Ismaïl Omar Guelleh

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Ismaïl Omar Guelleh
إسماعيل عمر جليه
Ismail Omar Guelleh 2010.jpg
President of Djibouti
Incumbent
Assumed office
8 May 1999
Prime Minister Barkat Gourad Hamadou
Dileita Mohamed Dileita
Abdoulkader Kamil Mohamed
Preceded by Hassan Gouled Aptidon
Personal details
Born (1947-11-27) 27 November 1947 (age 66)
Dire Dawa, Ethiopia
Political party People's Rally for Progress
Spouse(s) Kadra Mahmoud Haid
Religion Islam

Ismaïl Omar Guelleh (Somali: Ismaaciil Cumar Geelle; Arabic: إسماعيل عمر جليه‎) (born 27 November 1947)[1] is the President of Djibouti, in office since 1999.

Guelleh was first elected as President in 1999 as the handpicked successor to his uncle, Hassan Gouled Aptidon, who had ruled Djibouti since independence in 1977. Guelleh was re-elected in 2005 and again in 2011; the 2011 election was largely boycotted by the opposition amid complaints over widespread irregularities. He is often referred to in the region by his initials, IOG. Guelleh has been characterized as a dictator, and his rule has been criticized for by some human rights groups.[2]

Background[edit]

Guelleh was born in Dire Dawa, Ethiopia, into the politically powerful Mamassan subclan of the Issa clan.[1][3][4] When Guelleh was younger he attended a traditional Islamic school. In the late 1960s, Guelleh migrated to Djibouti before finishing high school. He later joined the police, becoming a junior non-commissioned officer. He entered the service in 1968. After Djibouti became independent, he became head of the secret police and chief of the cabinet in the government of his uncle Hassan Gouled Aptidon. He received training from the Somali National Security Service and then from the French Secret Service, and was intended to become his uncle's successor. "The key to Guelleh's success is the skillful way in which he has played the cards in his strong hand", according to PINR. "As the head of Djibouti's security agency under his uncle's regime, Guelleh gained an intimate knowledge of the country's political forces and has used it to practice a politics of divide and rule, supplemented by repression and intimidation when expedient."[3]

Presidency[edit]

Ismail Omar Guelleh meets U.S. President George W. Bush, January 21, 2003

On February 4, 1999, President Gouled Aptidon announced that he would retire at the time of the next election, and an extraordinary congress of his party, the ruling People's Rally for Progress (RPP), chose Guelleh as its presidential candidate.[5] As the joint candidate of the RPP and moderate wing of the Front for the Restoration of Unity and Democracy (FRUD), Guelleh won the presidential election held on April 9, 1999 with 74.02% of the vote, defeating his only challenger, the independent candidate Moussa Ahmed IdrissThe only Challenger against Guelleh's had about 23% of Djibouti's vote.[6][7] He took office on May 8.[8] Moussa Ahmed Idriss was arrested the following September for "threatening the morale of the armed forces" and detained at an undisclosed location.[9]

In December 2000, Guelleh sacked the chief of staff of the National Police Force, Yacin Yabeh; policemen loyal to Yacin unsuccessfully rebelled following his dismissal.[10]

Guelleh was nominated by the RPP as its presidential candidate for a second time on October 7, 2004, at an Extraordinary Congress of the party. He was backed by several other parties[11] and was the only candidate in the presidential election held on April 8, 2005.[12] Without a challenger, he won 100% of the ballots cast and was sworn in for a second six-year term, which he said would be his last, on May 7.[13]

However in 2010, Guelleh persuaded the National Assembly of Djibouti to amend the nation's Constitution, allowing him to stand for a third term.[14][15] This cleared the way for him to place his name on the ballot in Djibouti's 2011 election. It also resulted in large protests beginning in 2010 similar to the larger movement for democracy in the region. The protests were quickly put down.

Opposition parties boycotted the election, leaving only one, little-known candidate against him on the ballot. Guelleh won almost 80% of the vote.[16] Human Rights Watch has questioned whether the election could be called fair when opposition leaders were jailed twice prior to polling.[17] He has again said that he would not run for another term.[18]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Biography at Presidency website (French).
  2. ^ "The world's enduring dictators". CBS News. May 16, 2011.
  3. ^ a b "Reality Check On Ismail Omar Guelleh", Somaliland Times, Issue 211, 4 February 2006.
  4. ^ Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2007, report to Congress, U.S. Dept. of State, August 2008 (on Issa in Djibouti)
  5. ^ "Djibouti: President Gouled Aptidon to retire in April after 22 years in power", AFP (nl.newsbank.com), February 4, 1999.
  6. ^ "Proclamation du Président de la République de Djibouti par le Conseil Constitutionnel.", Journal Officiel de la République de Djibouti (French).
  7. ^ Elections in Djibouti, African Elections Database.
  8. ^ "SUDAN: President holds weekend talks with Ethiopia", IRIN, May 11, 1999.
  9. ^ "Horn of Africa, Monthly Review, September - October 1999", UN-OCHA Archive (accessed 23 February 2009)
  10. ^ "Witnesses describe 'coup attempt'", IRIN, December 8, 2000.
  11. ^ "Le RPP plébiscite son candidat", La Nation, October 11, 2004 (French).
  12. ^ "No challengers for Guelleh as presidential campaign kicks off", IRIN, March 29, 2005.
  13. ^ "Guelleh sworn in for second presidential term", IRIN, May 9, 2005.
  14. ^ IOL News, Djibouti lawmakers remove term limits, April 11, 2010
  15. ^ Djibouti politics: Issa job?, Economist Intelligence Unit Report, April 20, 2010
  16. ^ Djibouti: President Ismael Omar Guelleh wins third term, BBC News Africa, April 9, 2011
  17. ^ Djibouti: Allow Peaceful Protests, Human Rights Watch statement, April 4, 2011
  18. ^ Djibouti president vows third term would be last, AFP, April 7, 2011
Political offices
Preceded by
Hassan Gouled Aptidon
President of Djibouti
1999–present
Incumbent