|Motto||"Leadership in Higher Education for Centuries"|
|Established||1453 and 1933|
|Rector||Prof. Dr. Yunus Söylet|
|Campus||Beyazıt, Vezneciler, Avcılar
Bahçeköy, Çapa, Cerrahpaşa, Kadıköy
|Founder||Mehmed II (1453)
Abdülmecid I (1846)
Abdülaziz I (1870)
Abdülhamid II (1900)
Mehmed V (1912)
M. Kemal Atatürk (1933)
Istanbul University (Turkish: İstanbul Üniversitesi) is a prominent Turkish university located in Istanbul. The main campus is adjacent to Beyazıt Square in the Fatih district, on the European side of the city.
It was founded as an institution of higher education named the Darülfünun (House of Multiple Sciences) on July 23, 1846; but the Medrese (Theological School) which was founded immediately after Mehmed II conquered Constantinople (Istanbul) in 1453 is regarded as the precursor to the Darülfünun which evolved into Istanbul University. Education in a number of sciences and fields (such as medicine, mathematics, astronomy, cartography, geography, history, philosophy, religion, literature, philology, law, etc) became available in these theological schools (medrese), and, until the 19th century, they were instrumental in educating the ruling cadres of the Ottoman society. However, when the medreses were no longer able to meet the needs of the modern world, a restructuring process began, and as a result, the institutions of higher education called "Darülfünun," the core of Istanbul University, were established.
An institution of higher education named the Darülfünun-i Osmani ('House of Sciences') was created in 1863, but suppressed in 1871. Its first rector was Hasan Tahsini, regarded as one of the most important Ottoman scholars of the 19th century. In 1874 the Imperial University (Darülfünun-i Sultani) started classes in law in French, but was closed in 1881.
The Imperial University, now known as Darülfünun-i Shahane was refounded in 1900, with the departments of theology, arts, mathematics, science and philology. In 1924, the faculties of law, medicine, arts and sciences were established in Istanbul University (Istanbul Darülfünunu), as the university was now called. Islamic theology was added in 1925, but in 1933 the university was reorganized without the latter.
The first modern Applied Physics courses were given at the Darülfünûn on 31 December 1863, which marked the beginning of a new period, and on 20 February 1870, the school was renamed as the Darülfünûn-u Osmanî ('Ottoman House of Multiple Sciences') and reorganized to meet the needs of modern sciences and technologies. Starting from 1874, some classes of Literature, Law and Applied Sciences were given at the building of Galatasaray High School, which continued regularly until 1881. On 1 September 1900, the school was renamed and reorganized as the Darülfünûn-u Şahane ('Imperial House of Multiple Sciences') with courses on Mathematics, Literature and Theology. On 20 April 1912, the school was renamed as the İstanbul Darülfünûnu ('Istanbul House of Multiple Sciences') while the number of courses were increased and the curricula were modernized with the establishment of the Schools of Medicine, Law, Applied Sciences (Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics), Literature and Theology.
On 21 April 1924, the Republic of Turkey recognized the Istanbul Darülfünûnu as a state school, and on 7 October 1925, the administrative autonomy of Istanbul Darülfünûnu was recognized while the "Schools" (within the old Medrese system) became modern "Faculties". On 1 August 1933, Istanbul Darülfünûnu was reorganized as Istanbul University (İstanbul Üniversitesi) following the educational reforms of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. Classes officially began on 1 November 1933.
The university has seventeen faculties on five campuses; the main campus being on Beyazıt Square, which was originally built by Constantine the Great as the Forum Tauri and was later enlarged by Theodosius the Great as the Forum of Theodosius during the Roman period.
The main campus building with its landmark gate was previously used as the headquarters of the Harbiye Nezareti (Ministry of War) by the Ottoman government. Located on the grounds is the Beyazıt Tower, a 85 m (279 ft) tall fire-watch tower. The grounds were previously the location of the Ottoman era Eski Saray (Old Palace). Some Roman and Byzantine ruins are still visible on the grounds.
The university has a teaching staff of 2,000 professors and associates and 4,000 assistants and younger staff. More than 60,000 undergraduate and 8,000 postgraduate students follow the courses offered by Istanbul University every year.
- Turkish Presidents
- Foreign Presidents
- Turkish Prime Ministers
- Foreign Prime Ministers
- Turkish Ministers
- Masud Sabri – Pharmacist and former Governor of Xinjiang province in China
- Balkan Universities Network
- Famous Academicians and Persons of Istanbul University (German)
- List of modern universities in Europe (1801–1945)
- Istanbul University Observatory
- Beyazıt Tower
- Rüegg, Walter: "European Universities and Similar Institutions in Existence between 1812 and the End of 1944: A Chronological List", in: Rüegg, Walter (ed.): A History of the University in Europe. Vol. 3: Universities in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries (1800–1945), Cambridge University Press, 2004, ISBN 978-0-521-36107-1, p. 687
- Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey. Banknote Museum: 6. Emission Group – Five Hundred Turkish Lira – I. Series & II. Series. – Retrieved 20 April 2009.
- "Turkish journalist İlhan Selçuk died". National Turk. 2008-06-23. Retrieved 2010-07-06.
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