Isma'il ibn Ahmad

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Isma'il ibn Ahmad
Amir of the Samanid Empire
Imail Samani.jpg
Reign August 892 – November 907
Titles Isma'il Samani
Born 849[1]
Birthplace Farghana
Died November, 907
Place of death Bukhara
Predecessor Nasr I
Successor Ahmad ibn Isma'il
Issue Ahmad ibn Isma'il
Royal house Samanid
Father Ahmad ibn Asad
Religious beliefs Sunni Islam

Abu Ibrahim Ismail ibn Ahmad (Persian: ابو ابراهیم اسماعیل بن احمد سامانی‎, d. November 907),[2] better known as Isma'il ibn Ahmad, was the Samanid amir of Transoxiana (892-907) and Khorasan (900-907). His reign saw the emergence of the Samanids as a powerful force. He was the son of Ahmad ibn Asad and a descendant of Saman Khuda, the founder of the Samanid dynasty who renounced Zoroastrianism and embraced Islam.[3]

Early life[edit]

Gaining approval of the local population, Ismail was described as good natured devout Muslim, relying exclusively on Allah[4] in accordance with the Islamic principle of tawheed. During his brother Nasr's reign, Isma'il was sent to take control of Bukhara, which had been devastated by looting on the part of forces from Khwarazm. The citizens of the city welcomed Isma'il, seeing him as someone who could bring stability.

Soon afterwards, a disagreement over where tax money should be distributed caused a falling out between Nasr and Isma'il. A struggle ensued, in which Isma'il proved victorious. Although he took effective control of the state, he did not formally overthrow his brother, instead remaining in Bukhara. He did so because Nasr had been the one whom the Caliph had given the formal investiture of Transoxiana to; in the caliph's eyes, Nasr was the only legitimimate ruler of the region. Furthermore, the Saffarids of Sistan had claims on Transoxiana; the overthrow of Nasr would have given the Saffarids a pretext for invading. Isma'il therefore continued to formally recognize Nasr as ruler until the latter's death in August 892, at which point he officially took power.

Reign and Missionary Efforts[edit]

Map of Khurasan and it's surrounding regions

Isma'il was active to the north and east, steadily spreading Samanid influence as well as solidifying his control over other areas including Kirman, Sistan and Kabul.[5] Ismail was successful in establishing economic and commercial development and organized a powerful army.[6] It was said that he made his capital Bukhara into one of Islam's most glorious cities,[7] as Ismail attracted scholars, artists, and doctors of law into the region.[8] The first translation of the Qu'ran into Persian was completed during Samanid rule. Sunni theology greatly cultivated during Ismail's reign, as numerous mosques and madrassas were built.[9]

In 893, Ismail took the city of Talas, the capital of the Karluk Turks, taking large numbers of slaves and livestock. In addition, a Nestorian church was converted into a mosque.[10] He also brought an end to the Principality of Ushrusana, extending Samanid control over the Syr Darya river.[11] Ismail and other Samanid rulers propagated Islam amongst the inhabitants and as many as 30,000 tents of Turks came to profess Islam. During his reign he subjugated numerous regional states to the east, directly incorporating some within his boundaries and retaining the local rulers of others as vassals. Khwarezm to the north was partitioned; the southern part remained autonomous under its Afrighid rulers, while the northern part was governed by a Samanid official. Another campaign in 903 further secured the Samanid boundaries. These campaigns kept the heart of his state safe from Turkish raids, and allowed Muslim missionaries to expand their activities in the region.

Campaigns[edit]

Even after his brother Nasr's death, Ismail's rule in Bukhara was not formally recognized by the caliph at that point. As a result, the Saffarid ruler 'Amr-i Laith himself asked the caliph for the investiture of Transoxiana. The caliph, Al-Mu'tadid however sent Ismail a letter urging him to fight Amr-i Laith and the Saffarids whom the caliph considered usurpers. According to the letter, the caliph stated that he prayed for Ismail who the caliph considered as the rightful ruler of Khorasan.[12] The letter had a profound effect on Ismail, as he was determined to oppose the Saffarids.

The two sides fought in Balkh, northern Afghanistan during the spring of 900. During battle, Ismail was significantly outnumbered as he came out with 20,000 horsemen against Amr's 70,000 strong cavalry.[13] Ismail's horsemen were ill-equipped with most having wooden stirrups while some had no shields or lances. Amr-i Laith's cavalry on the other hand, were fully equipped with weapons and armor. Despite fierce fighting, Amr was captured as some of his troops switched sides and joined Ismail.[14] Isma'il wished to ransom him to the Saffarids, but they refused, so he sent 'Amr to the caliph, who blamed 'Amr's conduct[15] in the matter and then invested Isma'il with Khurasan, Tabaristan, Ray, and Isfahan.

Isma'il decided to take advantage of the caliph's grant by sending an army to Tabaristan, which was then controlled by the Zaydids under Muhammad ibn Zayd. Muhammad and his army met the Samanid army under Muhammad ibn Harun al-Sarakhsi at Gurgan, and in the ensuing battle, the Samanids prevailed, and the severely wounded Muhammad was captured. He died on the next day, 3 October 900 (or in August, according to Abu'l-Faraj).[16][17][18] His corpse was decapitated, and his head was sent to Isma'il at the Samanid court at Bukhara.

As Muhammad's son and designated heir Zayd was also captured and sent to Bukhara, the Zaydid leaders agreed to name Zayd's infant son al-Mahdi as their ruler, but dissension broke out among their ranks: one of them proclaimed himself for the Abbasids instead, and his troops attacked and massacred the Zaydid supporters. Instead, the Samanids took over the province.[17] The Samanid conquest brought along a restoration of Sunni Islam in the province.

However, Isma'il's general Muhammad ibn Harun shortly revolted, forcing Isma'il to send an army under his son Ahmad Samani and cousin Abu'l-Abbas Abdullah into northern Persia in 901, including Tabaristan, forcing Muhammad to flee to Dailam. The Samanid army also managed to conquer several other cities including Ray and Qazvin, though subsequent rulers lost the territory to the Dailamites and Kurds.[11] Isma'il then appointed his cousin Abu'l-Abbas Abdullah as the governor of Tabaristan.

Although Isma'il continued to send gifts to the caliph, as was customary, he neither paid tribute or taxes. For all intents and purposes he was an independent ruler, although he never took any title higher than that of amir.

Death[edit]

After a long sickness Isma'il died in 907 and was succeeded by his son Ahmad Samani. Ismail gave enormous amounts of booty and riches to others, and kept nothing.[19]

Legacy[edit]

Statue of Isma'il in Dushanbe

According to a Bukharian historian writing in 943 stated that Ismail:

"Was indeed worthy and right for padishahship. He was intelligent, just, compassionate person, one possessing reason and prescience...he conducted affairs with justice and good ethics. Whoever tyrannize people he would punish...In affairs of state he was always impartial."[19]

The celebrated scholar Nizam al-Mulk, in his famous work, Siyasatnama, stated that Ismail:

"Was extremely just, and his good qualities were many. He had pure faith in God (to Him be power and glory) and he was generous to the poor - to name only one of his notable virtues.[20]

With the end of Soviet Union dominion in Central Asia, Ismail's legacy was rediscovered and rehabilitated. The Somoni currency of Tajikistan is named after Ismail. Also, the highest mountain in Tajikistan (and in the former Soviet Union) is named after Ismail. The mountain was formerly known as "Stalin Peak" and "Communism Peak" but was subsequently changed to the Ismoil Somoni Peak.

Also the greatest award of Tajikistan which is equal to $2000 USD is in his name.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The historical,social and economic setting By M. S. Asimov, pg. 78
  2. ^ The book of government, or, Rules for kings: the Siyar al-Muluk, or, Siyasat-nama of Nizam al-Mulk, Niẓām al-Mulk, Hubert Darke, pg. 156
  3. ^ Encyclopaedic Survey of Islamic Culture, pg. 84 Mohammad Taher
  4. ^ History of Islam (Vol 3) By Akbar Shah Najeebabadi, pg. 332
  5. ^ Tabaḳāt-i-nāsiri: a general history of the Muhammadan dynastics of Asia, pg.31, By Minhāj Sirāj Jūzjānī
  6. ^ The historical, social and economic setting, By M.S. Asimov, pg. 78
  7. ^ Atlas of the year 1000, By John Man, pg. 78
  8. ^ A history of Persia, Volume 2, By Sir Percy Molesworth Sykes, pg. 90
  9. ^ Muslim reformist political thought: revivalists, modernists and free will By Sarfraz Khan, pg. 11
  10. ^ The Samanids, R.N. Frye, The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol.4, ed. R. N. Frye, (Cambridge University Press, 1999), 138.
  11. ^ a b ESMĀʿĪL, b. Aḥmad b. Asad SĀMĀNĪ, ABŪ EBRĀHĪM , C. Edmund Bosworth, Encyclopaedia Iranica
  12. ^ The book of government, or, Rules for kings: the Siyar al-Muluk, or, Siyasat-nama of Nizam al-Mulk, Niẓām al-Mulk, Hubert Darke, pg.18-19
  13. ^ History of Islam (Vol 3) By Akbar Shah Najeebabadi, pg. 330
  14. ^ Ibn Khallikan's biographical dictionary By Ibn Khallikān, pg.329
  15. ^ Ibn Khallikan's biographical dictionary By Ibn Khallikān, pg.328
  16. ^ The Encyclopedia of Islam, New Edition, Volume VII, pp. 417–418
  17. ^ a b Madelung (1993), pp. 595–597
  18. ^ Madelung (1975), p. 207
  19. ^ a b The modern Uzbeks: from the fourteenth century to the present : a cultural history, by Edward Allworth, pg. 19
  20. ^ The book of government, or, Rules for kings: the Siyar al-Muluk, or, Siyasat-nama of Nizam al-Mulk, Niẓām al-Mulk, Hubert Darke, pg. 14

Source[edit]

Preceded by
Nasr I
Amir of the Samanids
892–907
Succeeded by
Ahmad Samani