Italian language

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Italian
Italiano, Lingua italiana
Pronunciation [itaˈljaːno]
Native to Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City, Slovenia (Slovenian Istria), Croatia (Istria County) and the Italian diaspora
Region (widely known among older and educated people and in the commercial sectors of Somalia, Eritrea, Ethiopia and Libya; used in the Federal Government of Somalia)
Native speakers
64 million Italian proper, native and native bilingual  (2013)[1][2][3]
85 million (L1 plus L2 speakers) (2012)[4]
Latin (Italian alphabet)
Italian Braille
Italiano segnato "Signed Italian"[5]
italiano segnato esatto "Signed Exact Italian"[6]
Official status
Official language in
 Italy
  Switzerland
 San Marino
  Vatican City
 European Union
Recognised minority
language in
 Slovenia (official in Slovenian Istria only)
 Croatia (official in Istria County only)
Regulated by Accademia della Crusca (de facto)
Language codes
ISO 639-1 it
ISO 639-2 ita
ISO 639-3 ita
Glottolog ital1282[7]
Linguasphere 51-AAA-q
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This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

Italian (About this sound italiano  or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken mainly in Europe: Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City, as a second language in Malta, Slovenia and Croatia, by minorities in Albania, Eritrea, France, Libya, Monaco, Montenegro, Romania and Somalia,[8] and by expatriate communities in Europe, in the Americas and in Australia. Many speakers are native bilinguals of both standardised Italian and other regional languages.[9]

According to the Bologna statistics of the European Union, Italian is spoken as a native language by 59 million people in the EU (13% of the EU population), mainly in Italy, and as a second language by 14 million (3%).[2] Including the Italian speakers in non-EU European countries (such as Switzerland and Albania) and on other continents, the total number of speakers is around 85 million.[4]

In Switzerland, Italian is one of four official languages; it is studied and learned in all the confederation schools and spoken, as a native language, in the Swiss cantons of Ticino and Graubünden (predominately in Italian Girgioni) and by the Italian immigrants that are present in large numbers in German- and French-speaking cantons. It is also the official language of San Marino, as well as the primary language of the Vatican City.[10] It is co-official in Slovenian Istria and in Istria County in Croatia. The Italian language adopted by the state after the unification of Italy is based on Tuscan, which beforehand was a language spoken mostly by the upper class of Florentine society.[11] Its development was also influenced by other Italian languages and by the Germanic languages of the post-Roman invaders.

Italian is descended from Latin. Unlike most other Romance languages, Italian retains Latin's contrast between short and long consonants. As in most Romance languages, stress is distinctive. Among the Romance languages, Italian is the closest to Latin in terms of vocabulary.[12]

History[edit]

Origins[edit]

The standard Italian language has a poetic and literary origin in the twelfth century, and the modern standard of the language was largely shaped by relatively recent events. However, Italian as a language used in the Italian Peninsula has a longer history. In fact the earliest surviving texts that can definitely be called Italian (or more accurately, vernacular, as distinct from its predecessor Vulgar Latin) are legal formulae from the Province of Benevento that date from 960–963, although the Veronese Riddle contains a late form of Vulgar Latin that can be seen as a very early Italian dialect.[13] What would come to be thought of as Italian was first formalized in the early fourteenth century through the works of Tuscan writer Dante Alighieri, written in his native Florentine. Dante's epic poems, known collectively as the Commedia, to which another Tuscan poet Giovanni Boccaccio later affixed the title Divina, were read throughout Italy and his written dialect became the "canonical standard" that all educated Italians could understand. Dante is still credited with standardizing the Italian language, and thus the dialect of Florence became the basis for what would become the official language of Italy.

Italian often was an official language of the various Italian states predating unification, slowly usurping Latin, even when ruled by foreign powers (such as the Spanish in the Kingdom of Naples, or the Austrians in the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia), even though the masses spoke primarily vernacular languages and dialects. Italian was also one of the many recognised languages in the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

Italy has always had a distinctive dialect for each city, because the cities, until recently, were thought of as city-states. Those dialects now have considerable variety. As Tuscan-derived Italian came to be used throughout Italy, features of local speech were naturally adopted, producing various versions of Regional Italian. The most characteristic differences, for instance, between Roman Italian and Milanese Italian are the gemination of initial consonants and the pronunciation of stressed "e", and of "s" in some cases: e.g. va bene "all right": is pronounced [va ˈbːɛne] by a Roman (and by any standard-speaker), [va ˈbene] by a Milanese (and by any speaker whose native dialect lies to the north of La Spezia–Rimini Line); a casa "at home" is [a ˈkːasa] for Roman and standard, [a ˈkaza] for Milanese and generally northern.

In contrast to the Northern Italian language, southern Italian dialects and languages were largely untouched by the Franco-Occitan influences introduced to Italy, mainly by bards from France, during the Middle Ages but, after the Norman conquest of southern Italy, Sicily became the first Italian land to adopt Occitan lyric moods (and words) in poetry. Even in the case of Northern Italian language, however, scholars are careful not to overstate the effects of outsiders on the natural indigenous developments of the languages.

The economic might and relatively advanced development of Tuscany at the time (Late Middle Ages) gave its dialect weight, though the Venetian language remained widespread in medieval Italian commercial life, and Ligurian (or Genoese) remained in use in maritime trade alongside the Mediterranean. The increasing political and cultural relevance of Florence during the periods of the rise of Medici's bank, Humanism, and the Renaissance made its dialect, or rather a refined version of it, a standard in the arts.

Renaissance[edit]

Main article: Italian Renaissance

Starting with the Renaissance Italian became the language used in the courts of every state in the peninsula. The rediscovery of Dante's De vulgari eloquentia and a renewed interest in linguistics in the sixteenth century, sparked a debate that raged throughout Italy concerning the criteria that should govern the establishment of a modern Italian literary and spoken language. Scholars divided into three factions:

  • The purists, headed by Venetian Pietro Bembo (who, in his Gli Asolani, claimed the language might be based only on the great literary classics, such as Petrarch and some part of Boccaccio). The purists thought the Divine Comedy not dignified enough, because it used elements from non-lyric registers of the language.

A fourth faction claimed the best Italian was the one that the papal court adopted, which was a mix of Florentine and the dialect of Rome. Eventually, Bembo's ideas prevailed, and the foundation of the Accademia della Crusca in Florence (1582–1583), the official legislative body of the Italian language led to publication of Agnolo Monosini's Latin tome Floris italicae linguae libri novem in 1604 followed by the first Italian dictionary in 1612.

Modern era[edit]

An important event that helped the diffusion of Italian was the conquest and occupation of Italy by Napoleon in the early nineteenth century (who was himself of Italian-Corsican descent). This conquest propelled the unification of Italy some decades after, and pushed the Italian language into a lingua franca used not only among clerks, nobility and functionaries in the Italian courts but also in the bourgeoisie.

Contemporary times[edit]

Italian literature's first modern novel, I Promessi Sposi (The Betrothed), by Alessandro Manzoni, further defined the standard by "rinsing" his Milanese "in the waters of the Arno" (Florence's river), as he states in the Preface to his 1840 edition.

After unification a huge number of civil servants and soldiers recruited from all over the country introduced many more words and idioms from their home languages ("ciao" is derived from Venetian word "s-cia[v]o" (slave), "panettone" comes from Lombard word "panatton" etc.). Only 2.5% of Italy’s population could speak the Italian standardized language properly when the nation unified in 1861.[14]

Classification[edit]

Italian is a Romance language; it derives diachronically[jargon] from Latin. It is part of the Italic branch of the Indo-European language family. Italian is related most closely to the other two Italo-Dalmatian languages, Sicilian and the extinct Dalmatian.

Unlike most other Romance languages, Italian retains Latin's contrast between short and long consonants. As in most Romance languages, stress is distinctive. In particular, among the Romance languages, Italian is the closest to Latin in terms of vocabulary.[12] Lexical similarity is 90% with French, 88% with Catalan, 85% with Sardinian, 82% with Spanish and Portuguese, 78% with Rhaeto-Romance, and 77% with Romanian.[8][15]

Geographic distribution[edit]

Knowledge of Italian according to EU statistics
The geographic distribution of the Italian language in the world: large Italian-speaking communities are shown in green; light blue indicates areas where the Italian language was used officially during the Italian colonial period.
Use of the Italian language in Europe
Use of the Italian language in Europe and former use in Africa

Europe[edit]

Italian is the official language of Italy and San Marino and is spoken fluently by the majority of the countries' populations. Italian is official, together with French, German and Romansch in Switzerland, with most of the 0.5 million speakers concentrated in the south of the country, in the cantons of Ticino and southern Graubünden (predominately in Italian Girgioni). Italian is the third most spoken language in Switzerland (after German and French), and its use has modestly declined since the 1970s.[16] Italian is also used in administration and official documents in Vatican City.[17]

Italian is widely spoken in Malta, where nearly two-thirds of the population can speak it fluently, making it the most spoken non-official language in Europe in 2005.[18] Italian served as Malta's official language until 1934, while it is also recognized as an official language in Istria County, Croatia and Slovenian Istria, where there are significant and historic Italian populations.[citation needed]

Italian is also spoken by a minority in Monaco and France (especially in the southeast of the country and Corsica).[19][20] Small Italian-speaking minorities can also be found in Albania and Montenegro.[citation needed]

Africa[edit]

Due to heavy Italian influence during the Italian colonial period, Italian is still widely understood in the countries of Libya and Eritrea.[8] Although it was the primary language since colonial rule, Italian greatly declined under the rule of Muammar Gaddafi, who expelled the Italian Libyan population and made Arabic the sole official language of the country.[21] Nevertheless, Italian remains an important language in the education and economic sectors in Libya. In Eritrea, Italian is a principal language in commerce and the capital city Asmara still has an Italian-language school.[22] Italian was also introduced to Somalia through colonialism and was the sole official language of administration and education during the colonial period but declined after government, educational and economic infrastructure was destroyed in the Somali Civil War. Italian remains spoken as a second language by the elderly and the educated and is also used in the new Federal Government of Somalia.[23][24]

Italian was also used in administration in Ethiopia when the country was briefly occupied by Italy from 1936 to 1941.

Immigrant communities[edit]

Although over 17 million Americans are of Italian descent, only a little over one million people in the United States speak Italian at home.[25] Nevertheless, an Italian language media market does exist in the country.[26]

In Canada, Italian is the second most spoken non-official language when Chinese languages are not combined, with over 660,000 speakers (or about 2.1% of the population) according to the 2006 Census.[27]

In Australia, Italian is the second most spoken foreign language after the Chinese languages, with 1.4% of the population speaking it as their home language.[28]

Italian immigrants to South America have also brought a presence of the language to the continent. Italian is the second most spoken language in Argentina after the official language of Spanish, with 1.5 million speaking it natively, and Italian has also heavily influenced the dialect of Spanish spoken in Argentina and Uruguay, Rioplatense Spanish.[8] Small Italian-speaking minorities on the continent are also found in Uruguay, Venezuela and Brazil.

Education[edit]

Italian is widely taught in many schools around the world, but rarely as the first foreign language; in fact, Italian is considered the fourth[29] most frequently taught foreign language in the world.[30]

According to the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, every year there are more than 200,000 foreign students that are learning the Italian language; they are distributed in the 90 Institutes of Italian Culture thate are located around the world, or in the 179 Italian schools located abroad, or in the 111 Italian lecturer sections belonging to foreign schools were Italian is taught as a language of culture.[31]

In the United States, Italian is the fourth most taught foreign language after Spanish, French and German, in that order (or the fifth if American Sign Language is considered).[32] In central-east Europe Italian is first in Montenegro, second in Austria, Croatia, Slovenia, and Ukraine after English, and third in Hungary, Romania and Russia after English and German.[31] But throughout the world, Italian is the fifth most taught foreign language, after English, French, German, and Spanish.[33]

In the European Union statistics, Italian is spoken as a native language by 13% of the EU population, or 65 million people,[2] mainly in Italy. In the EU, it is spoken as a second language by 3% of the EU population, or 14 million people. In addition, among EU states, the Italian language is most likely to be learned as a second language in Malta by 61% of the population, as well as in Slovenia by 15% of the population, in Croatia by 14% of the population, Austria by 11% of the population, Romania by 8% of the population, and in France and Greece by 6% of the population.[2] Italian is also one of the national languages of Switzerland, which is not a part of the European Union.[34] The Italian language is well-known and studied in Albania,[35] another non-EU member, due to its historical ties and geographical proximity to Italy and to the diffusion of Italian television in the country.[36]

Influence and derived languages[edit]

From the late nineteenth to the mid-twentieth century, thousands of Italians settled in Argentina, Uruguay, southern Brazil, and Venezuela, where they formed a strong physical and cultural presence.

In some cases, colonies were established where variants of regional languages of Italy were used, and some continue to use this regional language. Examples are Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, where Talian is used, and the town of Chipilo near Puebla, Mexico; each continues to use a derived form of Venetian dating back to the nineteenth century. Another example is Cocoliche, an Italian–Spanish pidgin once spoken in Argentina and especially in Buenos Aires, and Lunfardo.

Rioplatense Spanish, and particularly the speech of the city of Buenos Aires, has intonation patterns that resemble those of Italian languages, because Argentina has had a continuous large influx of Italian settlers since the second half of the nineteenth century: initially primarily from northern Italy; then, since the beginning of the twentieth century, mostly from southern Italy.

Lingua franca[edit]

Starting in late medieval times, Italian language variants replaced Latin to become the primary commercial language in much of Europe and the Mediterranean Sea (especially the Tuscan and Venetian variants). These variants were consolidated during the Renaissance with the strength of Italian and the rise of humanism in the arts.

During the Renaissance, Italy held artistic sway over the rest of Europe. All educated European gentlemen were expected to make the Grand Tour, visiting Italy to see its great historical monuments and works of art. It thus became expected that educated Europeans should learn at least some Italian; the English poet John Milton, for instance, wrote some of his early poetry in Italian. In England, Italian became the second most common modern language to be learned, after French (though the classical languages, Latin and Greek, came first). However, by the late eighteenth century, Italian tended to be replaced by German as the second modern language in the curriculum. Yet Italian loanwords continue to be used in most other European languages in matters of art and music.

Within the Catholic church, Italian is known by a large part of the ecclesiastical hierarchy, and is used in substitution for Latin in some official documents. The presence of Italian as the primary language in the Vatican City indicates use, not only within the Holy See, but also throughout the world where an episcopal seat is present.[citation needed] It continues to be used in music and opera. Other examples where Italian is sometimes used as a means of communication are in some sports (sometimes in football[citation needed] and motorsports) and in the design and fashion industries.

Dialects[edit]

Main article: Regional Italian
Linguistic map of Italy

Throughout Italy, regional variations of Standard Italian, called Regional Italian, are spoken. In Italy, almost all Romance languages spoken as the vernacular—other than standard Italian and distantly-related, non-Romance languages spoken in border regions or among immigrant communities—are often imprecisely called "Italian dialects", even though they are quite different, with some belong to different branches of the Romance language family. The only exceptions to this are Sardinian, Ladin, and Friulan, which the law recognises as official regional languages. The Corsican language is also related to Italian.

Regional differences can be recognized by various factors: the openness of vowels, the length of the consonants, and influence of the local language (for example, in informal situations the contraction annà replaces andare in the area of Rome for the infinitive "to go"; and nare is what Venetians say for the infinitive "to go").

Phonology[edit]

Main article: Italian phonology
Consonant phonemes
Bilabial Labio-
dental
Dental/
Alveolar
Post-
alveolar
Palatal Velar
Nasal m n   ɲː
Stop p b t d k ɡ
Affricate t͡s d͡z t͡ʃ d͡ʒ
Fricative f v s z ʃː
Approximant   j w
Lateral l   ʎː
Trill r

Notes:

  • Between two vowels, or between a vowel and an approximant or liquid (/l r/ or /w j/), consonants can be either single or geminated. Geminated consonants shorten the preceding vowel (or block phonetic lengthening) and the first geminated element is unreleased. For example, /fato/ [ˈfaː.to] ~ /fatto/ [ˈfat.to] (first one means "fate, destiny" and the second means "fact"). However, /ɲ/, /ʃ/, /ʎ/, are always geminated word-internally.[37] Similarly, nasals, liquids, and sibilants are pronounced slightly longer before medial consonant clusters.[38]
  • /z/ is the only consonant that cannot be geminated.
  • /t d t͡s d͡z s z/ are denti-alveolar, while /l n/ are alveolar.[39][40]
  • The trill /r/ is sometimes reduced to a single vibration when not geminated, but it is not a flap *[ɾ].
  • Nasals assimilate to the point of articulation of whatever consonant they precede. For example, /nɡ/ is realized as [ŋɡ].
  • The distinction between /s/ and /z/ is neutralized before consonants and at the beginning of words: the former is used before voiceless consonants and before vowels at the beginning of words; the latter is used before voiced consonants (meaning [z] is an allophone of /s/ before voiced consonants). The two are only contrasted between two vowels within a word. According to Canepari,[41] though, the traditional standard has been replaced by a modern neutral pronunciation which always prefers /z/ when intervocalic, except when the intervocalic s is the initial sound of a word or a morpheme, if the compound is still felt as such: for example, presento /preˈsɛnto/[42] ('I foresee', with pre meaning 'before' and sento meaning 'I see') vs presento /preˈzɛnto/[43] ('I present'). There are many words in which dictionaries now indicate that both pronunciations with /z/ and with /s/ are acceptable. The two phonemes have merged in many regional varieties of Italian, either into /z/ (Northern-Central) or /s/ (Southern-Central). Geminate /ss/ can be pronounced as single [s].

Italian has a typical Romance-language seven-vowel system, consisting of /a, ɛ, e, i, ɔ, o, u/, as well as 23 consonants. Compared with most other Romance languages, Italian phonology is conservative, preserving many words nearly unchanged from Vulgar Latin. Some examples:

  • Italian quattordici "fourteen" < Latin quattuordecim (cf. Romanian paisprezece/paișpe, Spanish catorce, French quatorze /kaˈtɔʁz/, Catalan and Portuguese catorze)
  • Italian settimana "week" < Latin septimāna (cf. Romanian săptămână, Spanish and Portuguese semana, French semaine /s(ǝ)ˈmɛn/, Catalan setmana)
  • Italian medesimo "same" < Vulgar Latin *medi(p)simum (cf. Spanish mismo, Portuguese mesmo, French même /mɛm/, Catalan mateix; note that Italian usually uses the shorter stesso)
  • Italian guadagnare "to win, earn, gain" < Vulgar Latin *guadanyāre < Germanic /waidanjan/ (cf. Spanish ganar, Portuguese ganhar, French gagner /ɡaˈɲe/, Catalan guanyar)

The conservativeness of Italian phonology is partly explained by its origin. Italian stems from a literary language that is derived from the 13th-century speech of the city of Florence in the region of Tuscany, and has changed little in the last 700 years or so. Furthermore, the Tuscan dialect is the most conservative of all Italian dialects, radically different from the Gallo-Italian languages less than 100 miles to the north (across the La Spezia–Rimini Line).

The following are some of the conservative phonological features of Italian, as compared with the common Western Romance languages (French, Spanish, Portuguese, Galician, Catalan). Some of these features are also present in Romanian.

  • Little or no lenition of consonants between vowels, e.g. vīta > vita "life" (cf. Romanian viață, Spanish vida [biða], French vie), pedem > piede "foot" (cf. Spanish pie, French pied /pje/).
  • Preservation of doubled consonants, e.g. annum > anno "year" (cf. Spanish año /aɲo/, French an /ɑ̃/).
  • Preservation of all Proto-Romance final vowels, e.g. pacem > pace "peace" (cf. Romania pace, Spanish paz, French paix /pɛ/), octō > otto "eight" (cf. Romanian opt Spanish ocho, French huit /ɥi(t)/), fēcī > feci "I did" (cf. Spanish hice, French fis /fi/).
  • Preservation of intertonic vowels (those between the stressed syllable and either the beginning or ending syllable). This accounts for some of the most noticeable differences, as in the forms quattordici and settimana given above.
  • Lack of various consonant "deformations", e.g. folia > Italo-Western /fɔʎʎa/ > foglia /fɔʎʎa/ "leaf" (cf. Romanian foaie folie, Spanish hoja /oxa/, French feuille /fœj/; but note Portuguese folha /foʎɐ/).

Compared with most other Romance languages, Italian has a large number of inconsistent outcomes, where the same underlying sound produces different results in different words, e.g. laxāre > lasciare and lassare, captiāre > cacciare and cazzare, (ex)dēroteolāre > sdrucciolare, druzzolare and ruzzolare, rēgīna > regina and reina, -c- > /k/ and /ɡ/, -t- > /t/ and /d/. Although in all these examples the second form has fallen out of usage, the dimorphism is thought to reflect the several-hundred-year period during which Italian developed as a literary language divorced from any native-speaking population, with an origin in 12th/13th-century Tuscan but with many words borrowed from languages farther to the north, with different sound outcomes. (The La Spezia–Rimini Line, the most important isogloss in the entire Romance-language area, passes only about 20 miles to the north of Florence.)

Some other features that distinguish Italian from the Western Romance languages:

  • Latin ce-,ci- becomes /tʃe, tʃi/ rather than /(t)se, (t)si/.
  • Latin -ct- becomes /tt/ rather than /jt/ or /tʃ/: octō > otto "eight" (cf. Spanish ocho, French huit).
  • Vulgar Latin -cl- becomes cchi /kkj/ rather than /ʎ/: oclum > occhio "eye" (cf. Romanian ochi, Portuguese olho /oʎu/, French oeil /œj/ < /œʎ/).
  • Final /s/ is not preserved, and vowel changes rather than /s/ are used to mark the plural: amico, amici "male friend(s)", amica, amiche "female friend(s)" (cf. Romanian amic, amici,amică,amice, Spanish amigo(s) "male friend(s)", amiga(s) "female friends"); trēs, sextre, sei "three, six" (cf. Romanian trei, șase, Spanish tres, seis).

Standard Italian also differs in some respects from most nearby Italian languages:

  • Perhaps most noticeable is the total lack of metaphony, a feature characterizing nearly every other Italian language.
  • No simplification of original /nd/, /mb/ (which often became /nn/, /mm/ elsewhere).

Writing system[edit]

Main article: Italian alphabet

The Italian alphabet has only 21 letters. The letters j, k, w, x, y are excluded, though they appear in loanwords such as jeans, whisky and taxi. The letter x has become common in standard Italian with the prefix extra-, although (e)stra- is traditionally used (but the word "extra" alone, used as a noun or adjective, is written with x). The letter j originated as an archaic orthographic variant of i. It appears in the first name Jacopo and in some Italian place-names, such as Bajardo, Bojano, Joppolo, Jerzu, Jesolo, Jesi, Ajaccio, among numerous others. It also appears in Mar Jonio, an alternative spelling of Mar Ionio (the Ionian Sea). The letter j may appear in dialectal words, but its use is discouraged in contemporary standard Italian. The foreign letters can be substituted with phonetically equivalent native Italian letters and digraphs: gi or ge for j; c or ch for k (including in the standard prefix kilo-); o, u or v for w; s, ss, z, zz or cs for x; and e or i for y.

  • The acute accent is used over e to indicate a stressed front close-mid vowel, as in perché "why, because". In dictionaries, it is also used over o to indicate a stressed back close-mid vowel (azióne). The grave accent is used over e to indicate a front open-mid vowel, as in "tea". The grave accent is used over any vowel to indicate word-final stress, as in gioventù "youth". Unlike é, a stressed final o is always a back open-mid vowel (andrò), making ó unnecessary outside of dictionaries. Most of the time, the penultimate syllable is stressed. But if the stressed vowel is the final letter of the word, the accent is mandatory, otherwise it is not (unlike in Spanish) and virtually always omitted. Exceptions are typically either in dictionaries, where all stressed vowels are commonly marked if they are either in a syllable other than the penultimate, or are an e or an o. Alternatively, accents could be included to disambiguate words that differ only by stress, as for prìncipi "princes" and princìpi "principles", or "àncora" "anchor" and "ancòra" "still yet". For monosyllabic words, the rule is different: when two identical monosyllabic words with different meanings exist, the accent is compulsory on one and forbidden on the other (example: è "is", e "and"). Rare, polysyllabic words can have doubtful stress. Istanbul can be accented on the first (Ìstanbul) or second syllable (Istànbul). The U.S. state name Florida is pronounced in Italian as in Spanish with stress on the second syllable (Florìda). Because of an Italian word with the same spelling but different stress (flòrida "flourishing") and because of the English pronunciation, most Italians pronounce Florida with stress on the first syllable. Dictionaries give the latter as an alternative pronunciation.[44]
  • The letter h distinguishes ho, hai, ha, hanno (present indicative of avere "to have") from o ("or"), ai ("to the"), a ("to"), anno ("year"). In the spoken language, the letter is always silent. The h in ho additionally marks the contrasting open pronunciation of the o. The letter h is also used in combinations with other letters. No phoneme [h] exists in Italian. In nativised foreign words, the h is silent. For example, hotel and hovercraft are pronounced /oˈtɛl/ and /ˈɔverkraft/ respectively. (Where h existed in Latin, it either disappeared or, in a few cases before a back vowel, changed to [ɡ]: traggo "I pull" ← Lat. trahō.)
  • The letters s and z can symbolize voiced or voiceless consonants. z symbolizes /dz/ or /ts/ depending on context, with few minimal pairs. For example: zanzara /dzanˈdzaːra/ "mosquito" and nazione /natˈtsjoːne/ "nation". s symbolizes /s/ word-initially before a vowel, when clustered with a voiceless consonant (p, f, c, ch), and when doubled; it symbolizes /z/ when between vowels and when clustered with voiced consonants. Intervocalic s varies regionally between /s/ and /z/.
  • The letters c and g vary in pronunciation between plosives and affricates depending on following vowels. The letter c symbolizes /k/ when word-final and before the back vowels a, o, u. It symbolizes // as in chair before the front vowels e, i. The letter g symbolizes /ɡ/ when word-final and before the back vowels a, o, u. It symbolizes // as in gem before the front vowels e, i. Other Romance languages and, to an extent, English have similar variations for c, g. Compare hard and soft C, hard and soft G. (See also palatalization.)
  • The digraphs ch and gh indicate or preserve hardness (/k/ and /ɡ/) before i, e. The digraphs ci and gi indicate or preserve softness (/tʃ/ and /dʒ/) before a, o, u. For example:
Before back vowel (A, O, U) Before front vowel (I, E)
Plosive C caramella /karaˈmɛlla/ candy CH china /ˈkina/ India ink
G gallo /ˈɡallo/ rooster GH ghiro /ˈɡiro/ edible dormouse
Affricate CI ciaramella /tʃaraˈmɛlla/ shawm C Cina /ˈtʃina/ China
GI giallo /ˈdʒallo/ yellow G giro /ˈdʒiro/ round, tour
Note: h is silent in the digraphs ch, gh; and i is silent in the digraphs ci and gi before a, o, u unless the i is stressed. For example, it is silent in ciao /ˈtʃa.o/ and cielo /ˈtʃɛ.lo/, but it is pronounced in farmacia /ˌfar.maˈtʃi.a/ and farmacie /ˌfar.maˈtʃi.e/.

Italian has geminate, or double, consonants, which are distinguished by length and intensity. Length is distinctive for all consonants except for /ʃ/, /ts/, /dz/, /ʎ/, /ɲ/, which are always geminate, and /z/, which is always single. Geminate plosives and affricates are realised as lengthened closures. Geminate fricatives, nasals, and /l/ are realized as lengthened continuants. There is only one vibrant phoneme /r/ but the actual pronunciation depends on context and regional accent. Generally one can find a flap consonant [ɾ] in unstressed position whereas [r] is more common in stressed syllables, but there may be exceptions. Especially people from the Northern part of Italy (Parma, Aosta Valley, South Tyrol) may pronounce /r/ as [ʀ], [ʁ], or [ʋ].[45]

Of special interest to the linguistic study of Italian is the gorgia toscana, or "Tuscan Throat", the weakening or lenition of certain intervocalic consonants in the Tuscan language.

The voiced postalveolar fricative /ʒ/ is only present in loanwords: for example, garage [ɡaˈraːʒ].

Assimilation[edit]

Italian phonotactics do not usually permit verbs and polysyllabic nouns to end with consonants, excepting poetry and song, so foreign words may receive extra terminal vowel sounds.

Grammar[edit]

Main article: Italian grammar
See also: Italian verbs

Italian grammar is typical of the grammar of Romance languages in general. Cases exist for pronouns (nominative, oblique, accusative, dative), but not for nouns. There are two genders (masculine and feminine). Nouns, adjectives, and articles inflect for gender and number (singular and plural). Adjectives are sometimes placed before their noun and sometimes after. Subject nouns generally come before the verb. Subjective pronouns are usually dropped, their presence implied by verbal inflections. Noun objects come after the verb, as do pronoun objects after imperative verbs and infinitives, but otherwise pronoun objects come before the verb. There are numerous contractions of prepositions with subsequent articles. There are numerous productive suffixes for diminutive, augmentative, pejorative, attenuating etc., which are also used to create neologisms.

There are three regular sets of verbal conjugations, and various verbs are irregularly conjugated. Within each of these sets of conjugations, there are four simple (one-word) verbal conjugations by person/number in the indicative mood (present tense; past tense with imperfective aspect, past tense with perfective aspect, and future tense), two simple conjugations in the subjunctive mood (present tense and past tense), one simple conjugation in the conditional mood, and one simple conjugation in the imperative mood. Corresponding to each of the simple conjugations, there is a compound conjugation involving a simple conjugation of "to be" or "to have" followed by a past participle.

Examples[edit]

Conversation[edit]

English (inglese) Italian (italiano) Pronunciation
Yes (listen) /si/
No No (listen) /nɔ/
Of course! Certo! / Certamente! / Naturalmente!
Hello! Ciao! (informal) / Salve! (general) (listen) /ˈtʃao/
Cheers! Salute! /saˈlute/
How are you? Come stai? (informal) / Come sta? (formal) / Come state? (plural) / Come va? (general) /ˈkomeˈstai/; /ˈkomeˈsta/
Good morning! Buongiorno! (= Good day!) /bwɔnˈdʒorno/
Good evening! Buonasera! /bwɔnaˈsera/
Good night! Buona notte! (for a good night sleeping) / Buona serata! (for a good night awake)
Have a nice day! Buona giornata! (formal)
Enjoy the meal! Buon appetito! /ˌbwɔn appeˈtito/
Goodbye! Arrivederci (general) / Arrivederla (formal) / Ciao! (informal) (listen) /arriveˈdertʃi/
Good luck! – Thank you! Buona fortuna! – Grazie! (general)
I love you Ti amo (between lovers only) / Ti voglio bene (in the sense of "I am fond of you", between lovers, friends, relatives etc.) /ti ˈvɔʎʎo ˈbɛne/; /ti ˈamo/
Welcome [to...] Benvenuto/-i (for male/males or mixed) / Benvenuta/-e (for female/females) [a / in...]
Please Per piacere / Per favore / Per cortesia (listen)
Thank you! Grazie! (general) / Ti ringrazio! (informal) / La ringrazio! (formal) / Vi ringrazio! (plural) (listen) /ˈɡrattsje/
You are welcome! Prego! /ˈprɛɡo/
Excuse me / I am sorry Mi dispiace (only "I am sorry") / Scusa(mi) (informal) / Mi scusi (formal) / Scusatemi (plural) / Sono desolato ("I am sorry", if male) / Sono desolata ("I am sorry", if female) (listen) /ˈskuzi/; /ˈskuza/; /mi disˈpjatʃe/
Who? Chi?
What? Che cosa? / Cosa? / Che?
When? Quando? /ˈkwando/
Where? Dove? /ˈdove/
How? Come? /ˈkome/
Why / Because perché /perˈke/
Again di nuovo / ancora /di ˈnwɔvo/; /anˈkora/
How much? / How many? Quanto? / Quanta? / Quanti? / Quante?
What is your name? Come ti chiami? (informal) / Qual è il suo nome? (formal)
My name is ... Mi chiamo ...
This is ... Questo è ... (masculine) / Questa è ... (feminine)
Yes, I understand. Sì, capisco. / Ho capito.
I do not understand. Non capisco. / Non ho capito. (listen)
Do you speak English? Parli inglese? (informal) / Parla inglese? (formal) / Parlate inglese? (plural) (listen) /parˈlate.inˈɡlese/
I do not understand Italian. Non capisco l'italiano. /nonkaˈpiskolitaˈljano/
Help me! Aiutami! (informal) / Mi aiuti! (formal) / Aiutatemi! (plural) / Aiuto! (general)
You are right/wrong! (Tu) hai ragione/torto! (informal) / (Lei) ha ragione/torto! (formal) / (Voi) avete ragione/torto! (plural)
What time is it? Che ora è? / Che ore sono?
Where is the bathroom? Dov'è il bagno? (listen)
How much is it? Quanto costa? /ˈkwanto ˈkɔsta/
The bill, please. Il conto, per favore.
The study of Italian sharpens the mind. Lo studio dell'italiano aguzza l'ingegno.

Numbers[edit]

English Italian
one hundred cento
one thousand mille
two thousand duemila
two thousand thirteen {2013} duemilatredici

Days of the week[edit]

English Italian IPA
Monday lunedì /luneˈdi/
Tuesday martedì /marteˈdi/
Wednesday mercoledì /merkoleˈdi/
Thursday giovedì /dʒoveˈdi/
Friday venerdì /venerˈdi/
Saturday sabato /ˈsabato/
Sunday domenica /doˈmenika/

Sample texts[edit]

There is a recording of Dante's Divine Comedy read by Lino Pertile available at http://etcweb.princeton.edu/dante/pdp/

See also[edit]

References and notes[edit]

  1. ^ Italian language Ethnologue.com
  2. ^ a b c d Eurobarometer – Europeans and their languages PDF (485 KB), February 2006
  3. ^ Nationalencyklopedin "Världens 100 största språk 2007" The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007
  4. ^ a b Italian language University of Leicester
  5. ^ CDI: italiano segnato
  6. ^ CDI: italiano segnato esatto
  7. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Italian". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  8. ^ a b c d Ethnologue report for language code:ita (Italy) – Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.), 2005. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International. Online version
  9. ^ Languages of Italy - Ethnologue - Languages of the World - Copyright 2010 SIL International.
  10. ^ Legge sulle fonti del diritto of 7 June 1929, laws and regulations are published in the Italian-language Supplemento per le leggi e disposizioni dello Stato della Città del Vaticano attached to the Acta Apostolicae Sedis.
  11. ^ Modern Italian The Italian Language Retrieved 2010-05-16
  12. ^ a b Grimes, Barbara F. (October 1996). Barbara F. Grimes, ed. Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Consulting Editors: Richard S. Pittman & Joseph E. Grimes (thirteenth ed.). Dallas, Texas: Summer Institute of Linguistics, Academic Pub. ISBN 1-55671-026-7. 
  13. ^ "History of the Italian language.". Retrieved 2006-09-24. 
  14. ^ "Lewis, M. Paul (ed.), 2009. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Sixteenth edition". Ethnologue.com. Retrieved 2010-04-21. 
  15. ^ Brincat (2005)
  16. ^ Lüdi, Georges; Werlen, Iwar (April 2005). "Recensement Fédéral de la Population 2000 — Le Paysage Linguistique en Suisse" (PDF) (in French, German, Italian). Neuchâtel: Office fédéral de la statistique. Retrieved 5 January 2006. 
  17. ^ The Vatican City State appendix to the Acta Apostolicae Sedis is entirely in Italian.
  18. ^ "Europeans and their Languages" (PDF). Europeans and their Languages. European Commission: Directorate General for Education and Culture and Directorate General Press and Communication. February 2006. Retrieved 28 June 2013. 
  19. ^ "Society". Monaco-IQ Business Intelligence. Lydia Porter. 2007–2013. Retrieved 28 June 2013. 
  20. ^ "France". Ethnologue. SIL International. 2013. Retrieved 28 June 2013. 
  21. ^ www.iht: news/italy
  22. ^ "Scuola Italiana di Asmara (in Italian)". Scuoleasmara.it. Retrieved 2010-04-21. 
  23. ^ According to article 7 of The Transitional Federal Charter of the Somali Republic: The official languages of the Somali Republic shall be Somali (Maay and Maxaatiri) and Arabic. The second languages of the Transitional Federal Government shall be English and Italian.
  24. ^ Diana Briton Putman, Mohamood Cabdi Noor, The Somalis: their history and culture, (Center for Applied Linguistics: 1993), p. 15.: "Somalis speak Somali. Many people also speak Arabic, and educated Somalis usually speak either English or Italian as well. Swahili may also be spoken in coastal areas near Kenya."
  25. ^ "Language Spoken at Home: 2000". United States Bureau of the Census. Retrieved 8 August 2012. 
  26. ^ Capricorn Agency, http://netcapricorn.com/newsletter/italian_ethnic_market.html
  27. ^ "Statistics Canada 2006". 2.statcan.ca. 8 April 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-21. 
  28. ^ http://www.censusdata.abs.gov.au/census_services/getproduct/census/2011/quickstat/0
  29. ^ http://www.lastampa.it/2014/07/02/italia/cronache/lingua-italiana-la-quarta-pi-studiata-nel-mondo-NdOvjvS27hybRegFLXyl3H/pagina.html
  30. ^ "9". Iic-colonia.de. Retrieved 2010-04-21. 
  31. ^ a b Dati del Ministero degli Affari Esteri
  32. ^ Language-learning trends in the United States VistaWide Retrieved 2010-05-16
  33. ^ "www.iic-colonia.de". www.iic-colonia.de. Retrieved 2010-04-21. 
  34. ^ A language of Italy Ethnologue Retrieved 2010-06-05
  35. ^ Longo, Maurizio (2007). "La lingua italiana in Albania" (PDF). Education et Sociétés Plurilingues (in Italian) (22): 51–56. Retrieved 28 July 2014. "Today, even though for political reasons English is the most widely taught foreign language in Albanian schools, Italian is anyway the most widespread foreign language." 
  36. ^ Longo, Maurizio; Ademi, Esmeralda; Bulija, Mirjana (June 2010). "Una quantificazione della penetrazione della lingua italiana in Albania tramite la televisione (III)" [A quantification of the diffusion of the Italian language in Albania via television] (PDF). Education et Sociétés Plurilingues (in Italian) (28): 53–63. Retrieved 28 July 2014. 
  37. ^ Hall (1944:77–78)
  38. ^ Hall (1944:78)
  39. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004:117)
  40. ^ Bertinetto & Loporcaro (2005:132)
  41. ^ Luciano Canepari, A Handbook of Pronunciation, chapter 3: «Italian».
  42. ^ http://www.dizionario.rai.it/poplemma.aspx?lid=30356&r=69940
  43. ^ http://www.dizionario.rai.it/poplemma.aspx?lid=30351&r=13567
  44. ^ (Italian) Dizionario d'ortografia e di pronunzia
  45. ^ Canepari, Luciano (January 1999). Il MªPI – Manuale di pronuncia italiana (second ed.). Bologna: Zanichelli. ISBN 88-08-24624-8. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004). "Italian". Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (1): 117–121. doi:10.1017/S0025100304001628. 
  • M. Vitale, Studi di Storia della Lingua Italiana, LED Edizioni Universitarie, Milano, 1992, ISBN 88-7916-015-X
  • S. Morgana, Capitoli di Storia Linguistica Italiana, LED Edizioni Universitarie, Milano, 2003, ISBN 88-7916-211-X
  • J. Kinder, CLIC: Cultura e Lingua d'Italia in CD-ROM / Culture and Language of Italy on CD-ROM, Interlinea, Novara, 2008, ISBN 978-88-8212-637-7

External links[edit]