Israeli settler violence

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Israeli settler violence refers to acts of violence committed by Israeli settlers against Palestinians and Israeli security forces, predominantly in the West Bank. Most West Bank settlers are "law abiding" (according to a senior Israeli army officer)[1] and the vast majority are non-violent,[2] but there has been a rise in violent acts by fringe extremists against Palestinians and Israel Police and IDF troops.[3] In 2007 Israeli prosecutors determined that of 515 criminal suits relating to violent activity committed by Israeli settlers against Palestinians and Israeli security forces, 502 related to right wing Jewish settlers in the Occupied Territories.[4][5] In 2008, the senior Israeli commander in the West Bank said that a hard core of a few hundred activists were involved in violence against the Palestinians and Israeli soldiers.[6] Some prominent Jewish religious figures living in the occupied territories, as well as Israeli government officials, have condemned and expressed outrage over such behaviour.[7] In the years 2008-2009, the defense establishment began taking a harder line against unruly settlers.[3] An EU heads of mission report found that settler violence had more than tripled in the three years up to 2011.[8]OCHA figures state that the annual rate of settler attacks (2,100 attacks in 8 years) has almost quadrupled between 2006 and 2014.[9] Palestinian police are forbidden from reacting to acts of violence by Israeli settlers, a fact which diminishes their credibility among Palestinians.[10]

Israel's settlement policy[edit]

Settlements (darker pink) and areas of the West Bank (lighter pink) where access by Palestinians was closed or restricted at the time. Source: United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, January 2006.

Israel has justified its civilian settlements by stating that a temporary use of land and buildings for various purposes appears permissible under a plea of military necessity and that the settlements fulfilled security needs.[11] The United Nations affirmed the principle of international law that the continuation of colonialism in all its forms and manifestations is a crime and that colonial peoples have the inherent right to struggle by all necessary means at their disposal against colonial Powers and alien domination in exercise of their right of self-determination.[12] National liberation struggles are categorized as international armed conflicts by Article 1(4) of the Additional Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 to which the majority of states (including the Western states) are parties.[13][14] The International Court of Justice concluded that Israel had breached its obligations under international law by establishing settlements in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem and that Israel cannot rely on a right of self-defence or on a state of necessity in order to preclude the wrongfulness of imposing a régime, which is contrary to international law. The Court also concluded that the Israeli régime violates the basic human rights of the Palestinians by impeding the liberty of movement of the inhabitants of the Occupied Palestinian Territory (with the exception of Israeli citizens) and their exercise of the right to work, to health, to education and to an adequate standard of living.[15]

In Hebron, where 500-600 settlers live among 167,000 Palestinians, B'Tselem argues that there have been "grave violations" of Palestinian human rights because of the "presence of the settlers within the city." The organization cites regular incidents of "almost daily physical violence and property damage by settlers in the city", curfews and restrictions of movement that are "among the harshest in the Occupied Territories", and violence and by Israeli border policemen and the IDF against Palestinians who live in the city's H2 sector.[16][17][18]

Human Rights Watch reports on physical violence against Palestinians by settlers, including, "frequent[ly] stoning and shooting at Palestinian cars. In many cases, settlers abuse Palestinians in front of Israeli soldiers or police with little interference from the authorities."[19]

B'Tselem also says that settler actions include "blocking roadways, so as to impede Palestinian life and commerce. The settlers also shoot solar panels on roofs of buildings, torch automobiles, shatter windowpanes and windshields, destroy crops, uproot trees, abuse merchants and owners of stalls in the market. Some of these actions are intended to force Palestinians to leave their homes and farmland, and thereby enable the settlers to gain control of them."[20]

Causes of violence[edit]

Ghassan Daghlas, a Palestinian Authority official who deals with the settlements issue in the northern West Bank said, These groups of settlers are organised and support each other...If there’s an outpost evacuation, they call people from Hebron to Jenin to stop the Palestinians working on their lands. Michael Sfard, a lawyer with Yesh Din, an Israeli human rights group which monitors the violation of human rights in the Palestinian territories, stated that there are between a few dozen and a few hundred extremist settlers using a tactic called Price Tagging, if the Government sends police or soldiers to dismantle an outpost that is being built, the settlers make the Palestinian population pay the price. While people in the outpost are confronting the security forces, others start harassing Palestinians forcing commanders to divert men from the outpost and making them think twice about launching future operations. It’s such a big headache that many of the relevant authorities give up without trying and the outposts are quickly rebuilt once the army gives up and leaves.[21]

Many Israeli settlers believe that their religion entitles them to the land of biblical Israel. According to a 2003 survey, nearly 40% of settlers in the West Bank "live there out of a belief in a divinely ordained mission to inhabit the land".[22]

Human rights group B'Tselem says that the violence is "a means to harass and intimidate Palestinians" and that the evacuations are a necessary part of the peace process. According to B'Tselem that when a building is evacuated by the Israeli government, settlers lash out at Palestinians because they're "easy victims" and as a means to widen the area under settler control.[23]

Criticism of violence by settler leaders[edit]

The violence by extremist settlers against Palestinians has been condemned by some of the leading religious figures in the West Bank, including Rabbi Menachem Fruman of Tekoa, who said: "Targeting Palestinians and their property is a shocking thing, (...) It's an act of hurting humanity. (...) This builds a wall of fire between Jews and Arabs."[7]

The Yesha Council and former Knesset member Hanan Porat has also condemned violence against Palestinians. "The ‘price tag’ response is immoral," Porat said. "It’s unheard of that one needs to burn the vineyards and fields of Arabs. It’s immoral…and it gives legitimacy to those who are interested in undermining the outpost issue. It’s a very grave matter."[24]

Yesha Council is the umbrella organization of municipal councils of Jewish settlements in the West Bank. The council chairman Dani Dayan said that settlers must not use violence to advance their means. He said that such actions were "morally bankrupt" and only serve to "hinder the settlers' struggle."[25]

Differing legal status and treatment of Israeli settlers and Palestinians[edit]

Unlike Palestinians, Israeli civilians living in the Palestinian Territories are not subject to military or local law, but are prosecuted according to Israeli penal law. This originates in the Emergency Regulations bill enacted in 1967 and extended since which gives extraterritorial rights to Israelis in the occupied territories. B'TSelem has said that the difference in legal status of Israelis and Palestinians in the territories has led to a double standard in which Israelis are given more legal rights and are punished more lightly than the Palestinians who are subject to military and local law. B'Tselem notes the system violates the principles of equality before the law and territoriality.[26]

Referring to settler violence during the police evacuation of the "Federman Farm" near Kiryat Arba, Haaretz has stated in an editorial "Israeli society has become accustomed to giving lawbreaking settlers special treatment", noting that no other group could similarly attack Israeli law enforcement agencies without being severely punished.[27] Haaretz has characterized settler violence on soldiers and policemen who participated in the evacuation of the "Federman Farm" as "terrorism".[27]

In response to the violence directed towards Israeli security forces, Israel declared it would no longer fund any illegal outposts from November, 2008.[28]

After the evacuation of settlers from Hebron in December 2008, a riot ensued and a Jewish settler, Ze'ev Braude, was recorded on video shooting two unarmed Palestinians after Palestinians had hurled rocks at him. The victims were shot on their own property, which Braude had entered, and later needed surgery. The Israeli State Prosecutor's Office decided to abandon the prosecution of Braude after the Israeli High Court of Justice ruled that the prosecution must give the defendant access to "sensitive information". The prosecutor's office had earlier said that some of the evidence against Braude was classified for security reasons, due to "the Shin Bet's sources and methods of operation, and identifying details about its units and people." Braude had petitioned the High Court for access.[29][30]

The United Nations Fact Finding Mission on the Gaza Conflict reported on rioting and violence in the West Bank in the period preceding the Israeli military operations in Gaza. The report said "Little if any action is taken by the Israeli authorities to investigate, prosecute and punish violence against Palestinians, including killings, by settlers and members of the security forces, resulting in a situation of impunity. The Mission concludes that Israel has failed to fulfil its obligations to protect the Palestinians from violence by private individuals under both international human rights law and international humanitarian law.[31]

Law enforcement action against settlers[edit]

The United Nations Fact Finding Mission on the Gaza Conflict reported on rioting and violence in the West Bank in the period preceding the Israeli military operations in Gaza. The report said "Little if any action is taken by the Israeli authorities to investigate, prosecute and punish violence against Palestinians, including killings, by settlers and members of the security forces, resulting in a situation of impunity. The Mission concludes that Israel has failed to fulfil its obligations to protect the Palestinians from violence by private individuals under both international human rights law and international humanitarian law.[31] The report also stated that the International Court of Justice advisory opinion and "a number of United Nations resolutions have all affirmed that Israel’s practice of constructing settlements – in effect, the transfer by an occupying Power of parts of its own civilian population into the territory it occupies – constitutes a breach of the Fourth Geneva Convention".[32]

According to Amos Harel, attempts by the security forces to bring violent right-wing zealots to justice have suffered from two main problems: investigating Israelis as opposed to Palestinians is subject to more restrictions, and courts have proved to be lenient.[33] Yesh Din has produced a report, "A Semblance of Law", which found problems with law enforcement actions against Israelis in the West Bank. According to Yesh Din's study, which was conducted in 2005, more than 90% of complaints against Israelis were closed without indictments mainly due to perpetrators not being found, 96% of trespassing cases (including sabotage of trees) against Israelis led to no indictment, 100% of vandalism and other property offences against Israelis led to no indictment and 5% of complaints against Israelis were lost and never investigated.[34]

As well as collecting statistics, Yesh Din examined 42 closed investigation files and found a number of shortcomings, including the use of Hebrew to record testimonies given in Arabic; frequent failure to check the scene where the alleged offense took place; often not taking down eye-witness testimonies; widespread lack of recourse to live identification line-ups with suspected Israeli civilians; hardly any confrontations between complainants and suspects; failure to check alibis; hasty closure of files shortly after the complaint was registered: closing of files even when evidence was sufficient to indict suspects: police refusing to register complaints, and pressure from the Civilian Administration being used to avoid filing complaints.[34]

8% of complaints resulted in indictments. The Israeli Justice Ministry responded by stating that legal authorities were closely following specific cases, but said that it was not in its authority to deal with every case.[35]

Israeli security sources have said that it has become customary for some settlers to take the law into their own hands in the wake of terror attacks in the West Bank.[36]

In 2008–2009, the defense establishment began taking a harder line against unruly settlers.[3]

In 2012, two EU heads of mission reports stated that Israel's security operations in the occupied territories had failed to protect the Palestinian population; it accused Israel of setting up its operations to minimize the impact on settlers of an ongoing campaign of settler violence. The reports noted that "Over 90% of monitored complaints regarding settler violence filed by Palestinians with the Israeli police in recent years have been closed without indictment", and further added that, "discriminatory protections and privileges for settlers compound these abuses and create an environment in which settlers can act with apparent impunity."[8]

Administrative detention[edit]

Following an attack by settlers on an IDF army base on December 13, 2011,[37] the Israeli government authorized administrative detention and military trial for settlers who engaged in violent actions, similar to the treatment accorded Palestinian activists who engage in similar behavior. The IDF was granted the power to arrest violent settlers and plans were announced to increase security on the West Bank and restrict access by known troublemakers. Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu characterized the situation as a handful of extremists in a population of generally law-abiding settlers.[38] Five West Bank Israelis who are alleged to have planned and participated in the attack on the army base were indicted by the District Court of Jerusalem on January 8, 2012.[39]

Settler riots[edit]

Israeli withdrawals from Gaza (in 2005) and an eviction in Hebron (in 2008) triggered settler rioting in protest. There is also continual conflict between settlers and Palestinians over land, resources and perceived grievances. In August 2007, soldiers clashed with settlers during a raid in Hebron. Paint and eggs were thrown at the soldiers.[40]

A violent settler protest at the Palestinian village of Funduk occurred in November 2007, in which hundreds of extremist settlers converged at the entrance of the village and rampaged after 29-year-old local settler, Ido Zoldan, was shot dead in his car by Palestinian gunmen at the entrance to Funduk. The settlers smashed the windows of houses and cars. According to Funduk villagers, Israeli soldiers and police accompanied the protesters but mostly stood aside while the settlers rampaged.[41]

In December 2008 Hebron settlers angry at the eviction of settlers from a disputed house rioted, shooting three Palestinian rock-throwers and burning Palestinian homes and olive groves. Video footage of the attacks were recorded, leading to widespread condemnation in Israel. The attacks were characterized as "a pogrom" by then Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert who said he was ashamed "as a Jew".[42][43]

Local Palestinians claimed that once the disputed house was evicted, the IDF and the police were "indifferent" to the violence against the Palestinians, and have made no real attempt to stop the settlers from rioting.[44]

Some settlers have publicly adopted what they refer to as a "price tag" policy whereby settlers attack Palestinian villages in retaliation after settler outposts are removed by the Israeli government.[45]

In April 2009, dozens of settlers from Bat Ayin rampaged through the West Bank village of Safa, smashing car windows, damaging homes and wounding 12 Palestinians. An Israeli army spokeswoman said the violence started when Palestinians threw stones at Bat Ayin settlers praying on a nearby hill before the Jewish Passover holiday.[46]

The United Nations has warned that up to 250,000 Palestinians in 83 villages are "highly or moderately" vulnerable to settler retaliation if the unauthorized outposts in the West Bank are removed by the Israeli government. 75,900 Palestinians in 22 villages are "highly vulnerable". The report also warns that a number of roads around Palestinian villages may become dangerous for the Palestinians to travel on. The settlements Havat Gilad, Kedumim, Itamar, Yitzhar, Ma'aleh Levona, Shilo, Adei Ad, Nokdim, Bat Ayin, Neguhot, Kiryat Arba, Beit Haggai, Carmel and Susya are considered as possible threats to nearby Palestinians. The report criticizes "the inadequate level of law enforcement by the Israeli authorities" and "the ambiguous message delivered by the Government of Israel and the IDF top officials to the security forces in the field regarding their authority and responsibility to enforce the law on Israeli settlers".[47]

Involvement of youths[edit]

Some settlers who attacked or harassed Palestinians are disaffected youths, referred to in the Israeli media as Hilltop Youth. In 2008, welfare minister Isaac Herzog (Labor party) labeled them a "security threat" as well as a "societal and educational danger".[48] In December 2011, following an outbreak of settler violence against IDF property and personnel the Israeli Defense Minister, Ehud Barak, said with reference to the Hilltop Youth, "there is no doubt that we are talking about terrorists."[49]

Attacks on Palestinian agriculture and property[edit]

Graffiti reading "Gas the Arabs! JDL" reportedly sprayed by settlers on the Qurtuba girls school in Hebron[50][51][52]

Olive farming is a major industry and employer in the Palestinian West Bank and olive trees are a common target of settler violence. According to OCHA roughly 10,000 Palestinian West Bank olive trees and saplings have suffered either uprooting or damage from Israeli attacks in 2013, a rise from about 8,500 trees damaged in 2012.[53] B'Tselem alleges that "olive pickers in areas near certain settlements and outposts in the West Bank have been a target of attacks by settlers, who have cut down and burned olive trees and stolen the crops" and that "security forces have not taken suitable action to prevent the violence." The IDF barred olive picking in extensive areas of land, claiming that the closures were to protect the olive pickers. The case went to the Israeli High Court in 2006 which found that, as a rule, lands are not to be closed because of settler violence, and that the IDF must enforce the law. According to B'Tselem the IDF has worked around this by saying the lands are closed to protect the settlers.[54]

Amnesty International has said that scores of Palestinian owned sheep as well as gazelles and other animals were poisoned with 2-fluoracetamide near Tuwani on 22 March 2005, depriving Palestinian farmers of their livelihood.[55]

In July 2009, a group of Israeli settlers riding horses and carrying torches raided Palestinian areas, burning 1,500-2,000 olive trees and stoning cars.[56]

In March 2011 two EU heads of mission reports detailed a tripling of violent settler attacks over three years. The report found that the attacks were especially aimed at Palestinian farmers and their livelihood in a systematic campaign of violence and intimidation which included the destruction of over 10,000 olive trees in the preceding year. The report noted that the Israeli state had "so far failed to effectively protect the Palestinian population".[8] 2013. According to a confidential IDF document for just the period from Sept. 11-October 20, 2013 the following Palestinian olive groves, near Israeli settlements near Elon Moreh, Karnei Shomron, Kedumim, Ma'on and the Ma'on Farm, Susya, Shavei Shomron, Zayit Ra'anan, the Gilad Farm, Shilo and Yitzhar and all under IDF guard, were damaged but were not reported in the media:-

  • Sept. 11: 500 trees burned on land belonging to the village of Deir al-Khatab.
  • Sept. 15: 17 olive trees chopped down on land belonging to the village of Kafr Laqif.
  • Sept. 17: 18 olive trees chopped down on land belonging to the village of Kafr Laqif.
  • Sept. 20: 27 olive trees burned in Kafr Qaddum.
  • Sept. 21: 70 trees chopped down in Kafr Qaddum.
  • Oct. 2: Serious damage to several olive trees on land belonging to the Raba'i family.
  • Oct. 2: Serious damage to about 30 olive trees in the village of Jit.
  • Oct. 3: 48 olive trees of the Shatat family chopped down.
  • Oct. 5: Serious damage to 130 olive trees of the Fukha family.
  • Oct. 5: 15 olive trees chopped down and olives stolen in the village of Deir Sharaf.
  • Oct. 7: Serious damage to about 60 olive trees and olives stolen in the village of Jit.
  • Oct. 7: Serious damage to eight olive trees on land belonging to the village of Ras Karkar.
  • Oct. 7: 35 olive trees in the village of Far'ata chopped down and about a quarter of the olive crop stolen.
  • Oct. 8: About 400 olive trees in the village of Jalud set on fire.
  • Oct. 13-14: Olive trees and grapevines vandalized in the village of Far'ata.
  • Oct. 20: Yitzhar settlers assaulted Palestinians and human rights volunteers as they harvested olives, leaving two farmers and two volunteers - a 71-year-old man and an 18-year-old woman - injured.[57]

According to Yesh Din 97.4% of complaints submitted to Israeli police by Palestinians who had suffered damage to their olive groves between 2005 and 2013 were closed without indictment.[58]

Claims of staged vandalism[edit]

A settler group named Tazpit Unit claimed to have documented Palestinians destroying trees with the intention of blaming settlers for the destruction. Photos taken by the group allegedly show Palestinians and left-wing activists cutting down Palestinian olive trees using an electric saw. The settlers claimed that many of the reported "price tag" operations by settlers were actually carried out by Palestinians with the aim of tarnishing the settlers' image.[59]

Israeli settlers were accused by an Arab farmer of having gathered his sheep into an area thick with brush and setting fire to the bushes, burning alive his 12 pregnant ewes.[60] The police questioned the farmer's description of religious settlers wearing skullcaps driving a car on Sabbath as most Orthodox Jews do not drive on this day.[61] Caroline Glick writing in the Jerusalem Post reported that the farmer later admitted that he lost control of a brush fire that was responsible for the damage.[62]

In March 2012, two Arab males of Beit Zarzir confessed, after being arrested, to damaging a local school for Arab and Jewish students. They admitted responsibility for having sprayed on the wall of the school, "Death to Arabs".The school was sprayed twice in February with the slogans "price tag," "Death to Arabs, and" "Holocaust to the Arabs".[63][64]

Well contamination and water access[edit]

On 13 July 2004, residents of Hirbat Atwana near Hebron found rotting chicken carcasses in their well after four Jewish settlers were seen in the village. Israeli police said they suspected militant Jews from a nearby settlement outpost called Havat Maon. Settlers blamed the action on "internal tribal fight between the Palestinians;" Israeli police spokesman Doron Ben-Amo said it was "unlikely" that the Palestinians would contaminate their own well.[65][66] On 9 December 2007, members of Christian Peacemaker Teams, an American NGO, reported to have observed a group of Israelis stop next to a cistern in Humra Valley, open the lid, and raise the bucket. The water was later found to be contaminated.[67] Oxfam, a British NGO, has reported that settlers deliberately poisoned the only well in Madama, a village near Nablus, by dumping used diapers into it; and that they shot aid workers who came to clean the well.[68][69]

A United Nations survey released in March 2012 documented the increasing use of threats, violence and intimidation to deny Palestinians access to their water resources in the West Bank. The survey stated that Israeli settlers have been acting systematically to gain control of some 56 springs most of which are located on private Palestinian land. The report noted that settler actions included "trespass, intimidation and physical assault, stealing of private property, and construction without a building permit." The report criticized the Israeli authorities for having "systematically failed to enforce the law on those responsible for these acts and to provide Palestinians with any effective remedy".[70][71][72]

Attacks on mosques[edit]

In December 2009, suspected settler extremists attacked a mosque in the northern West Bank village of Yasuf near Nablus according to Palestinian officials and Israeli police. The people forced their way into the mosque and burned about 100 holy books including Korans, Hadiths, prayer carpets as well as spray painted anti-Palestinian slogans on the floor, some of which referred to the settlers' "price tag" policy.[73]

In January 2010, Israeli security officers raided the settlement of Yitzhar, forcibly entered the settlement's synagogue and yeshiva buildings and arrested ten settlers, including the Rosh yeshiva, for alleged involvement in the mosque attack.[74] All were released by the court due to lack of evidence and the court reprimanded the police for arresting the rabbi. As of January 2010 no indictments were served. The state has appealed the ruling.[75]

In September 2011, the Al-Nurayn Mosque in Qusra became the subject of an arson attack allegedly perpetrated by militant Jewish settlers,[76] who set the mosque on fire by throwing two burning tyres through its windows.[77] Slogans in Hebrew threatening further attacks had been graffitied on the walls, reading "Muhammad is a Pig".[78] A star of David had also been graffitied alongside.[79] The attack came hours after Israeli police dismantled three structures in the nearby illegal Jewish settlement of Migron, leading newspapers to suggest that it may have been carried out by settlers in retaliation.[77]

Settler extremism[edit]

Many settlers desperately want to be regarded as part of the Israeli mainstream.[80] As of September 2010, only a small minority among them is violent.[80] The number of settlers involved in violent activities is estimated to have grown from a few dozen individuals into a few hundreds, out of a total population of about 500,000 Jewish settlers.[6]

Extremist groups associated with the settler movement include Gush Emunim Underground that existed from 1979 to 1984 as a militant organization linked to the settler activist group Gush Emunim. They carried out attacks against Jewish students and Palestinian officials, attempted to bomb a bus and planned an attack on the Dome of the Rock.[81]

The New York Times has noted that the religious, ideological wing of the settler movement is growing more radical. It is widely suspected that a pipe-bomb attack on settler critic Zeev Sternhell was perpetrated by settler radicals, who left fliers at the scene offering 1 million shekels to anyone who kills a member of anti-settlement group Peace Now.[82][83] Public Security Minister Avi Dichter condemned the attack, calling it a "nationalistic terror attack".[35]

Shin Bet security chief Yuval Diskin warned that he has "found a very high willingness among this public to use violence -- not just stones, but live weapons -- in order to prevent or halt a diplomatic process." He also called settlers' mindset "messianic" and "Satanic".[84]

IDF Major-General Gadi Shamni has warned that there has been an increase in the number of violent settlers from a few dozen to hundreds and that the increase is impairing the IDF's ability to deal with other threat.[6]

In August 2012, the United States defined settler attacks as 'terrorist incidents'.[85]

International reactions[edit]

In December 2011 following a briefing to the United Nations Security Council, all of the regional and political groupings seated at the council issued statements expressing dismay at violence by settlers and right wing activists, naming the issue as an obstacle to the resumption of peace talks.[86][87]

In one of a number of statements on the issue the EU expressed "deep concern regarding settler extremism and incitement by settlers in the West Bank". The statement further added that "the EU condemns continuous settler violence and deliberate provocations against Palestinian civilians. It calls on the government of Israel to bring the perpetrators to justice and to comply with its obligations under international law."[88][89]

Statistics[edit]

Annual statistics suggests settler violence against Palestinians and their property in the West Bank is on the rise.

  • 2009. Number of assaults 168
  • 2010. Number of assaults 312
  • 2011 Number of assaults 411
  • 2012 (Jan-June) 154.[90]

According to B'Tselem 49 Palestinians were killed by Israeli civilians between 2000 and 2010,[91] of which the majority is settler-related.[92] According to B'Tselem a significant portion of the dead were killed while attempting to infiltrate settlements or attacking Israelis.[92] B'Tselem also keeps a record of incidences of settler violence.[93]

A UN report cited 222 incidents of settler violence in the first half of 2008, compared to 291 in all of 2007.[94]

The United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs observed 207 incidents involving settler violence against Palestinians in the period between September 2008 and March 2009. The number of settler attacks peaked on the 4th of December when the evacuation of the Beit HaShalom in Hebron took place.[95]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.haaretz.com/print-edition/news/top-"idf-officer-warns-settlers-radical-fringe-growing-1.5787
  2. ^ "Concerns over rising settler violence in the West Bank". BBC. 17 November 2011. Retrieved March 25, 2012. 
  3. ^ a b c Anshel Pfeffer,Top IDF officer warns: Settlers' radical fringe growing, Haaretz 20 October 2009.
  4. ^ "Violence by Extremists in the Jewish Settler Movement: A Rising Challenge". The Washington Institute for Near East Policy. November 25, 2008. Retrieved March 26, 2012. 
  5. ^ Constance B. Hilliard,Does Israel have a future?: the case for a post-Zionist state , Potomac Books, Inc., 2009 p.59.
  6. ^ a b c "'Hundreds join' settler violence". BBC. 2008-10-02. 
  7. ^ a b "Rabbi slams Jewish 'hooligans' - Israel News, Ynetnews". Ynetnews.com. 1995-06-20. Retrieved 2012-09-14. 
  8. ^ a b c Hider, James (March 21, 2012). "Israel 'turning blind eye' to West Bank settlers' attacks on Palestinians". The Guardian (London). Retrieved March 23, 2012. 
  9. ^ Chaim Levinson, Gili Cohen and Jack Khoury , 'Palestinian mosque set on fire in suspected hate crime,' at Haaretz, 15 January 2014.'The annual totals are up from 115 in 2006 to 399 in 2013..'
  10. ^ Daniel Byman, A High Price: The Triumphs and Failures of Israeli Counterterrorism, Oxford University Press/Saban Center, Brookings Institute,2011 p.292:‘Palestinian police are barred from responding to settler violence. This policy reduces friction between settlers and Palestinian authorities, but it decreases the overall credibility of the PA, which cannot defend its people from settler harassment and violence.’
  11. ^ See for example Kretzmer, David "The occupation of justice: the Supreme Court of Israel and the Occupied Territories, SUNY Press, 2002, ISBN 0-7914-5337-5, ISBN 978-0-7914-5337-7, page 83
  12. ^ See General Assembly Resolution 3103, 12 December 1973, "Basic Principles Of The Legal Status Of The Combatants Struggling Against Colonial And Alien Domination And Racist Regimes" and United Nations General Assembly Resolution 39/17, 23 November 1984, "Universal realization of the rights to self-determination"
  13. ^ See Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), 8 June 1977 [1]
  14. ^ Hillier, Tim "Sourcebook on public international law", Routledge, 1998, ISBN 1-85941-050-2, ISBN 978-1-85941-050-9, page 627-628
  15. ^ See the Judgment in "Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory", para 120, 134, and 142 [2] and PAUL J. I. M. DE WAART (2005) International Court of Justice Firmly Walled in the Law of Power in the Israeli–Palestinian Peace Process. Leiden Journal of International Law, 18, pp 467-487, doi:10.1017/S0922156505002839
  16. ^ "Hebron, Area H-2: Settlements Cause Mass Departure of Palestinians". 
  17. ^ "Mounting Human Rights Crisis in Hebron". 
  18. ^ "Israeli human rights group slams Hebron settlers". 
  19. ^ "Israel: Palestinian Drivers Routinely Abused". 
  20. ^ "The Nature of Settler Violence". Retrieved 2008-02-15. 
  21. ^ Hider, James (October 15, 2009). "West Bank settlers use ‘price tag’ tactic to punish Palestinians". The Times (London). Retrieved October 16, 2009. 
  22. ^ Berg, Raffi (2003-08-18). "Israel's religious settlers". BBC News. 
  23. ^ Gee, Robert W. (2008-08-25). "Settlers Increase Attacks On Palestinians In West Bank". 
  24. ^ Israel – Rabbi Harshly Condemns Violence by Jewish Hooligans Against Arabs, 2 June 2009
  25. ^ Yesha Council chair Dayan condemns recent settler violence, Jerusalem Post 12/08/2009
  26. ^ "Settler violence: The dual system of law in the Occupied Territories". B'Tselem. 
  27. ^ a b "Defeat settler terror". Haaretz. 2008-10-27. 
  28. ^ "Israel cuts aid to outposts over settler violence". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 2009-10-03. 
  29. ^ Nevo, Yair (2009-07-23). "When security trumps justice". Haaretz. 
  30. ^ Lis, Jonathan (2008-12-11). "After controversial release, settler who shot 2 Palestinians to be charged today". Haaretz. 
  31. ^ a b See Report of the United Nations Fact-Finding Mission on the Gaza Conflict, A/HRC/12/48, 25 September 2009, para 85
  32. ^ See Report of the United Nations Fact-Finding Mission on the Gaza Conflict, A/HRC/12/48, 25 September 2009, para 198
  33. ^ Amos Harel, 'ANALYSIS / Why did the attack on a well-known leftist professor happen now?,' in Haaretz, 26 September 2008.
  34. ^ a b "Law Enforcement upon Israeli Civilians in the West Bank, Semblance of Law". Yesh Din. 
  35. ^ a b "Yesh Din report: Only 8% of Palestinian complaints against settlers result in indictment". Haaretz. 2008-11-03. 
  36. ^ "Israel fears Jewish extremists will avenge settlement murder". Haaretz. 2009-04-04. 
  37. ^ Ethan Bronner (December 13, 2011). "Settlers Riot, Attacking Israeli Base and Post". The New York Times. Retrieved December 15, 2011. 
  38. ^ Ethan Bronner (December 14, 2011). "Israel Leader Sets Curbs on Settlers for Violence". The New York Times. Retrieved December 15, 2011. 
  39. ^ Isabel Kershner (January 8, 2011). "Israel Charges 5 Settlers in West Bank Army Base Clash". The New York Times. Retrieved January 8, 2011. 
  40. ^ Hider, James (2007-08-08). "Mutinous soldiers are jailed as Israeli army evicts 200 religious settlers after court order". London: The Times. 
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