, Human Rights Watch states that Boko Harām uses child soldiers, including 12-year-olds. The group has forcibly converted non-Muslims to Islam, and is also known to assign non-Kanuris on suicide missions.
The insurgence can be seen in the context of other conflicts nearby, for example in the North of Mali. The Boko Harām leadership has international connections to Al-Qa'ida in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM), Al-Qa'ida core, Al-Shabab, the Movement for Unity and Jihad in West Africa (MUJAO), Mokhtar Belmokhtar’s factions, and other militant groups outside Nigeria. In 2014, Nigerian President, Goodluck Jonathan even went so far as calling Boko Harām "al-Qaeda in West Africa". Attacks by Nigerian Islamist militias on targets beyond Nigeria’s borders have so far been limited, and should not be confused with the activities of other groups (for example, the responsibility of AQIM for most attacks in Niger). Despite this, there are concerns that conflict could spread to Nigeria’s neighbours, especially Cameroon, where it exists at a relatively low level. It should also be noted there are combatants from neighboring Chad and Niger.
On 17 May 2014, the presidents of Benin, Chad, Cameroon, Nigeria and Niger met for a summit in Paris and agreed to combat Boko Harām on a coordinated basis, sharing in particular surveillance and intelligence gathering. Goodluck Jonathan and Chadian counterpart, Idriss Deby have both declared total war on Boko Harām. Western nations, including Britain, France, Israel, and the United States had also pledged support including technical expertise and training. [check quotation syntax]
- Islam in Nigeria
- Islamic extremism in Northern Nigeria
- List of massacres in Nigeria
- Timeline of Boko Haram attacks in Nigeria
- Conflict in the Niger Delta
- Insurgency in the Maghreb (2002–present)
- Northern Mali conflict
- List of ongoing military conflicts
- Methodist Church Nigeria
- Religion in Bauchi State
- Religion in Borno State
- Religion in Gombe State
- Religion in Jigawa State
- Religion in Kaduna State
- Religion in Kano State
- Religion in Katsina State
- Religion in Kebbi State
- Religion in Niger State
- Religion in Sokoto State
- Religion in Yobe State
- Religion in Zamfara State
- Johannes Harnischfeger, Democratization and Islamic Law: The Sharia Conflict in Nigeria (Frankfurt am Main 2008). Campus Verlag. ISBN 3593382563
- Philip Ostien & Albert Dekker (2008). ""13. Sharia and national law in Nigeria", in: Sharia Incorporated: A Comparative Overview of the Legal Systems of Twelve Muslim Countries in Past and Present". Leiden University Press. pp. 553–612 (3–62).
- Karl Maier (2002). This House Has Fallen: Nigeria in Crisis (illustrated, reprint ed.). Westview Press. ISBN 9780813340456.
- Gryboski, Michael. "US Offers to Help Find Over 200 Nigerian Schoolgirls Abducted by Boko Haram". Christian Post. Retrieved 3 May 2014.
- West Africa leaders vow to wage 'total war' on Boko Haram By John Irish and Elizabeth Pineau. 17 May 2014 2:19 PM.
- Kidnapped schoolgirls: British experts to fly to Nigeria 'as soon as possible'. theguardian.com, Wednesday 7 May 2014 17.33 BST.
- Canada joins effort to free Nigerian schoolgirls.
- Iran ready to help Nigeria over abducted girls: Diplomat. Monday 19 May, 201404:53 PM GMT.
- Israel sends experts to help hunt for Nigerian schoolgirls kidnapped by Islamists. Jerusalem Post; 05/20/2014 18:03.
- "Nigeria: Boko Haram Resurrects, Declares TotalJihad". allAfrica.
- "Al-Qaeda map: Isis, Boko Haram and other affiliates' strongholds across Africa and Asia". 12 June 2014. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
- Isaacs, Dan (5 May 2004). "Analysis: Behind Nigeria's violence". BBC News.
- AFP: Curfew relaxed in Nigeria's violence-wracked city: army
- "'Hundreds dead' in Nigeria attack". BBC News. 8 March 2010.
- "Attack on Nigerian town kills more than 200". CNN. 8 March 2010.
- Harnischfeger 2008.
- "Boko Haram's four-year reign of terror". Chanel 4 News. 8 May 2014. Retrieved 2 June 2014.
- [dead link]
- Holman, Michael (24 February 1986) "Nigeria, Politics; Religious Differences Intensify", Financial Times,
- Jonah, Adamu and Igboeroteonwu, Anamesere (20 May 2014). "Nigerian Sharia architect defends law". BBC. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
- "Nigeria: International Religious Freedom Report 2008". U.S. Department of State. 2008. Retrieved 2 August 2009.
- http://www.amnestyusa.org/document.php?lang=e&id=4FBA416ABC8805C2802569A600603109 Amnesty International Report on Saudi Arabia 2007.
- http://thereport.amnesty.org/en/regions/middle-east-north-africa/saudi-arabia Amnesty International Report on Saudi Arabia 2009.[dead link]
- Nigeria: Recent reports regarding the treatment of persons who convert from Islam to Christianity. Recent reports on Sharia law in relation to religious conversion, Ireland: Refugee Documentation Centre, 26 June 2012, Q15539; available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/50068bbf2.html [accessed 18 July 2014].
- Minchakpu, Obed (March 2007). "Muslims in Nigeria Club Christian Teacher to Death". Compass Direct News. Retrieved 30 July 2009.
- Nigeria atheist Bala 'deemed mentally ill in Kano state'
- Ostien & Dekker, 575 (25)
- Olawale, Abdul-Gafar. "Course Lecture: Muslim Groups in Nigeria". Unilorin. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
- "Nigeria: First Execution under Sharia Condemned". Human Rights Watch. 8 January 2002. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
- Nigeria: First Execution under Sharia Condemned, Human Rights Watch, 8 January 2002
- Obed Minchakpu (2001-10-01). "Religious Riots in Nigeria Leave Hundreds Dead". Christianity Today. Retrieved 2008-11-30.
- Obasanjo Assesses Riot Damage in Kano - 2001-10-16. Voice of America News.
- "Kano: Nigeria's ancient city-state". BBC online (BBC). 2004-05-20. Retrieved 2007-07-12.
- On this day. 2002: Riots force Miss World out of Nigeria. BBC news website, Sunday, 24 November 2002, 14:49 GMT.
- THE "MISS WORLD RIOTS": Continued Impunity for Killings in Kaduna. Human Rights Watch, Vol. 15, No. 13 (A), 23 July 2003.
- Obasanjo blames media for Miss World riots, CNN.com. Tuesday, 26 November 2002. Posted: 1144 GMT
- Astill, James; Bowcott, Owen (27 November 2002). "Fatwa is issued on Nigerian journalist". Guardian Unlimited. Retrieved 2007-07-21.
- Nigeria cartoon riots kill 16, Amelia Hill and Anushka Asthana. The Observer, Sunday 19 February 2006.
- Churches Burned in Nigeria Riots; Death Toll Passes 127. Christian Today, 27 February 2006.
- Muslim dead burnt after Nigerian riots, Taipei Times. Accessed 8 Jun 2014.
- At least 27 dead in new religious riots in Nigeria. George Esiri, 22 Feb 2006.
- 100+ Dead After Anti-Muslim Riots, Ted Olsen/ 23 February 2006. Christianity Today.
- Why the Cartoon Protest turned Lethal in Northern Nigeria. By Sunday B. Agang.
- Meredith, Martin. "11. A House Divided". The State of Africa: A History of Fifty Years of Independence. The Free Press. p. 197.
- In the News: The Nigerian Census, Robert Lalasz. (April 2006)
- The Nigeria 2006 Census. Thursday, 5 January 2006.
- Cook, David (2011-09-26). "The Rise of Boko Haram in Nigeria". Combating Terrorism Centre. Retrieved 2012-01-12.
- "Nigeria accused of ignoring sect warnings before wave of killings". The Guardian. London. 2009-08-02. Retrieved 2009-08-06.
- Nossiter, Adam (27 July 2009). "Scores Die as Fighters Battle Nigerian Police". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 January 2012.
- "Nigerian Islamist attacks spread". BBC. 2009-07-27. Retrieved 2009-07-27.
- "Over 100 dead in Nigerian clashes". RTÉ. 2009-07-27. Retrieved 2009-07-27.
- Nigeria killings caught on video – Africa – Al Jazeera English
- Bartolotta, Christopher (19 September 2011). "Terrorism in Nigeria: the Rise of Boko Haram". The World Policy Institute. Retrieved 22 January 2012.
- Boko Haram strikes again in Borno, kills 4
- Brock, Joe (2012-01-12). "Nigeria sect leader defends killings in video". Reuters Africa (Thomson Reuters). Retrieved 2012-01-24.
- Jacinto, Leela (2012-01-13). "The Boko Haram terror chief who came back from the dead". France 24. Retrieved 2012-01-24.
- Nossiter, Adam (2012-02-25). "In Nigeria, a Deadly Group’s Rage Has Local Roots". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-02-27.
- "'Civilians among dead in Nigeria offensive'". Al Jazeera. 31 May 2013.
- Clashes between Nigerian army, Boko Haram kill 35. Reuters. Retrieved on 2013-08-14.
- Maclean, Ruth (3 May 2014) Nigerian school says 329 girl pupils missing The Times, (the online version may need a subscription), Retrieved 10 May 2014
- "Boko Haram Militants abduct 100+ Teenage Girls in Nigeria". IANS. news.biharprabha.com. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
- Collins, Matt (9 May 2014) #BringBackOurGirls: the power of a social media campaign The Guardian, Retrieved 11 May 2014
- "2 explosions hit bus station in central Nigeria city". Fox News. 20 May 2014. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
- "Nigeria violence: 'Boko Haram' kill 27 in village attacks". BBC. BBC. 21 May 2014. Retrieved 21 May 2014.
- Jonah, Adamu and Igboeroteonwu, Anamesere (20 May 2014). "Bombings kill at least 118 in Nigerian city of Jos". Reuters. Retrieved 21 May 2014.
- Kevin Shillington (2005). Encyclopedia of African History. Michigan University Press. p. 1401. ISBN 1-57958-455-1
- "The end of slavery". The Story of Africa. BBC News. Retrieved 28 May 2011.
- Garba, Safiya J., "The Impact of Colonialism on Nigerian Education and the Need for E-Learning Technique for Sustainable Development", Journal of Education and Social Research, MCSER-Mediterranean Center of Social and Educational Research (Rome; Vol. 2 (7) October 2012); p. 56 (ISSN 2239-978X); Accessed 3 Jun 2014 at <http://www.mcser.org/images/stories/JESR-Special-Issues/JESR%202012%20Special%20Issue%20vol%202%20no%207/Safiya%20J%20Garba.pdf>
- Ijeaku, N.J.O. (2009). The Igbo and Their Niger Delta Neighbors: We Are No Second Fools. Xlibris Corporation. pp. 82–83. ISBN 9781462808618.
- Martin Meredith (2011). "5. Winds of Change". The State of Africa: A History of the Continent Since Independence (illustrated ed.). Simon and Schuster. p. 77. ISBN 9780857203892.
- Nigeria: A nation divided. Chart 4: Literacy. BBC World News website, 11 January 2012; accesed 5 July 2014.
- Chris Kwaja (July 2011). "Nigeria’s Pernicious Drivers of Ethno-Religious Conflict". Africa Security Brief (Africa Center for Strategic Studies) (14). Archived from the original on 2013-03-03.
- "Boko Haram's Rise in Nigeria Sparks Civil War Fears". Voanews.com. 2012-01-21. Retrieved 2013-07-06.
- "Nigeria: Deaths of hundreds of Boko Haram suspects in custody requires investigation". Amnesty International. 15 Oct 2013. Retrieved 2014-05-05.
- Group asks Nigerian government to rescue 20 ‘kidnapped’ female students in Borno. Premium Times Nigeria; published 27 February 2014.
- "Nigeria's Boko Haram 'uses child soldiers' – Africa". English. Al Jazeera. 29 Nov 2013. Retrieved 2014-05-05.
- "Nigeria – reports of forced conversion and marriage of Christians by Boko Haram | Africa - News and Analysis". Africajournalismtheworld.com. 2013-11-17. Retrieved 2014-05-05.
- "Genesis, Training And Changing Tactics Of Boko Haram Revealed". Talkofnaija.com. 29 January 1970.[dead link]
- "UN committee imposes sanctions on Nigeria's Boko Haram". BBC News online, 23 May 2014. Last updated at 15:59 GMT.
- 23 May 2014 at 04:05pm (2014-05-23). "West’s help fuels Boko Haram’s jihad - The Star". IOL.co.za. Retrieved 2014-06-04.
- Walker, Andrew (June 2012). "What is Boko Haram?" (PDF). US Institute of Peace. Retrieved 2 October 2013.
- Captives freed in Nigerian city, BBC News online, 2009-Jul-29.
- Jonathan declares "total war" on Boko Haram | Kuramo News, 30 May 2014.
- Boko Haram to be fought on all sides". Nigerian News.Net. Retrieved May 18, 2014.
- Boko Haram and the Future of Nigeria, by Dr. Jacques Neriah Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs.
|Wikinews has related news: Riots in Nigeria kill nearly 400|
- Blench, R. M., Daniel, P. & Hassan, Umaru (2003): Access rights and conflict over common pool resources in three states in Nigeria. Report to Conflict Resolution Unit, World Bank (extracted section on Jos Plateau)
- Understanding the Islamist insurgency in Nigeria, 23 May 2014 by Kirthi Jayakumar.