Ismail Marzuki, unknown year
|Died||25 May 1958(aged 44)|
Ismail Marzuki (also known as Bang Ma'ing; 11 May 1914 – 25 May 1958) was an Indonesian composer, songwriter and musician who wrote between 202 and 240 songs between 1931 and 1958, including numerous popular patriotic songs. Among his best known works are "Gugur Bunga" and "Rayuan Pulau Kelapa". In 1968, he was honoured with the creation of the well-known Taman Ismail Marzuki (the Ismail Marzuki Park, often called TIM) which is a cultural centre in Menteng in central Jakarta. In 2004 he was declared one of the National Heroes of Indonesia.
Marzuki was born in Kwitang, Jakarta to a wealthy Betawi family. His father Marzuki owned an automobile repair shop, and played the rebana; his mother died while giving birth to him. From a young age Marzuki enjoyed music, listening to songs repeatedly on the family's gramophone and learning to play the rebana, ukelele, and guitar.
Marzuki studied at an elementary school for Native Indonesians, the Hollandsch-Inlandsche School Idenburg in Menteng; he later attended the Dutch-language middle school Meer Uitgebreid Lager Onderwijs on Menjangan Street in Jakarta. He became fluent in Indonesian, English, and Dutch. He also studied religion at Unwanul Wustha Madrasah. However, he did not study music formally, instead learning by himself.
In 1931, Marzuki wrote his first song, "O Sarinah", which was about a suffering people. During his career he wrote between 202 and 204 songs. Among his most famous compositions are "Rayuan Pulau Kelapa" (1944, Solace on Coconut Island), "Gugur Bunga di Taman Bakti" (1945, The Fallen Flower in Bakti Garden), and "Selendang Sutera" (1946, A Coil of Silk).
Marzuki started his music career by joining the Lief Java orchestra, under the direction of Hugo Dumas. In 1934 he became a broadcaster with Nederlandsch-Indische Radio Omroep Maatschappij, the national radio station of the Dutch East Indies, and afterwards led the Jakarta Studio Orchestra, the Bandung Studio Orchestra, and later the Hoso Kanri Kyoku orchestra during Japanese occupation of Indonesia.
Marzuki's anthems are full of patriotism and love for Indonesia, with a spirit of unity and harmony. They are easy to remember, with simple lyrics and melodies. The scales are generally mid-range, making the songs easier to sing.
Marzuki married Eulis Zuraidah, a Sundanese keroncong singer and orchestra leader from Bandung, in 1931. His wife has been considered as the inspiration of his Sundanese language song "Panon Hideung" (black eyes). Later it was known that "Panon Hideung" was Marzuki's Sundanese adaptation of Russian song Ochi Chernye.
He was known for being fiercely nationalistic, once selling gado-gado with his wife instead of cooperating with the Dutch-allied Nederlandsch Indië Civil Administratie during the Indonesian National Revolution. However, he also had a romantic side, writing songs like "Kalau Anggrek Berbunga" (c. 1942–1945, When the Orchid Blossoms), "Jauh di Mata Di Hati Jangan" (1947, Far from the Eyes (But Not the Heart) and "Siasat Asmara" (1948, Love's Tactics).
A large number of Marzuki's songs have been rerecorded and released in different genres, including pop music and keroncong, such as"Kr. Pasar Gambir dan Stambul Anak Jampang" (Kroncong of Gambir Market and Stambul of the Cowlicked Child) which was covered by Chrisye on the album Dekade with arrangement by Erwin Gutawa. Several of his songs, including "Gugur Bunga", "Melati di Tapal Batas", "Selendang Sutra", "Pahlawan Muda", "Rayuan Pulau Kelapa", and "Waktu Malam", are considered compulsory and taught in schools.
On 17 August 1961 Marzuki received the first Wijaya Kusuma award from President Suharto. He was honoured posthumously in 1968 with the opening of Taman Ismail Marzuki, a cultural centre and park in central Jakarta. He was recognized as a National Hero of Indonesia in November 2004 by declaration of President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono.
List of composed songs
- Bandung Selatan di Waktu Malam (1948)
- Beta dan Ayunda
- Gagah Perwira (1944)
- Gita Malam
- Gugur Bunga
- Indonesia Pusaka
- Jangan Ditanya 
- Juwita Malam
- Karangan Bunga dari Selatan
- Kasim Baba
- Kasim Putus di Tengah Jalan
- Keroncong Serenata
- Lenggang Bandung
- Melati di Tapal Batas (1947)
- O Angin Sampaikan Salamku
- O Kopral Jono
- O Sarinah (1931)
- Patah Cincin 
- Rayuan Pulau Kelapa
- Rindu Lukisan
- Sabda Alam
- Sampul Surat (1943)
- Saputangan dari Bandung Selatan
- Sejuta Bintang
- Selamat Datang Pahlawan Muda (1949)
- Selendang Sutra
- Sepasang Mata Bola (1946)
- Setangkai Bunga Mawar (1943)
- Sumbangsihku (1946)
- Panon Hideung (1931)
- Sw 2006, p. 58
- "Ismail Marzuki" (in Indonesian). Jakarta City Government. Retrieved 11 July 2011.
- Sw 2006, p. 61
- Sw 2006, p. 62
- Sw 2006, p. 60
- Sw 2006, p. 59
- Harry Bhaskara (30 August 2009). "Jubing shines in his third 'Delman' album". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 12 July 2011.
- Kornelius Purba (4 September 2002). "RI's ignored heritage". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 12 July 2011.
- Sw 2006, p. 63
- Dekade (Media notes). Chrisye. Musica Studios. 2002.
- G. & Yanti 2006, p. Table of contents
- Asmara, Cobina Gillitt (1995), "Tradisi Baru: A "New Tradition" of Indonesian Theatre", Asian Theatre Journal 12 (1)
- Unidjaja, Fabiola Desy (11 November 2004), "Composer, freedom fighters declared heroes", The Jakarta Post
- Esha 2005, p. 104
- Esha 2005, p. 110
- Esha 2005, p. 121
- Esha 2005, p. 119
- Esha 2005, p. 109
- Esha 2005, p. 113
- Esha 2005, p. 111
- Esha 2005, p. 112
- Esha 2005, p. 125
- Sw, Hardani (September – December 2006). "Ismail Marzuki: Komponis Lagu-Lagu Perjuangan" [Ismail Marzuki: The Composer of Patriotic Songs]. Harmonia (in Indonesian) (Yogyakarta: Institut Seni Yogyakarta) VII (3): 58–66. Retrieved 12 July 2011.
- G., William; Yanti, Lay K. (2006). Kumpulan Lagu Wajib [A Collection of Compulsory Songs] (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Kawan Pustaka. ISBN 979-757-120-3. OCLC 298399164.
- Esha, Teguh; Alhaziri, Wasmi; Fauzi, Muhammad; W, Sabu Donald; Sigarlaki, Erwin R. (2005). Ismail Marzuki: Musik, Tanah Air, dan Cinta [Ismail Marzuki: Music, Indonesia, and Love] (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Pustaka LP3ES. ISBN 979-3330-36-8.