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The Ispah Rebellion (Chinese: 亦思巴奚兵乱; pinyin: Yìsībāxī Bīngluàn) was a series of civil wars in Fukien (Fujian) of the Great Yuan Empire (present day China), occurring in the middle of 14th century. The term Ispah might derive from the Persian word "سپاه" (sepâh) meaning "army" or "Sepoy". Thus, the rebellion is also known as the Persian Sepoy Rebellion (波斯戍兵之乱; Bōsī Shùbīng zhī Luàn) in Chinese documents.
The situation of Hsing-hua in 1362 during Islamic Ispah Rebellion.
Under Mongolian rule, the number of Arabic and PersianMuslims residing in the Chinese seaport city of Quanzhou was greatly boosted. In 1357, an army of predominantly Muslims led by two Quanzhou Muslims, Saif ad-Din (赛甫丁) and Amir ad-Din (阿迷里丁), revolted against the Mongol Yuan Dynasty. In defiance of Imperial forces, the army seized hold of Quanzhou, Xinghua (present day Putian), and even overreached themselves to the provincial capital Fuzhou.
In 1362, the Ispah army collapsed into internal conflict and was eventually crushed in 1366 by the Yuan commander Chen Youding (陈友定). Chen was an ethnic Han.
Many of the foreign Arab and Persian merchants were massacred when the uprising was crushed and their graves desecrated, forcing many of them to flee Quanzhou. Some of the massacres and grave desecrations were reprisals against the descendants of Pu Shougeng, who had defected and surrendered the cities to the Mongols during their invasion of the Song dynasty.