It's a Battlefield

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It's a Battlefield
ItsABattlefield.jpg
First edition
Author Graham Greene
Country United Kingdom
Language English
Publisher Heinemann
Publication date
1934
Media type Print (hardback & paperback)

It's a Battlefield is an early novel by Graham Greene, first published in the year 1934. Graham Greene later described it as his "first overtly political novel".[1] Its theme, said Greene, is "the injustice of man's justice."[2] Later in life, Greene classified his major books as "novels" and his lighter works as "entertainments"; he ranked It's a Battlefield as a novel and not a mere entertainment.[3]

Title[edit]

The title It's a Battlefield is explained by the epigraph, which Greene took from the account of the battle of Inkerman in Alexander Kinglake's The Invasion of the Crimea. The amount of fog during the battle led to many of the troops on both sides being cut off in terrain reduced to "small numberless circlets commensurate with such ranges of vision as the mist might allow at each spot.... In such conditions, each separate gathering of English soldiery went on fighting its own little battle in happy and advantageous ignorance of the general state of the action; nay, even very often in ignorance of the fact that any great conflict was raging."[4]

Plot summary[edit]

Drover, a bus driver, stabs a man who is about to attack his wife. Unfortunately for him, the man is a policeman and Drover is a Communist, so he is sentenced to hang. The novel explores the intersecting lives of those close to Drover in the days before the hanging. His Communist colleagues want him to die because this will gain support for the party; his wife and brother begin an affair. There is no hero. With few exceptions, the characters are deliberately limned as, in one critic's view, "mediocre, bleak, uninspiring and at times perverted and stupid".[5] Some of the characters seem only half complete.[6] The resulting interplay of selfish, driven characters creates what Greene called "a panoramic novel of London".[7] In this panorama, the traditional detective story is (sometimes using postmodern techniques) turned on its head.;[8] the hidden villains, according to one critic, are class and capitalism.[9]

Reviews[edit]

Though at first it sold few copies, the novel was praised by Ezra Pound and Ford Madox Ford.[10] (Later the book was to sell 120,000 copies[11]) Writing in the Spectator, V. S. Pritchett found great merit in what he called an adventurous, intelligent, "genuine modern novel".[12] The New York Times thought it "engrossing, alive, and decidedly well worth reading"[13] That reviewer praised Greene's "cinematographic" style, and Greene later said that the novel was "intentionally based on film technique"[14] (Surprisingly, and to Greene's lasting amusement, it was one of the few novels he wrote that was never made into a film.[15]) The novel's style is also influenced by Ulysses, The Waste Land,[16] Mrs Dalloway[17] and, as Greene admitted, Joseph Conrad.[18] He alludes to Conrad by naming Drover's brother after him.[19]

Wandsworth Prison, where Drover awaits execution

Reception[edit]

A few months after publication, a grisly murder occurred in London strikingly similar to a fictional murder described in (but only tangential to the main plot of) the novel, and Greene feared the police would arrest him.[20][21] Other similarities with real life were less accidental. The somewhat sleazy character named Surrogate was modelled after John Middleton Murry.[22] Lady Caroline Bury was inspired by Lady Ottoline Morrell.[23] And the Assistant Commissioner, perhaps the most vivid and humane character in the book, was in part based on Greene's uncle and perhaps also in part on a friend named Turner.[24] As for settings, Greene visited a matchbook factory and Wandsworth Prison before writing about those locations in his novel.[25] (Factory and prison are deliberately described using similar language.)

In 1948, Greene extensively revised the novel for the third edition and his changes were incorporated in future printings. Greene's handwritten revisions were offered for sale in 2010 for $40,000.[26]

Malian writer Yambo Ouloguem was accused of plagiarism after he included passages from It's a Battlefield in a 1968 novel.[27]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ West, ''The Quest for Graham Greene'', p.56. Google Books. Retrieved 17 January 2012. 
  2. ^ Couto, ''Graham Greene on the Frontier'', p. 45. Google Books. 1 January 1973. Retrieved 17 January 2012. 
  3. ^ Diemert, Pursuit of Justice, p. 1[dead link]
  4. ^ Hoskins, "Graham Greene: An Approach to the Novels, p. 46". Google Books. Retrieved 13 April 2014
  5. ^ Gordon, ''Fighting Evil: Unsung Heroes in the Novels of Graham Greene'', p. 71. Google Books. Retrieved 17 January 2012. 
  6. ^ Hoskins, ''Graham Greene: an Approach to the Novels'', p. 7. Google Books. Retrieved 17 January 2012. 
  7. ^ Diemert ''Graham Greene's Thrillers'', p. 104. Google Books. 28 August 1996. Retrieved 17 January 2012. 
  8. ^ Diemert, ''op. cit.'', p. 108. Google Books. 28 August 1996. Retrieved 17 January 2012. 
  9. ^ Ibid.. See also Schweizer, Radicals on the Road, p. 61
  10. ^ R. Greene, ''Graham Greene: A Life in Letters'', p. xxii. Google Books. Retrieved 17 January 2012. 
  11. ^ Sherry, ''The Life of Graham Greene'', vol. 2, p. 89. Google Books. Retrieved 17 January 2012. 
  12. ^ Cassis, ''Graham Greene, an Annotated Bibliography'', p. 10. Google Books. 7 June 2010. Retrieved 17 January 2012. 
  13. ^ Reviewed by THE NEW YORK TIMES (8 April 1934). "1934 ''New York Times'' review". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 January 2012. 
  14. ^ ''Conversations with Graham Greene'', p.76. Google Books. Retrieved 17 January 2012. 
  15. ^ ''Graham Greene Film Reader'', p. xix. Google Books. Retrieved 17 January 2012. 
  16. ^ Bergonzi, ''A Study in Greene'', p. 47. Google Books. Retrieved 17 January 2012. 
  17. ^ Marcus, ''The Tenth Muse'', p. 428. Google Books. Retrieved 17 January 2012. 
  18. ^ ''Conversations with Graham Greene'', p. 85. Google Books. Retrieved 17 January 2012. 
  19. ^ Hoskins, ''Graham Greene: an Approach to the Novels'', p. 29. Google Books. Retrieved 17 January 2012. 
  20. ^ Thornton, Michael (19 March 2008). "''Daily Mail'' article". Daily Mail (UK). Retrieved 17 January 2012. 
  21. ^ Shelden, ''Graham Greene: The Man Within'', p. 245. Google Books. 1 February 1995. Retrieved 17 January 2012. 
  22. ^ ''Dictionary of Real People and Places in Fiction'', p. 697. Google Books. Retrieved 17 January 2012. 
  23. ^ Mockler ''Graham Greene: Three Lives'', p. 79. Google Books. Retrieved 17 January 2012. 
  24. ^ West, ''op. cit.'', p. 57. Google Books. Retrieved 17 January 2012. 
  25. ^ Hoskins, ''Graham Greene: an Approach to the Novels'', p. 45. Google Books. Retrieved 17 January 2012. 
  26. ^ Tom Post (4 October 2010). "''Forbes'' blog, April 4, 2010". Forbes. Retrieved 17 January 2012. 
  27. ^ Wise, ''Yambo Ouloguem'', p. 8. Google Books. Retrieved 17 January 2012.