Israel–South Africa relations

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Israel-South Africa relations)
Jump to: navigation, search
Israel-South Africa relations
Map indicating locations of Israel and South Africa

Israel

South Africa
Israeli Deputy Foreign Minister Ayalon meets with South African DFA D-G Matjila, 2009

Israel–South Africa relations refer to the current and historic relationship between the Republic of South Africa and the State of Israel.

Early Israeli relations with apartheid South Africa[edit]

South Africa was among the 33 states that voted in favour of the 1947 UN partition resolution,[1] recommending the establishment of a Jewish State in Palestine, and was one of only four Commonwealth nations to do so. On 24 May 1948,[2] nine days after Israel's declaration of independence, the South African government of Jan Smuts, a long-time supporter of Zionism, granted de facto recognition to the State of Israel, just two days before his United Party was voted out of office and replaced by the pro-apartheid National Party. South Africa was the seventh nation to recognise the new Jewish state. On 14 May 1949, South Africa granted de jure recognition to the State of Israel.[3]:109–111[4]

Blossoming of relations[edit]

Diplomatic relations between Israel and South Africa began in 1949, when Israel established a consulate-general in Pretoria,[3]:110 which was raised to the status of a legation in November 1950.[5] However, South Africa had no direct diplomatic representation in Israel (it being represented by the United Kingdom) until South Africa withdrew from the Commonwealth in 1961, whereupon it sent a consul-general to Tel Aviv.[6] South African Prime Minister D.F. Malan first visited Israel in 1953.[7]

In the 1950s and 1960s, Israel had prioritized building relations with the newly independent states of sub-Saharan Africa; this, in turn, led it to take a critical stance on the question of apartheid. On October 11, 1961, Israel voted for the General Assembly censure of Eric Louw's speech defending apartheid.[8][9] Israel became one of a few nations to have strong relations with apartheid South Africa. However in 1963, Israel informed the United Nations Special Committee on Apartheid that it had taken steps to comply with the military boycott of apartheid South Africa and had recalled its ambassador to South Africa.[9][10] Israeli leaders publicly condemned apartheid throughout the 1950s and early 1960s, although it maintained contact with South Africa through a low-level diplomatic mission in Pretoria and through France, a mutual ally.[11] The South African Jewish Board of Deputies feared an anti-Semitic backlash if Israel did not maintain good terms with the present government.[11] However, Israel continued to criticize apartheid and seek closer relations with black African nations, but an anti-Semitic backlash never occurred.[11]

After 1967, Israel's attempted alliances with post-colonial African states had, in most assessments, failed. As a final expression of this strategy, in 1971, Israel offered $2,850 in aid to the Organization of African Unity, which was rejected, but not before reportedly irking South Africa.[12] The impetus for the blossoming relationship between Israel and South Africa was the 1967 Six Day War. Israel's victory in the war, and subsequent occupation of the Sinai and West Bank, alienated it diplomatically from much of the Third World, and African states. As well as this many left-wing movements around the world, including the Black nationalist movements, now began to see it as a colonial state.[11] At the same time, in South Africa, Israel became the object of widespread admiration, particularly among the country's political and military leadership. The editorial of Die Burger, then the mouthpiece of the South African Nationalist Party declared: "Israel and South Africa are engaged in a struggle for existence... The anti-Western powers have driven Israel and South Africa into a community of interests which had better be utilized than denied."[11] Israel continued to denounce apartheid, but it privately began to cultivate relations in secret. This approach was similar to many Western nations at the time.[13][14] Israel's condemnation of apartheid was based on opposition to the racist nature of the practice, and its maintenance of mutually beneficial commercial and military ties was rooted in a concern for South African Jews and a realpolitik attitude that Israel was too isolated to be selective about partners in trade and arms deals.[13][11] Within less than a decade, South Africa would be one of Israel's closest military and economic allies, whilst Israel would occupy the position of South Africa's closest military ally, and Israel had become the most important foreign arms supplier to the South African Defence Force.[3]:117–19 In the wake of the Yom Kippur War, to put additional diplomatic and military pressure on Israel, Arab oil-producing countries threatened to impose an oil embargo on countries with international relations with Israel. As a result, many African countries broke ties with Israel. [15]

Most African states had fully broken ties after the 1973 Yom Kippur War, and Israel increased its cultivation of ties with the similarly isolated government in Pretoria.[16] Israeli ties and trade with South Africa became more extensive. According to Ethan A. Nadelmann, the relationship developed due to the fact that many African countries broke diplomatic ties with Israel during the 1970s following Israeli occupation of the West Bank and Gaza during the Arab–Israeli wars, causing Israel to deepen relations with other isolated countries.[17] Israel remained officially opposed to the apartheid system, but it also opposed international embargoes. Israeli officials sought to coordinate ties with South Africa within a tripartite framework between Israel, the United States, and South Africa.[18]

Strategic relations[edit]

By 1973, an economic and military alliance between Israel and South Africa was in the ascendancy. The military leadership of both countries was convinced that both nations faced a fundamentally similar predicament, fighting for their survival against the common terrorist enemy of the PLO and the ANC.[11]

In 1975, the Israel–South Africa Agreement was signed, and increasing economic co-operation between Israel and South Africa was reported, including the construction of a major new railway in Israel, and the building of a desalination plant in South Africa.[19] In April 1976 South African Prime Minister John Vorster was invited to make a state visit, meeting Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin.[16][20] Later in 1976, the 5th Conference of Non-Aligned Nations in Colombo, Sri Lanka, adopted a resolution calling for an oil embargo against France and Israel because of their arms sales to South Africa.[19] In 1977, South African Foreign Minister Pik Botha visited Israel to discuss South African issues with Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin and Foreign Minister Moshe Dayan.

Israeli and South African intelligence czars held regular conferences with each other to share information on enemy weapons and training.[11] The co-ordination between the Israel Defense Forces and the South African Defense Force was unprecedented, with Israeli and South African generals giving each other unfettered access to each other's battlefields and military tactics, and Israel sharing with South Africa highly classified information about its missions, such as Operation Opera, which had previously only been reserved for the United States.[11]

The South African government's yearbook of 1976 wrote: "Israel and South Africa have one thing above all else in common: they are both situated in a predominantly hostile world inhabited by dark peoples."[16]

From the mid-1970s, the two countries were allegedly involved in joint nuclear-weapons development and testing. According to Seymour Hersh, for example, the 1979 Vela Incident was the third joint Israeli–South African nuclear test in the Indian Ocean.[21] Richard Rhodes concludes the incident was an Israeli nuclear test, conducted in cooperation with South Africa, and that the United States administration deliberately obscured this fact in order to avoid complicating relations with Israel.[22]

By 1980, a sizeable contingent of South African military and government officials were living permanently in Israel, to over-see the numerous joint projects between the countries, while their children attended local Israeli schools.[11] Scientific collaboration also continued to increase, with many scientists working in each other's countries. Perhaps most sensitive was the large group of Israeli scientists working at South Africa's Pelindaba nuclear facility.[11]

During Operation Protea in 1981, the South African Defence Force made military history, as arguably the first user of modern drone technology, when it operated the Israeli IAI Scout drones in combat in Angola. They would only be used in combat by the Israel Defence Forces a year later during the 1982 Lebanon War and Operation Mole Cricket 19.[23]

In 1981, Israeli Defence Minister Ariel Sharon visited South African forces in Namibia for 10 days,[24] later saying that South Africa needed more weapons to fight Soviet infiltration in the region.

In 1984, Pik Botha again visited Israel but this time only for an unofficial meeting with Israeli Foreign Minister Yitzhak Shamir.[25]

Ballistic missile collaboration[edit]

The commanders of the South African Defense Force were present at the test-firings of Israel's Jericho ballistic missile system, where they stood alongside the IDF generals.[11] Israel's ballistic missile system, the Jericho II missile, was subsequently licensed for production in South Africa as the RSA series of space launch vehicles and ballistic missiles. The RSA-3 was produced by the Houwteq (a discontinued division of Denel) company at Grabouw, 30 km east of Cape Town. Test launches were made from Overberg Test Range near Bredasdorp, 200 km east of Cape Town. Rooi Els was where the engine test facilities were located. Development continued even after South African renunciation[26] of its nuclear weapons for use as a commercial satellite launcher.

The RSA-2 was a local copy of the Jericho II ballistic missile and the RSA-1 was a local copy of the Jericho II second stage for use as a mobile missile.[27][28][29][30]

End of the apartheid and severing of ties[edit]

In the 1980s, a minority of Israeli officials and many intellectuals, led by Yossi Beilin, then political director general of the Foreign Ministry, wanted not only to reduce cultural, commercial, and military ties, but also for Israel to take the lead in the fight against apartheid. A majority of government officials, led by Defense Minister Yitzhak Rabin, wanted to maintain the status quo with South Africa (or make a few token reductions) and make their relationship even more secretive. Foreign Minister Shimon Peres took a middle-ground view, saying "Israel is not going to lead a policy" against South Africa, but would follow the approach taken by the United States and Western Europe.[13] The Israeli interest in South Africa sprang in part from the presence of about 110,000 Jews in South Africa, a figure which included more than 15,000 Israeli citizens.[18]

By 1987 Israel found itself the only developed nation in the world that still maintained strong, even strategic relations with apartheid South Africa, which was now entering its final throes. (Among African nations, only Malawi maintained diplomatic relations with South Africa throughout the Apartheid era.)[31] Based on intelligence assessments that the present South African government was no longer sustainable, Foreign Minister Shimon Peres, in a speech before parliament the same year, announced that Israel would sign no more new military contracts with the South African government and would "gradually" allow those already in effect to expire. Peres accompanied his announcement with the statement: "There is no room for discrimination, whether it's called apartheid or any other name", Peres said. "We repeat that we express our denunciation of the system of apartheid. The Jewish outlook is that every man was born in the image of God and created equal."[32] Israel also reduced cultural and tourism ties, appointed a committee to study sanctions proposals, and established educational programs in Israel for black South Africans. Several secret military treaties remained in force, continuing joint research in missile development and nuclear technology.[18]

Benjamin Beit-Hallahmi wrote in 1988 that the alliance between South Africa and Israel was one of the most underreported news stories of the past four decades and that Israel played a crucial role in the survival of the apartheid regime.[3]:108–109 Israel's collaboration with Apartheid South Africa was mentioned and condemned by various international organizations such as the UN General assembly (several times since 1974).[3]:114

On July 14, 1991, four days after the United States acted to end its economic and cultural sanctions against South Africa, Israel lifted its sanctions as well. The four years in which they were in effect saw Israel's trade deficit with South Africa swell to some $750 million. The sanctions did not apply to agreements signed before they were imposed in 1987. Although Israel had always condemned apartheid,[33][attribution needed] it was long apprehensive about the punitive measures, stemming from Israel's own vulnerability to international embargoes by the United Nations and Third World–dominated bodies.[34] For years, Israel's policy toward South Africa was one of deliberate ambiguity - publicly condemning apartheid, while privately maintaining a pragmatic and mutually beneficial array of commercial and military ties. [35] The resuming of open relations no longer included military cooperation.[36] When then-President F. W. de Klerk visited Israel in November 1991, he was involved in negotiations to end apartheid. The Israelis responded warmly to his declaration that "there will be a new constitution" in South Africa, "which we believe should be one which will prevent domination, in any form, by a minority, but also domination by a majority in the sense that no majority should be in a position to abuse its power." During de Klerk's state visit, he and Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir agreed to normalize relations.[33]

Alleged nuclear collaboration[edit]

U.S. Intelligence believed that Israel participated in South African nuclear research projects and supplied advanced non-nuclear weapons technology to South Africa during the 1970s, while South Africa was developing its own atomic bombs.[37][38] According to David Albright, "Faced with sanctions, South Africa began to organize clandestine procurement networks in Europe and the United States, and it began a long, secret collaboration with Israel." He goes on to say "A common question is whether Israel provided South Africa with weapons design assistance, although available evidence argues against significant cooperation."[39]

Chris McGreal has written that "Israel provided expertise and technology that was central to South Africa's development of its nuclear bombs".[16] In 2000, Dieter Gerhardt, Soviet spy and former commander in the South African Navy, stated that Israel agreed in 1974 to arm eight Jericho II missiles with "special warheads" for South Africa.[40]

According to journalist Seymour Hersh, the 1979 Vela incident, was the third joint Israeli-South African nuclear weapons test in the Indian Ocean, and the Israelis had sent two IDF ships and "a contingent of Israeli military men and nuclear experts" for the test.[41] Author Richard Rhodes also concludes the incident was an Israeli nuclear test, conducted in cooperation with South Africa, and that the United States administration deliberately obscured this fact in order to avoid complicating relations.[42]

In 2010, The Guardian released South African government documents, until now classified, apparently showing details of a meeting on 31 March 1975 between the two countries' defence ministers, at the time South African P. W. Botha and Israeli Shimon Peres. This new-found information brings clarity to a previously released "top secret" memo written by the then South African military chief of staff Lieutenant General RF Armstrong, again dated 31 March 1975, in which he writes: "In considering the merits of a weapon system such as the one being offered, certain assumptions have been made: a) That the missiles will be armed with nuclear warheads manufactured in RSA (Republic of South Africa) or acquired elsewhere". On 4 June 1975, Peres and Botha met in Zurich. The "top secret" minutes of the meeting recorded that "Minister Botha expressed interest in a limited number of units of Chalet subject to the correct payload being available" and that "Minister Peres said the correct payload was available in three sizes. Minister Botha expressed his appreciation and said that he would ask for advice." The article ends quoting the American academic Sasha Polakow-Suransky, who obtained the documents: "The Israeli defence ministry tried to block my access to the Secment agreement on the grounds it was sensitive material, especially the signature and the date", he said. "The South Africans didn't seem to care; they blacked out a few lines and handed it over to me. The ANC government is not so worried about protecting the dirty laundry of the apartheid regime's old allies."[43][44] Israel categorically denied these allegations and said that the documents were minutes from a meeting which did not indicate any offer for a sale of nuclear weapons.[45] Avner Cohen, author of Israel and the Bomb and the forthcoming The Worst-Kept Secret: Israel's Bargain with the Bomb, said "Nothing in the documents suggests there was an actual offer by Israel to sell nuclear weapons to the regime in Pretoria."[46]

Relations between Israel and post-apartheid South Africa[edit]

"Israel cooperated with the apartheid regime, but it did not participate in any atrocities."
— Nelson Mandela, 1999[47]

Nelson Mandela first visited Israel as well as the Palestinian territories in 1999, after he had handed over the presidency of South Africa to Thabo Mbeki. He had not previously received an invitation from Israel.[48] He met with both Israeli and Palestinian leaders, like Ehud Barak and Yassir Arafat. He said: "To the many people who have questioned why I came, I say: Israel worked very closely with the apartheid regime. I say: I've made peace with many men who slaughtered our people like animals. Israel cooperated with the apartheid regime, but it did not participate in any atrocities." Mandela reiterated his unwavering opposition to Israeli control of Gaza, the West Bank, the Golan Heights and southern Lebanon. And he noted that, upon his release from prison in 1990, he received invitations to visit "almost every country in the world, except Israel."[47][49]

Then Israeli Deputy Prime Minister Ehud Olmert visited South Africa in 2004,[50] meeting with South African President Thabo Mbeki, the first visit by an Israeli leader since the end of apartheid.

Some prominent South African figures, such as Desmond Tutu and Ronnie Kasrils,[51][52] have criticized Israel's treatment of the Palestinians, drawing parallels between apartheid South Africa and modern-day Israel.[53]

The Congress of South African Trade Unions, which represents 1.2 million South African workers, has also accused Israel of practicing apartheid and supported the boycott of the Canadian Union of Public Employees, as well as all Israeli products.[54]

However, South African ambassador to Israel Major General Fumanekile Gqiba generally did not agree with the analogy, saying about his time in Israel:

before I came here. I regarded Jews as whites. Purely whites. But when I came here I discovered that, no, these guys are not purely whites. ...You've got Indian Jews, you've got African Jews, and you've got even Chinese Jews, right? I began to say to our comrades, No, Israel is not a white country... Perhaps we would say there are those who came from Poland, who happened to be white—i.e. Ashkenazi their culture still dominates. It's difficult to say Israel is racist, in a classic sense.[55]

South Africa is an advocate of the two-state solution. In 2004 South African Deputy Foreign Minister Aziz Pahad criticized Israel's building of the Israeli West Bank barrier.[citation needed]

Annual trade between Israel and South Africa totaled $500 million as of 2003.[50]

According to the Pew Global Attitudes Project in 2007, 86% of South Africans both in a rural and urban spread had an opinion on the Israel–Palestine conflict. One of the few relevant questions with data from South Africa asked "Now thinking about the dispute between Israel and the Palestinians, which side do you sympathize with more, Israel or the Palestinians?" Of those asked; 28% said they sympathized more with Israel, 19% more with Palestine, 19% sympathized with both parties equally and 20% sympathized with neither. 14% didn't know or didn't answer.[56]

Following the Gaza flotilla raid, South Africa recalled its ambassador from Israel and summoned the Israeli ambassador for a reprimand.

The movement for an Academic boycott of Israel, within the broader Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions movement, grew in South Africa after the end of apartheid. Following an academic petition supported by more than 250 academics, including Breyten Breytenbach, John Dugard, Antjie Krog, Mahmood Mamdani and Achille Mbembe.,[57] the Senate of the University of Johannesburg decided to end its ties with Ben-Gurion University of the Negev in March 2011.[58] The University denied that the decision amounted to an academic boycott of Israel.[59] Others have claimed it as a "a landmark moment in the growing Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions of Israel campaign".[60] Jewish and Israeli groups have criticised the decision.[61]

See also[edit]

http://www.archives.gov.il/NR/exeres/033C77CD-64B9-4E1A-AC27-047070B572AE,frameless.htm?NRMODE=Published

References[edit]

  1. ^ "UN General Assembly Resolution 181 (Partition Plan)". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 29 November 1949. Retrieved 10 December 2013. 
  2. ^ "Recognition of Israel". American Jewish Year Book. 1950. p. 394. 
  3. ^ a b c d e Beit-Hallahmi, Benjamin (1987). The Israeli Connection: Whom Israel Arms and Why. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 978-1850430698. 
  4. ^ Shimoni, Gideon (2003). Community and conscience: the Jews in apartheid South Africa. Brandeis University Press. p. 23. ISBN 978-1584653295. 
  5. ^ "South Africa". American Jewish Year Book. 1952. p. 390. 
  6. ^ Hattis Rolef, S. (1987 & 1993). Political Dictionary of the State of Israel. Macmillan Publishing Co. ISBN 0-02-897193-0.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  7. ^ Tigay, Alan M. (1994). The Jewish Traveler: Hadassah Magazine's Guide to the World's Jewish Communities and Sights. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 112. ISBN 978-1568210780. 
  8. ^ Shimoni, Gideon (1 June 2003). "Coping with Israel's intrusion". Community and conscience: the Jews in apartheid South Africa (Googlebooks account required). Lebanon, New Hampshire: Brandeis University Press, published by University Press of New England. pp. 46–47. ISBN 1-58465-329-9. LCCN 20034623. Retrieved 23 August 2006. 
  9. ^ a b "1960s". Chronology. South African History Online. Archived from the original on 12 November 2007. Retrieved 3 December 2007. 
  10. ^ "Israel calls envoy from South Africa". New York Times. 26 September 1963. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Polakow-Suransky, Sasha (2010). The Unspoken Alliance: Israel's Secret Relationship with Apartheid South Africa. Random House. p. 30, 37, 45. ISBN 978-1770098404. As Israel's denunciations of South Africa grew louder, the South African Jewish community ... began to worry once again. ... As much as they resented Israel's increasingly harsh anti-apartheid rhetoric, the men in Pretoria were afraid to take action against Pretoria lest it endanger the flow of arms through France. ... During the mid-1960s, diplomatic contact between Israel and South Africa was minimal. 
  12. ^ Hoffman, Paul (5 July 1971). "Israel's Offer to Aid Blacks Irks South Africa". New York Times. 
  13. ^ a b c Thomas Friedman (29 January 1987). "Israelis Reassess Supplying Arms to South Africa". New York Times. Retrieved 27 April 2014. 
  14. ^ Helen E. Purkitt & Stephen F. Burgess (2005). South Africa's Weapons of Mass Destruction. Indiana University Press. p. 33-50. South Africa's importance as a source of uranium reinforced its status as a major military ally of Great Britain and a loyal member of the Western political camp. Primarily due to South Africa's security relationship and growing military cooperation with the United States, the country was viewed in most Western capitals as a loose appendage of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). ... Throughout the first several decades after World War II, South Africa's apartheid system was not a liability in dealing with Western leaders. 
  15. ^ http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=FvAWPTaRvFYC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Historical+Dictionary+of+the+Democratic+Republic+of+the+Congo&hl=en&sa=X&ei=TJFZU4H1Men17AaWs4BQ&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Historical%20Dictionary%20of%20the%20Democratic%20Republic%20of%20the%20Congo&f=false
  16. ^ a b c d McGreal, Chris (7 February 2006). "Brothers in arms — Israel's secret pact with Pretoria". The Guardian (London). 
  17. ^ Nadelmann, Ethan A. (June 1981). "Israel and Black Africa: A Rapprochement?". Journal of Modern African Studies 19 (2): 183–219. doi:10.1017/s0022278x00016918. 
  18. ^ a b c Byrnes, Rita M., ed. (1996). South Africa: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress. 
  19. ^ a b "1970s". Chronology. South African History Online. Archived from the original on 1 November 2007. Retrieved 3 December 2007. 
  20. ^ "Missile Chronology (South Africa)". Nuclear Threat Initiative. May 2003. 
  21. ^ Hersh, Seymour (1991). The Samson option: Israel's Nuclear Arsenal and American Foreign Policy. Random House. ISBN 0-394-57006-5. 
  22. ^ Rhodes, Richard (2011). Twilight of the Bombs: Recent Challenges, New Dangers, and the Prospects for a World Without Nuclear Weapons. Random House. ISBN 0-307-38741-0. 
  23. ^ Zaloga, Steven (19 July 2011). Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Robotic Air Warfare 1917–2007. Osprey Publishing. p. 22. 
  24. ^ Middleton, Drew (14 December 1981). "South Africa needs more arms, Israeli says". New York Times. 
  25. ^ "1980s". Chronology. South African History Online. Archived from the original on 10 November 2007. Retrieved 13 December 2007. 
  26. ^ http://www.armscontrol.org/system/files/ACT_South%20Africa_9601.pdf
  27. ^ http://www.astronautix.com/lvs/rsa.htm
  28. ^ http://www.astronautix.com/lvs/rsa1.htm
  29. ^ http://www.astronautix.com/lvs/rsa2.htm
  30. ^ http://www.astronautix.com/lvs/rsa4.htm
  31. ^ "P.W. Botha felt Israel had betrayed him". Jerusalem Post. 2 November 2006. Retrieved 2 November 2006. 
  32. ^ Israel Places Sanctions On S. Africa http://articles.chicagotribune.com/1987-03-20/news/8701210930_1_south-africa-foreign-minister-shimon-peres-israel
  33. ^ a b "Behind the Headlines: De Klerk Visit Means Relations with South Africa Again 'kosher'". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. November 12, 1991. 
  34. ^ [1]
  35. ^ Thomas Friedman (29 January 1987). "Israelis Reassess Supplying Arms to South Africa". New York Times. Retrieved 27 April 2014. 
  36. ^ http://www.apnewsarchive.com/1991/Israel-South-Africa-Sign-Cooperation-Pact-De-Klerk-Tours-Holy-Sites/id-5476c96d51a8c63985a3312d084c43bb
  37. ^ "The 22 September 1979 Event" (PDF). Interagency Intelligence Memorandum. National Security Archive. December 1979. pp. 10 (paragraph 30). MORI DocID: 1108245. Retrieved 2006-11-01. 
  38. ^ Unknown author. "RSA Nuclear Weapons Program". Federation of American Scientists. 
  39. ^ Albright, David (July 1995). "South Africa and the affordable bomb". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 50 (4): 37–47. Retrieved 4 August 2009. 
  40. ^ "Tracking Nuclear Proliferation". PBS Newshour. May 2, 2005. 
  41. ^ Hersh 1991, p. 271.
  42. ^ Rhodes 2011, p. 164-169.
  43. ^ McGreal, Chris (24 May 2010). "Revealed: how Israel offered to sell South Africa nuclear weapons". The Guardian. 
  44. ^ McGreal, Chris (23 May 2010). "The memos and minutes that confirm Israel's nuclear stockpile". The Guardian. 
  45. ^ Kershner, Isabel (24 May 2010). "Israel Denies It Offered South Africa Warheads". The New York Times. 
  46. ^ Cohen, Avner (25 May 2010). "Avner Cohen: Yitzhak Rabin would have opposed sale of nuclear weapons". The Independent (London). 
  47. ^ a b Belling, Susan (2 October 1999). "Mandela bears message of peace in first visit to Israel". The Jewish News Weekly of Northern California. 
  48. ^ Sydow, Christoph. "Nelson Mandelas Gegner: "Dieser schwarze Terrorist"". Der Spiegel (in German). Retrieved 10 December 2013. 
  49. ^ Orme Jr, William A. (20 October 1999). "Mandela Visits Israel With Praise but Rifts Linger". New York Times. Retrieved 10 December 2013. 
  50. ^ a b "South African President Mbeki meets with Deputy PM Olmert". Haaretz. 22 October 2004. 
  51. ^ Tutu, Desmond (29 April 2002). "Apartheid in the Holy Land". The Guardian (London). 
  52. ^ Tutu, D; Urbina, I. (15 July 2002). "Against Israeli apartheid.". The Nation. 
  53. ^ "Tutu condemns Israeli apartheid". BBC News. 29 April 2002. Retrieved 10 December 2013. 
  54. ^ "South African union joins boycott of Israel". ynetnews.com. 6 August 2006. 
  55. ^ Pollak, Joel (22 September 2007). "An interview with Major General Gqiba". Harvard Law Record. Retrieved 10 December 2013. 
  56. ^ "Pew Global Attitudes Project: Spring 2007 Survey – Survey of 47 Publics FINAL 2007 COMPARATIVE TOPLINE" (PDF). 2007. p. 14. Retrieved 2 April 2008. 
  57. ^ www.ujpetition.com
  58. ^ Rawoot, Ilham. "More universities to query Israeli links as UJ severs ties". Mail & Guardian Online. Retrieved 6 April 2011. 
  59. ^ "No UJ academic boycott of Israel". UJ Newsroom. Retrieved 6 April 2011. 
  60. ^ "UJ severs links with Israel university". SowetanLIVE. Retrieved 6 April 2011. 
  61. ^ Lipmann, Jennifer (24 March 2011). "Johannesburg university condemned for 'brutal' Israel boycott". Jewish Chronicle. Retrieved 10 December 2013. 

External links[edit]

http://www.archives.gov.il/NR/exeres/033C77CD-64B9-4E1A-AC27-047070B572AE,frameless.htm?NRMODE=Published