Israeli legislative election, 1984

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Elections for the 11th Knesset
Israel
← 1981 23 July 1984 1988 →
Party Leader % Seats +/−
Alignment Shimon Peres 34.9% 44 -3
Likud Yitzhak Shamir 31.9% 41 -7
TehiyaTzomet Yuval Ne'eman 4.0% 5 +2
National Religious Party Yosef Burg 3.5% 4 -2
HadashBlack Panthers Meir Vilner 3.4% 4 0
Shas Yitzhak Peretz 3.1% 4 New
Shinui Amnon Rubinstein 2.7% 3 +1
Ratz Shulamit Aloni 2.4% 3 +2
Yahad Ezer Weizman 2.2% 3 New
Progressive List for Peace Mohammed Miari 1.8% 2 New
Agudat Yisrael Avraham Yosef Shapira 1.7% 2 -2
Morasha Haim Drukman 1.6% 2 New
Tami Aharon Abuhatzira 1.5% 1 -2
Kach Meir Kahane 1.2% 1 +1
Ometz Yigal Hurvitz 1.2% 1 New
This lists parties that won seats. See the complete results below.
Prime Minister before Prime Minister after
Yitzhak Shamir
Likud
Shimon Peres
Alignment

Elections for the eleventh Knesset were held in Israel on 23 July 1984. Voter turnout was 78.8%.[1] The results saw the Alignment return to being the largest party in the Knesset, a status it had lost in 1977. However, the party could not form a government with any of the smaller parties, resulting in a national unity government with Likud, with both party leaders, Shimon Peres and Yitzhak Shamir, holding the post of Prime Minister for two years each.

Background[edit]

The ongoing South Lebanon conflict[edit]

Bus 300 affair[edit]

Main article: Bus 300 affair

Election campaign[edit]

Results[edit]

Party Votes % Seats +/−
Alignment 1 2 724,074 34.9 44 −3
Likud 4 661,302 31.9 41 −7
TehiyaTzomet 5 83,037 4.0 5 +2
National Religious Party 6 73,530 3.5 4 −2
HadashBlack Panthers 8 69,815 3.4 4 0
Shas 7 63,605 3.1 4 New
Shinui 1 3 54,747 2.7 3 +1
Ratz 1 3 49,698 2.4 3 +2
Yahad 2 46,302 2.2 3 New
Progressive List for Peace 38,012 1.8 2 New
Agudat Yisrael 36,079 1.7 2 −2
Morasha 6 33,287 1.6 2 New
Tami 4 31,103 1.5 1 −2
Kach 25,907 1.2 1 +1
Ometz 4 23,845 1.2 1 New
Aryeh Eliav 15,348 0.7 0 New
Handicapped Organisation 12,329 0.6 0 New
Movement for the Renewal of Social Zionism 5,876 0.3 0 New
Aliyah and Youth Movement 5,794 0.3 0 New
Shiluv 5,499 0.3 0 New
Independence 4,887 0.2 0 New
National Organisation for the Defence of the Tenant 3,195 0.2 0 New
Development and Peace 2,430 0.1 0 0
Has Mas 1,472 0.1 0 New
Movement for the Homeland 1,415 0.1 0 New
Amkha 733 0.1 0 0
Invalid/blank votes 18,081 - - -
Total 2,091,402 100 120 0
Source: Nohlen et al.

1 Five MKs broke away from the Alignment to establish Mapam and one to establish the Arab Democratic Party, whilst one MK defected to Ratz and one to Shinui.

2 Yahad merged into the Alignment.

3 Mordechai Virshubski defected from Shinui to Ratz.

4 Ometz and Tami merged into Likud.

5 One MK broke away from Tehiya to establish Tzomet.

6 Haim Drukman defected from Morasha to the National Religious Party.

7 Shimon Ben-Shlomo broke away from Shas.

8 Muhammed Wattad defected from Mapam to Hadash.

The Eleventh Knesset[edit]

Due to the stalemate produced by the elections, it was decided to form a national unity government, with the Alignment and Likud holding the leadership for two years each. The Alignment's Shimon Peres formed the twenty-first government on 13 September 1984, and as well as Likud, the coalition included the National Religious Party, Agudat Israel, Shas, Morasha, Shinui and Ometz. Aside from national unity governments created at a time of war (notably the government formed during the Six-Day War in the term of the sixth Knesset, which had 111 MKs), it was the largest ever government in Israeli political history, with 97 MKs.

In accordance with the rotation agreement, Peres resigned in 1986 and Likud's Yitzhak Shamir formed the twenty-second government on 20 October 1986. Shinui left the coalition on 26 May 1987.

The eleventh Knesset also contained two controversial parties, Kach and the Progressive List for Peace (PLFP). Kach was a far-right party that advocated the expulsion of Israeli Arabs, and although it had run in previous elections, it had not passed the electoral threshold. Ultimately the party was banned after a law was passed barring parties that incited racism. The attempts made to stop Kach from competing in the next elections also affected the PLFP, as the addition of section 7a to the Basic Law dealing with the Knesset ("Prevention of Participation of Candidates List") included the banning of parties that denied Israel's existence as a Jewish state:

A candidates' list shall not participate in elections to the Knesset if its objects or actions, expressly or by implication, include one of the following... negation of the existence of the State of Israel as the state of the Jewish people.

On this basis, the Central Elections Committee initially banned the PLFP from running for the 1988 elections, arguing that its policies promoted the scapping of Israel as a Jewish state. However, the decision was eventually overturned by the Supreme Court of Israel, and party was able to compete in the elections, winning one seat. Nevertheless, the law was not overturned, the Supreme Court merely deciding it was impossible to determine if "the real, central and active purpose [of the PFLP] is to bring about the elimination of the State of Israel as the state of the Jewish people",[2] and attempts were made to ban the Israeli Arab parties Balad and Ta'al using the same law prior to the 2003 elections.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nohlen, D, Grotz, F & Hartmann, C (2001) Elections in Asia: A data handbook, Volume I, p127 ISBN 0-19-924958-X
  2. ^ Entry barriers to the Knesset race Haaretz

External links[edit]