Isopropyl chloride

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Isopropyl chloride
Skeletal formula Space-filling model
Identifiers
CAS number 75-29-6 YesY
RTECS number TX4410000
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties
Molecular formula C3H7Cl
Molar mass 78.5413
Appearance Colourless liquid
Density 0.862
Melting point −117.18 °C (−178.92 °F; 155.97 K)
Boiling point 35.74 °C (96.33 °F; 308.89 K)
Solubility in water 0.334 g/100 ml at 12.5 °C
Solubility in ethanol fully miscible
Solubility in diethyl ether fully miscible
Refractive index (nD) 1.3811
Viscosity 4.05 cP at 0 °C
3.589 cP at 20 °C
Hazards
MSDS External MSDS
R-phrases R11 R20 R21 R22
S-phrases S9 S29
NFPA 704
Flammability code 4: Will rapidly or completely vaporize at normal atmospheric pressure and temperature, or is readily dispersed in air and will burn readily. Flash point below 23 °C (73 °F). E.g., propane Health code 2: Intense or continued but not chronic exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury. E.g., chloroform Reactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g., liquid nitrogen Special hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Flash point −32 °C (−26 °F; 241 K)
Related compounds
Related alkyl halides Ethyl chloride
n-propyl chloride
Isopropyl bromide
Isopropyl iodide
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
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Infobox references

Isopropyl chloride (also chlorodimethylmethane, 2-propyl chloride, sec-propyl chloride or 2-chloropropane) is a colorless, flammable chemical compound . It has the chemical formula C3H7Cl and is prepared by refluxing isopropyl alcohol with concentrated hydrochloric acid and zinc chloride.[1]

Structurally, isopropyl chloride is an organochlorine compound as well as a secondary (2°) haloalkane, the latter designation identifying the two C-C bonds seen around the carbon atom covalently bonded with the chlorine substituent. To compare, its structural isomer, 1-chloropropane, is instead an example of a primary (1°) haloalkane, as the chlorine-bound carbon atom has only one C-C bond.

As a laboratory reactant, heating 2-chloropropane with alcoholic potassium hydroxide will yield propene (an alkene) by a dehydrohalogenation reaction. However, reacting with potassium hydroxide would compete with an SN2 nucleophilic substitution reaction (minor product) because OH--ion is a strong, sterically unhindered nucleophile. Because of this, potassium tert-butoxide is one example of a better reagent to use.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ann Smith, Patricia E. Heckelman (2001). "The Merck Index". In Maryadele J. O'Nei. An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals (Thirteenth Edition ed.). Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck & Co., Inc. p. 932.