|This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the German Wikipedia. (March 2012)|
January 10, 1875|
Mogilev, Russian Empire
|Died||January 10, 1941
Tel Aviv, Mandatory Palestine
|Doctoral advisor||Georg Frobenius
|Doctoral students||Richard Brauer
Isaac Jacob Schoenberg
Issai Schur (January 10, 1875 – January 10, 1941) was a mathematician who worked in Germany for most of his life. He studied at Berlin. He obtained his doctorate in 1901, became lecturer in 1903 and, after a stay at Bonn, professor in 1919.
He considered himself German rather than Jewish, even though he had been born in the Russian Empire in what is now Belarus, and brought up partly in Latvia. For this reason he declined invitations to leave Germany for the United States and Britain in 1934. Nevertheless he was dismissed from his chair in 1935 and, at the instigation of Ludwig Bieberbach (who had previously sympathised with Schur regarding his treatment at the hands of the Nazis), he was forced to resign from the Prussian Academy in 1938. Schur eventually emigrated to Palestine in 1939, and lived his final years in poverty. He died in Tel Aviv on his 66th birthday.
As a student of Frobenius, he worked on group representations (the subject with which he is most closely associated), but also in combinatorics and number theory and even theoretical physics. He is perhaps best known today for his result on the existence of the Schur decomposition and for his work on group representations (Schur's lemma).
Schur had a number of students, including Richard Brauer, B. H. Neumann, Heinz Prüfer, and Richard Rado. His lectures were very popular with students. He was elected to the Academy of Sciences of the USSR as a foreign corresponding member in 1929.
See also 
- List of things named after Issai Schur
- Schur algebra
- Schur complement
- Schur index
- Schur indicator
- Schur multiplier
- Schur orthogonality relations
- Schur polynomial
- Schur product
- Schur test
- Schur's inequality
- Schur's theorem
- Schur-convex function
- Schur–Weyl duality
- Lehmer-Schur algorithm
- Schur's property for normed spaces.
- Jordan–Schur theorem
- Schur's lower bound
- Schur, Issai (1968), in Grunsky, Helmut, Vorlesungen über Invariantentheorie, Die Grundlehren der mathematischen Wissenschaften 143, Berlin, New York: Springer-Verlag, MR0229674
- Schur, Issai (1973), in Brauer, Alfred; Rohrbach, Hans, Gesammelte Abhandlungen, Berlin, New York: Springer-Verlag, ISBN 978-3-540-05630-0, MR0462891
- Curtis, Charles W. (2003), Pioneers of Representation Theory: Frobenius, Burnside, Schur, and Brauer, History of Mathematics, Providence, R.I.: American Mathematical Society, ISBN 978-0-8218-2677-5, MR 1715145Review
- Joseph, Anthony; Melnikov, Anna; Rentschler, Rudolf, eds. (2003), Studies in memory of Issai Schur, Progress in Mathematics 210, Boston, MA: Birkhäuser Boston, ISBN 978-0-8176-4208-2, MR 1985184
- O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Issai Schur", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews.
- Issai Schur at the Mathematics Genealogy Project