Istro-Romanian grammar

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The grammar of the Istro-Romanian language shares similar grammar with other Eastern Romance languages.

Morphology[edit]

The theorized evolution of Istro-Romanian from Daco-Romanian, a language that may have evolved independently, shows two distinct features:

  1. Noun declination shows a rationalisation of forms: normal noun declination of Romanian has almost totally disappeared in Istro-Romanian;
  2. Whereas verbal inflexion is more conservative and its evolution is not so pronounced.

Nouns[edit]

The article has two forms: definite and indefinite. The definite article may be nominal or adjectival. The nominal being added to nouns, and the adjectival placed before adjectives.

The nominal forms are: for masculine nouns: -l and -le, for feminine -a in the singular, and for masculine -i and feminine -le in the plural.

However, as in spoken Daco-Romanian the -l of the masculine singular definite article is dropped leaving the linking -u- vowel, e.g. DR lupul > IR lupu (the wolf), DR ursul > IR ursu (the bear), DR mielul > IR mľelu (the lamb).

The -le ending is used for all masculine singular nouns ending in -e, e.g. fråtele (the brother), sorele (the sun), cărele (the dog).

Some examples of Masculine nouns showing case endings, nominative=accusative, genitive=dative. The vocative case is not shown as this normally corresponds with the nominative.

  • fiľ (son), fiľi (pl.)
Case Istro-Romanian Aromanian Megleno-Romanian Romanian English
Nom/Acc sg. fiľu hiljlu iľiu fiul the son
Gen/Dat sg. lu fiľu a hiljlui lu iľiu al fiului of/to the son
Nom/Acc pl. fiľi hiljli iľii fiii the sons
Gen/Dat pl. lu fiľi a hiljlor lu iľii al fiilor of/to the sons
  • socru (father-in-law), socri (pl.)
Case Istro-Romanian Aromanian Megleno-Romanian Romanian English
Nom/Acc sg. socru socrulu socru socrul the father-in-law
Gen/Dat sg. lu socru a socrului lu socru al socrului of/to the father-in-law
Nom/Acc pl. socri socri socri socrii the fathers-in-law
Gen/Dat pl. lu socri a socrilor lu socri al socrilor of/to the fathers-in-law
  • fråte (brother), fråţ (pl.)
Case Istro-Romanian Aromanian Megleno-Romanian Romanian English
Nom/Acc sg. fråtele frate frateli fratele the brother
Gen/Dat sg. lu fråtele a fratelui lu frateli al fratelui of/to the brother
Nom/Acc pl. fråţ fratslji fraţili fraţii the brothers
Gen/Dat pl. lu fråţ a fratslor lu fraţilor al fraţilor of/to the brothers

Feminine nouns

The -a replaces and -e, e.g. cåsĕ > cåsa (the house), nopte > nopta (the night); however a few feminine nouns ending in a stressed -e behave differently, e.g. ste > stevu (the star), ne > nevu (the snow).

  • fetĕ (girl), fete (pl.)
Case Istro-Romanian Aromanian Megleno-Romanian Romanian English
Nom/Acc sg. feta feata feta fata the girl
Gen/Dat sg. lu feta a featiljei lu feta al fetei of/to the girl
  • muľerĕ (woman), muľere (pl.)
Case Istro-Romanian Aromanian Megleno-Romanian Romanian English
Nom/Acc sg. muľera muljarea muľiarea muierea the woman
Gen/Dat sg. lu muľera a muljariljei lu muľiarea al muierei of/to the woman
  • ste (star), stele (pl.)
Case Istro-Romanian Aromanian Megleno-Romanian Romanian English
Nom/Acc sg. stevu steao steua steaua the star
Gen/Dat sg. lu stevu a steaoljei lu steua al stelei of/to the star
Nom/Acc pl. stelele steale stelili stelele the stars
Gen/Dat pl. lu stelele a stealilor lu stelilor al stelelor of/to the stars

Neuter nouns behave as Masculine nouns in the singular and Feminine in the plural (sometimes known as Mixed nouns)

  • bråţ (arm), bråţe (pl.) - bråţu (the arm), bråţele (pl.)
  • os (bone), ose (pl.) - osu (the bone), osele (pl.)
  • zid (wall), zidur (pl.) - zidu (the wall), zidurle (pl.)
  • plug (plough), plugur (pl.) - plugu (the plough), plugurle (pl.)

The forms of the adjectival article are ćela for the masculine and ćå for the feminine singular, and in the plural masculine ćeľ and feminine ćåle, e.g. ćela bur (the good one).

The masculine indefinite article is un and feminine is o. The declination of the indefinite article has disappeared. Examples: un om (a man), un cå (a horse), o misĕ (a table), o båbĕ (an old woman).

Adjectives[edit]

Adjectives also have three genders, the masculine and feminine forms from the Latin, while the neuter form is of Slavic origin, under the syntactic influence of the use of neuters in Slavic. E.g. bur, burĕ, buro (good). The comparative adjective is måi bur (better) and the superlative is ćel måi bur (the best).

The adjective may precede the noun: bura zi ((the)good day), which in itself can be made definite by the change of to -a; or follows the noun: feta muşåtĕ (the beautiful girl).

Pronouns[edit]

Definite pronouns can be personal, possessive, demonstrative, relative and interrogative.

Personal pronouns[edit]

Case I II III III I II III
Nom. io tu ie noi voi ieľ/iåle
I you he she we you they
Acc. mire tire ăl ăl ne ve lor
Acc. me/m' te/t' ăl/l' o ne/n' ve/v' lor
me you him her us you them
Dat. mi/âm/m' ţi/âţ/ţ' âľ/ľ/lui âľ/ľ/ľei ni/ne/n' vi/ve/v' le/ľ
to me you him her us you them

e.g. m-åm ărs (I laughed), l-åi vezut (you saw him)

Possessive pronouns:

Sg. Masc. Fem. Pl. Masc. Fem. English
meu/mev me meľ mele my
teu/tev te teľ tele your
seu/lui se/ľei seľ sele his/her/its
noştru noştrĕ noştri noştre our
voştru voştrĕ voştri voştre your
lor lor lor lor their

e.g. mev ćåće (my father), lui căre (his dog), ľei måie (her mother), noştri cåľ (our horses)

Demonstrative pronouns[edit]

  • this: ćest, ćåsta
  • these: ćeşť, ćåste

May also begin with ţ- or ť- e.g. ţest om (this man)

  • that: ćel, ćå
  • those: ćeľ, ćåle

Likewise may begin with ţ- e.g. ţåle lingure (those spoons)

  • this one: ćesta-istu, ćåsta-ista
  • that one: ćela-istu, ćåista
  • that other one: ćela-åt, ćå-åtĕ
  • those other ones: ćeľ-åľţi, ćåle-åte

Relative pronouns[edit]

  • which: cåre / cårle, pl. cårli

Interrogative pronouns[edit]

  • who: ćire / će
  • which: cåre / cårle, pl. cårli
  • which one: căt

Indefinite pronouns[edit]

(M - F)

one: un - o

some: vrun - vro

one/a: ur - o

not a: ničur - ničurĕ

nothing: nimic

something: ćeva

other: åt - åta - åto

each: saki - saca - saco

whichever: cătcoder

Numerals[edit]

Cardinal numbers[edit]

The majority of cardinal numbers are from Latin stock, with several borrowings from the local Slavic

  1. un/ur (M), o (F)
  2. doi (M), do (F)
  3. trei
  4. påtru
  5. ćinć / ţinţ
  6. şåse
  7. şåpte
  8. opt / osăn
  9. devet
  10. zåće / zeće / deset
  11. urprezåće / iednaist
  12. doiprezåće / dvanaist
  13. treiprezåće / trenaist

19. devetprezåće

20. dovotezåće / dvadeset / dvaiset

21. dovotezåće şi ur

30. treivotezåće

40. cvårnaru

50. ćinćvotezåće

...

100. sto

101. sto şi ur

200. dovotesto

1000. miľår / tisuť / tåvžânt

Notes:

11 is composed of '1 on 10' ur-pre-zåće

20 is composed of '2 times 10' do-vote-zåće, likewise, 200 is '2 times 100' do-vote-sto

1000 miľår comes from Venetian dialect, tisuť from Slavic, and tåvžânt from German.

Ordinal[edit]

(M - F)

1st. prvi - prva

2nd. doile - dova

3rd. treile - treia

4th. påtrile - påtra

5th. ćinćile - ćinća

6th. şåsele - şåsa

7th. şåptele - şåpta

8th. osmule - osma

9th. devetile - deveta

10th. desetile - deseta

last zådni / zădăńu - zådńa

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • A. Kovačec: Notes sur les formes de cas en istroroumain. Studia Romanica 13-14: 75-84, Zagreb 1962
  • A. Kovačec: Certaines modifications grammaticales des 'quantitatifs' et 'qualitatifs' istroroumains dues a l' influence croate. Studia Romanica 23: 195-210, Zagreb 1967
  • A. Kovačec: Le calque lexical d' apres le croate comme cause de certains changements grammaticaux istroroumains. Actele de XII Congres International de Lingvistica si Filologie Romanica, vol. 2: 1127-1131, Bucuresti 1971
  • A. Kovačec: Istrorumunjsko-hrvatski rječnik s gramatikom i tekstovima (Glosar Istroroman-Croat cu gramatica si texte). Verba moritura vol. I, 1 - 378 p. Mediteran, Pula 1998

External links[edit]