Istaravshan is a city in Sughd Province in Tajikistan. Located in the northern foothills of the Turkistan mountain range, 78 kilometers southwest of Khujand, Istaravshan is one of the oldest cities in Tajikistan, having existed for more than 2500 years. Before 2000, it was known as Ура́-Тюбе (Ura-Tyube) in Russian, Уротеппа (Uroteppa) in Tajik and Uratepe in Turkish.
Bordered by Uzbekistan in the north and west, and Kyrgyzstan in the east, the territorial area of Istaravshan stretches 1,830 square kilometers, and with an administrative population of 199,000 people, the majority of its citizens live in the outlying countryside.
1923 map showing the Achaemenid empire at its greatest extent. The city of Cyropolis appears at the north-east corner of the empire, at the approximate location 40°N69°E / 40°N 69°E / 40; 69, essentially the same location as Istaravshan.