Israeli folk dancing
Jewish folk dancing (Hebrew ריקודי עם - ree,koo,dey 'am, dances (of the) people) is a form of dance usually performed to songs in Hebrew or in other languages commonly spoken within a local community and with dances being choreographed for specific songs. Most Jewish dances are performed in a circle, although there are also partner dances and line dances.
Jewish folk dances were created as way of creating a new Israeli culture in the land of Israel, combining elements from other dance cultures with the music and themes of modern Israel. Most of the dances could be danced by young and old, and celebrated the pioneering spirit. Others were created for professional or semi-professional performing dance groups. Israeli folk dancing is a popular recreational activity in Israel and has also spread over time to other countries around the world.
Rivka Sturman, who immigrated to Palestine in 1929, observed that children were being taught German songs in kindergarten and decided it was important for them to have songs and dances that reflected the culture of their own country. She joined a newly formed organization sponsored by the Histadrut that devoted itself to the creation of folk dances. Sturman, who had a background in modern dance, became one of the most prolific folk dance choreographers in the country. From 1942 to 1983, she created, taught, and performed more than 90 dances, many of which are considered Israeli classics.
In 1944, Gurit Kadman organized a First Fruits dance pageant to celebrate the Jewish holiday of Shavuot at Kibbutz Dalia. That same year, she organized the first folk dance festival at the kibbutz, which became a regular event.
Like many types of European folk dance and country-western line dancing in the U.S., each Israeli folk dance has a fixed choreography (sequence of steps) and is danced to a specific piece of music. The yotzer, or choreographer, selects a piece of music, usually Israeli, and arranges a set of steps to fit with that music. The formation of the dance might be a circle, or perhaps couples, or trios or short lines. Or it might be a group/line formation as in country-western line dancing. A dance's tempo may be fast or slow.
The movements themselves are varied, in many cases drawing on older Jewish and non-Jewish folk dance traditions. Major folk influences include the Hora, which is originally a Romanian folk dance form, the Temani, Atari, the Hasidic (Eastern European Jewish) dance tradition, and other Eastern European folk dance traditions. There are many debka-type Israeli folk dances; the debka is originally a Bedouin folk dance form. Some dances show primarily a single influence. For example, the dances Hora Chadera (1972) and Eretz, Eretz (1974) hearken back to the Hasidic dance tradition. Some dances combine elements from multiple folk dance traditions, or from folk and non-folk sources. The dance Ma Navu (1956) combines folk dance influences (e.g., the Yemenite step) with movements from ballet. Some Israeli dances—this is more common in the newer dances—have few if any folk elements. Prime examples are Yo Ya and Zodiak, which are done in disco format (i.e., with all dancers facing in the same direction) and have movements almost entirely from jazz dance; purists might consider such dances stylistically outside the limits of folk dance.
Yemenite dancing is based on the Yemenite step (Tza'ad Temani), a dance move consisting of a three-step sequence executed in place with a short pause on the final step ("quick, quick, slow"). The step can be done to the right, left, forward and back.
The hora is a circle dance that predates the State of Israel. It was introduced here by Baruch Agadati in 1924. Adapted from the Romanian hora, it has become an icon of Jewish and Israeli folk dance. It can be performed to many of the traditional klezmer and Israeli folk songs, and is typically danced to the music of Hava Nagila. This is the most common dance done at Jewish life cycle joyous events such as weddings and Bar and Bat Mitzvahs.
In its pioneer version, the hora was done at a whirling, breakneck pace. Each dancer’s arms were around the shoulders of those flanking him, with the circle spinning so fast that dancers were sometimes lifted off the ground. The dancing often continued for hours.
Notable Israeli choreographers
- Culture of Israel
- Jewish dance
- Folk dance
- International folk dance
- Music of Israel
- Mayim Mayim
- Eshkol-Wachman Movement Notation
Goldschmidt, Matti: The Bible in Israeli Folk Dances, Viersen 2001 (191 pages)
- Israeli Dance.com Dance groups around the world
- http://www.israeltanz.de seminars and workshops in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland
- Israeli Dances.com
- Israeli Dancing.info Comprehensive dance information
- phillipmfeldman.org About Israeli Folk Dance
- Berkeley.edu A Brief History of Israeli Folk Dancing