Isoamyl alcohol

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Isoamyl alcohol[1]
Isoamyl alcohol.svg
Names
IUPAC name
3-methyl-1-butanol
Other names
Isopentyl alcohol, Isopentanol, Isobutylcarbinol
Identifiers
123-51-3 YesY
ChEBI CHEBI:15837 YesY
ChEMBL ChEMBL372396 YesY
ChemSpider 29000 YesY
DrugBank DB02296 YesY
Jmol-3D images Image
KEGG C07328 YesY
PubChem 31260
Properties
C5H12O
Molar mass 88.148 g/mol
Appearance Clear, colorless liquid
Odor disagreeable[2]
Density 0.8104 g/cm3 at 20 °C
Melting point −117.2 °C (−179.0 °F; 156.0 K)
Boiling point 131.1 °C (268.0 °F; 404.2 K)
slightly soluble, 28 g/L
Solubility very soluble in acetone, diethyl ether, ethanol
Vapor pressure 28 mmHg (20°C)[2]
Viscosity 3.692 mPa·s
Thermochemistry
2.382 J·g−1·K−1
-356.4 kJ·mol−1 (liquid)
-300.7 kJ·mol−1 (gas)
Hazards
Flash point 43 °C (109 °F; 316 K)
350 °C (662 °F; 623 K)
Explosive limits 1.2 – 9%
US health exposure limits (NIOSH):
TWA 100 ppm (360 mg/m3)[2]
TWA 100 ppm (360 mg/m3) ST 125 ppm (450 mg/m3)[2]
500 ppm[2]
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
 YesY verify (what isYesY/N?)
Infobox references

Isoamyl alcohol (also known as isopentyl alcohol) is a clear, colorless alcohol with the formula (CH3)2CHCH2CH2OH. It is one of several isomers of amyl alcohol. It is a main ingredient in the production of banana oil, an ester found in nature and also produced as a flavouring in industry. It's also the main ingredient of Kovac's reagent, used for the bacterial diagnostic indole test.

It is also used as an antifoaming agent in the Chloroform:Isomyl Alcohol reagent.[3]

Isoamyl alcohol is used in a Phenol–chloroform extraction mixed with the chloroform to further inhibit RNase activity and prevent solubility of RNAs with long tracts of poly-adenine.[4]

It is one of the components of the aroma of Tuber melanosporum, the black truffle. It has been identified as a chemical in the pheromone used by hornets to attract other members of the hive to attack.[citation needed]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lide, David R., ed. (1998). Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (87 ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. pp. 3–374, 5–42, 6–188, 8–102, 15–22. ISBN 0-8493-0487-3. 
  2. ^ a b c d e "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards #0348". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). 
  3. ^ Zumbo, P. "Phenol-chloroform Extraction" (PDF). WEILL CORNELL MEDICAL COLLEGE P. ZUMBO LABORATORY OF CHRISTOPHER E. MASON, PH.D. Retrieved 19 June 2014. 
  4. ^ Green, Michael; Sambrook, Joseph. "Purification of Nucleic Acids: Extraction with Phenol-Chloroform". Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. ISBN 1936113422.