Isomaltulose

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Isomaltulose
Isomaltulose structure.svg
Identifiers
CAS number 13718-94-0 YesY
PubChem 83686
ChemSpider 75509 YesY
EC number 237-282-1
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties
Molecular formula C12H22O11
Molar mass 342.30 g mol−1
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
 YesY (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Infobox references

Isomaltulose (chemical name: 6-0-α-D-glucopyranosyl-D-fructose), also known by the trade name Palatinose, is a disaccharide that is commercially manufactured enzymatically from sucrose via bacterial fermentation. It is a natural constituent of honey and sugar cane and has a very natural sweet taste. It has been used as a sugar substitute in Japan since 1985. It is particularly suitable as a non-cariogenic sucrose replacement.[1]

Isomaltulose is fully absorbed in the small intestine as glucose and fructose. Like sucrose, it is fully digested and provides the same caloric value of approximately 4 cal/g.

It is low-glycaemic and low-insulinemic. The effect of isomaltulose is that the glucose enters the blood at a slow rate, avoiding high peaks and sudden drops in glucose levels and therefore insulin levels as well. This leads to a more balanced and prolonged energy supply in the form of glucose.[2]

Being low-insulinemic, isomaltulose also supports improved fat oxidation during physical activity as high insulin levels hinder the use of lipids as an energy source. As such, isomaltulose can increase the amount of fat used as energy, thus enhancing performance endurance.[3]

Isomaltulose is tolerated like sucrose and not suitable for people with a pre-existing intolerance to fructose and those who are unable to digest sucrose.

Function[edit]

Basically, isomaltulose has the same function as sucrose; as an energy source that keeps the human body and brain functioning. The similarities even extend to how both of these substances taste and are processed. [4]

Isomaltulose enters the digestive system through foods and drinks that we consume. After making it way to the small intestines, the nutrients contained in the foods and drinks is dissolved where Isomaltulose will be filtered and released. The substance then seeps into our gastro-intestine walls and enter our bloodstreams, travelling around the entire body becoming a major energy source. What differ isomaltulose from sucrose is the absorption rate of the substance which is 26-45% slower with a lower glycemic response. Seeing it in a normal statistical distribution on how it effects our blood sugar level, the Isomaltulose curve will have a slow even rise and descent with an elongated horizontal peak.[5][4] To put it simply, Isomaltulose will enter and depart from the bloodstream in a slow constant speed which makes the substance stay longer in a human body than sucrose.

The outcome of staying longer makes the substance acquire the ability to give a constant and stable energy intake that devoid the body from any drastic blood sugar level and glycemic index change.[6] Drastic changes of blood sugar and insulin level have been commonly known as Sugar Rush and Sugar Crash, these are syndromes that mostly occur in children. A basic explanation to describe both of these syndromes would be that because children have a higher sensitivity toward changes in their body, any significant shift in their body chemical composition can cause agitation and drastic change of behavior.

A constant and slow energy intake is believed[by whom?] to take care of this problem by being assimilated slowly so it won’t trigger/ignite any sudden shift in a child body chemical composition. Based on this concept, Isomaltulose is being extensively studied so as to determine how it can be used to minimize the effects of Sugar Crash and Sugar Rush.

Body[edit]

Isomaltulose is one of the substances that won’t be dissolved immediately upon consumption. On the contrary, isomaltulose will be dissolved in a low glycemic response which ensures that the energy that has been absorbed stays longer and is constantly available.[4]

Unlike other glucose sources that start to dissolve immediately upon intake, Isomaltulose won’t do this until it reaches further in the digestive system. The implication of this process is that Isomaltulose won’t give the tooth decaying bacteria that live in the mouth a chance to receive any energy source. Studies that have been conducted also shows that Isomaltulose won’t induce/provoke/promote obesity even though it stays in the human body longer than other glucose sources.[7]

Brain[edit]

The brain is where Isomaltulose shows a significant effect. Looking at how it works, isomaltulose plays a big role in keeping human brain energy level fulfilled. The chemical reactions that happen between Isomaltulose and our body have resulted on the substance to stay longer in the brain than sucrose.

Studies have showed that a scheduled regular isomaltulose intake will be able to provide a constant un-interrupted energy source for the brain. Considering the fact that human brain never stops working, isomaltulose consumption may be significantly beneficial for the brain and body.[8]

Basically, the brain works tirelessly around the clock to regulate breathing, maintaining heart rate, and making sure that the organs are working properly.[9] Furthermore, while we sleep at night the brain will also process the memories and experiences that we endured during the day to be used later.[10] The basic hypothesis for this circumstance is that a constant supply of energy source like isomaltulose will ensure our brain to work properly even when we rest at night.[11]

Isomaltulose has been used as a research subject for quite some time now. Most recently researched is the effect it has on children aged 1-6. Commonly referred as the Golden Age, this is the age when a child is undergoing significant change and growth in their psyche and cognitive ability. These changes will result in the need for a constant and sufficient energy source, which isomaltulose is able to provide. A recent study regarding child’s brain energy level has come out with the term 10/40. Apparently, although it is only weighted at 10% of their whole body, a child’s brain needs 40% of all the consumable energy the body provides.[12]

Presumably, a lack of sufficient energy source for a child's brain will result in the loss of concentration that eventually disturbs their cognitive, personality, and creativity development.[7] This is where Isomaltulose as a glucose substitute steps in, by fulfilling the energy provision in a more constant and longer lasting manner.[13]

Use[edit]

Isomaltulose is used as a sucrose substitute in a number of beverage products including health drinks, energy drinks, and artificial sugars.

Because the natural substance itself is easy to disperse and does not coagulate, isomaltulose also has been used in powdered drinks product such as powdered formula milk for children.[14]

Isomaltulose is categorized as generally recognized as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in various foods and drink products.[15][16]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lina, B.A.R.; Jonker, D.; Kozianowski, G. (2002). "Isomaltulose (Palatinose®): A review of biological and toxicological studies". Food and Chemical Toxicology 40 (10): 1375–81. doi:10.1016/S0278-6915(02)00105-9. PMID 12387299. 
  2. ^ König, D; Luther, W; Poland, V; Berg, A (2007). "Carbohydrates in sports nutrition". Agro Food Industry Hi-Tech 18 (5): 9–10. ISSN 1722-6996. [unreliable medical source?]
  3. ^ Van Can, Judith G. P.; Ijzerman, T. Herman; Van Loon, Luc J. C.; Brouns, Fred; Blaak, Ellen E. (2009). "Reduced glycaemic and insulinaemic responses following isomaltulose ingestion: Implications for postprandial substrate use". British Journal of Nutrition 102 (10): 1408–13. doi:10.1017/S0007114509990687. PMID 19671200. 
  4. ^ a b c Lina, BA; Jonker, D; Kozianowski, G (2002). "Isomaltulose (Palatinose): A review of biological and toxicological studies". Food and chemical toxicology 40 (10): 1375–81. doi:10.1016/S0278-6915(02)00105-9. PMID 12387299. 
  5. ^ Holub, Ines; Gostner, Andrea; Theis, Stephan; Nosek, Leszek; Kudlich, Theodor; Melcher, Ralph; Scheppach, W. (2010). "Novel findings on the metabolic effects of the low glycaemic carbohydrate isomaltulose (Palatinose™)". British Journal of Nutrition 103 (12): 1730–7. doi:10.1017/S0007114509993874. PMC 2943747. PMID 20211041. 
  6. ^ Micha, Renata; Rogers, Peter J.; Nelson, Michael (2011). "Glycaemic index and glycaemic load of breakfast predict cognitive function and mood in school children: A randomised controlled trial". British Journal of Nutrition 106 (10): 1552–61. doi:10.1017/S0007114511002303. PMID 21736777. 
  7. ^ a b Schaafsma, Anne (2012). "Isomaltulosa Beri Pengaruh Positif Pada Konsentrasi dan Daya Ingat Anak" [The positive effects of Isomaltulose in Children Concentration and Cognitive Ability] (in Indonesian). [unreliable medical source?]
  8. ^ Damoiseaux, J. S.; Rombouts, S. A. R. B.; Barkhof, F.; Scheltens, P.; Stam, C. J.; Smith, S. M.; Beckmann, C. F. (2006). "Consistent resting-state networks across healthy subjects". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103 (37): 13848–53. Bibcode:2006PNAS..10313848D. doi:10.1073/pnas.0601417103. JSTOR 30050344. PMC 1564249. PMID 16945915. 
  9. ^ Evans, B.M (2003). "Sleep, consciousness and the spontaneous and evoked electrical activity of the brain. Is there a cortical integrating mechanism?". Neurophysiologie Clinique/Clinical Neurophysiology 33 (1): 1–10. doi:10.1016/S0987-7053(03)00002-9. PMID 12711127. 
  10. ^ Boyle, P J; Scott, J C; Krentz, A J; Nagy, R J; Comstock, E; Hoffman, C (1994). "Diminished brain glucose metabolism is a significant determinant for falling rates of systemic glucose utilization during sleep in normal humans". Journal of Clinical Investigation 93 (2): 529–35. doi:10.1172/JCI117003. PMC 293874. PMID 8113391. 
  11. ^ Gusnard, Debra A.; Raichle, Marcus E.; Raichle, ME (2001). "Searching for a baseline: Functional imaging and the resting human brain". Nature Reviews Neuroscience 2 (10): 685–94. doi:10.1038/35094500. PMID 11584306. 
  12. ^ Chugani, Harry T. (1998). "A Critical Period of Brain Development: Studies of Cerebral Glucose Utilization with PET". Preventive Medicine 27 (2): 184–8. doi:10.1006/pmed.1998.0274. PMID 9578992. 
  13. ^ Owen, Lauren; Scholey, Andrew B.; Finnegan, Yvonne; Hu, Henglong; Sünram-Lea, Sandra I. (2011). "The effect of glucose dose and fasting interval on cognitive function: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, six-way crossover study". Psychopharmacology 220 (3): 577–89. doi:10.1007/s00213-011-2510-2. PMID 21979440. 
  14. ^ Mohd Taib, Mohd Nasir; Mohd Shariff, Zalilah; Wesnes, Keith A.; Abu Saad, Hazizi; Sariman, Sarina (2012). "The effect of high lactose–isomaltulose on cognitive performance of young children. A double blind cross-over design study". Appetite 58 (1): 81–7. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2011.09.004. PMID 21986189. 
  15. ^ Center for Regulatory Services - GRAS Notification - Exemption Claim for Isolmatulose
  16. ^ FDA grants GRAS status to Palatinose sugar replacer -- April 19, 2006

External links[edit]